People's Party – Movement for a Democratic Slovakia

The Movement for a Democratic Slovakia (Slovak: Hnutie za demokratické Slovensko, HZDS) was a national-populist political party in Slovakia. The party is commonly considered as authoritarian and illiberal.[1][2][3]

Movement for a Democratic Slovakia
Hnutie za demokratické Slovensko
First leaderVladimír Mečiar
Last leaderCollective leadership
FounderVladimír Mečiar
Founded27 April 1991
Dissolved11 January 2014
Split fromPublic Against Violence
Succeeded byParty of Democratic Slovakia
HeadquartersTomášikova 32/A, Bratislava
Youth wingDemocratic Youth Forum
Membership (1990s)"circa 40,000"[1]
Ideology
Political positionSyncretic[12]
European affiliationEuropean Democratic Party
International affiliationAlliance of Democrats
European Parliament groupAlliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Colours  Blue
  Red
Anthem"Vivat Slovakia"
Website
www.hzds.sk
Former headquarters of the ĽS-HZDS political party at Tomášikova Street 32/A in Bratislava

During 1992–1998, HDZS was the leading party of the government, led by Prime Minister Vladimír Mečiar. The party rule was characterized by a fundamental violation of civil liberties, rule of law and a halt to post-communist economic reforms, European integration.[4][5][6][7]

After 1998 parliamentary election, the party remained in opposition for two terms still as the strongest party.[8][9] In opposition, HZDS moved its positions from Euroscepticism to pro-Europeanism and joined European Democratic Party, although it didn't profess EDP's liberal ideology.[10] In the 2006 parliamentary election, the party dropped to 5th place and became a junior partner in the Fico's First Cabinet.[11]

In 2010 parliamentary election the party did not exceed the electoral threshold narrowly for the first time, and this was repeated in 2012, when it won less than 1%.[12][13] In 2014, HZDS officially dissolved and designated the Party of Democratic Slovakia as the successor.[14]

HistoryEdit

Velvet RevolutionEdit

The party was created as a Slovak nationalist faction of Public Against Violence (VPN), from which it seceded at an extraordinary VPN congress on 27 April 1991.[13] Called 'Movement for a Democratic Slovakia' (HZDS), it was led by Vladimír Mečiar, who had been deposed as Slovak Prime Minister a month earlier, and composed mostly of the VPN's cabinet members. The HZDS claimed to represent Slovak national interest, and demanded a more decentralised Czechoslovak confederation. On 7 May 1992, the HZDS voted for a declaration of independence, but this was defeated 73-57.[14]

At the first election in which it took part, on 5–6 June, the HZDS won an overwhelming victory, with 74 seats on the National Council: two short of an absolute majority. Mečiar was appointed Prime Minister on 24 June. Whereas the HZDS wanted a confederation, the Czech elections on the same day were won by Civic Democratic Party, which preferred a tighter federation. Recognising that these positions were irreconcilable, the National Council voted for Slovakia's Declaration of Independence by 113 votes to 24,[15] and Mečiar concluded formal negotiations over the dissolution of Czechoslovakia.

Dominant partyEdit

The party adopted a populist left-wing position economically,[16] and sought to slow the post-Soviet privatisation and liberalisation.[17]

In the first elections after independence, in late 1994, the HZDS retained its dominant position, winning 58 seats (the Peasant's Party of Slovakia won a further 3 on its list).[18]

Decline in oppositionEdit

Originally designating itself as a centre-left party, the party moved towards the mainstream right and, in March 2000, renamed itself the 'People's Party – Movement for a Democratic Slovakia' (ĽS-HZDS) to try to achieve membership of the European People's Party (EPP).[19] However, lingering memories of former anti-Europeanism, conflicting rhetoric,[19] and the presence of three Slovak parties already in the EPP prevented this.[20] The ĽS-HZDS then looked to the Euro-integrationist European Democratic Party,[20] which it joined in 2009.

The build-up to the 2002 election saw Mečiar exclude a number of prominent members from the party's list of candidates. Several of the excluded members, led by Ivan Gašparovič, split from the party and founded the similarly titled Movement for Democracy (HZD). The new party won 3.3% of the vote, eating significantly into the ĽS-HZDS's position, and contributing to it winning only 36 seats. By 2006, further divisions and splits had reduced it to only 21 MPs.

Back in governmentEdit

In the parliamentary election of 17 June 2006, the party won 8.8% of the popular vote and 15 out of 150 seats.

Two ĽS-HZDS ministers were sworn in with the Robert Fico government on July 4, 2006:

In the 2010 election the party lost all its seats, after its share of the vote halved to below the 5% threshold for entering parliament.

Election resultsEdit

Slovak National Council in the Czechoslovak FederationEdit

Election year Leader # of

votes

% of

vote

# of

seats won

+/– Government
1992 Vladimír Mečiar 1,148,625 37.26% (#1)
74 / 150
New HZDSSNS

National Council of the Slovak RepublicEdit

Election year Leader # of

votes

% of

vote

# of

seats won

+/– Government
1994 Vladimír Mečiar 1,005,488 34.94% (#1)
61 / 150
HZDS–RSSZRSSNS
Result in the coalition with RSS, which won 3 of 61 seats.
1998 Vladimír Mečiar 907,103 27.00% (#1)
43 / 150
  18 SDKSDĽSOPSMK
2002 560,691 19.50% (#1)
36 / 150
  7 SDKÚ–SMK–KDHANO
2006 202,540 8.79% (#5)
15 / 150
  21 SMER-SD–SNS–HZDS
2010 109,480 4.32% (#8)
0 / 150
  15 SDKÚ–SaS–KDH–MOST-HÍD
2012 23,772 0.93% (#13)
0 / 150
  SMER-SD

European ParliamentEdit

Year Vote Vote % Seats Place
2004 119,582 17.04
3 / 14
2nd
2009 74,241   8.97  
1 / 13
5th  

PresidentialEdit

Election year Candidate 1st round 2nd round
# of overall votes % of overall vote # of overall votes % of overall vote
1999 Vladimír Mečiar 1,097,956 37.24% (#2) 1,293,642 42.82% (#2)
2004 Vladimír Mečiar 650,242 32.74% (#1) 722,368 40.09% (#2)
2009 Milan Melník 45,985 2.45% (#5) Supported Ivan Gašparovič

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Majú pár členov, sú v parlamente. Ako u nás rástli a upadali strany".
  2. ^ https://www.ivo.sk/buxus/docs/publicistika/subor/produkt_2116.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  3. ^ "HNonline.sk - hnonline.sk - Dvojnásobné platy, švajčiarske dôchodky a iné "divočiny" našich politikov". 2 March 2016.
  4. ^ "Pred 30 rokmi sa začala štiepiť VPN, Mečiar zakladal vlastné hnutie". 5 March 2021.
  5. ^ "Byl jsem pro něj selský nacionalista, vzpomíná Mečiar na Havla".
  6. ^ https://www.pulib.sk/web/kniznica/elpub/dokument/Olostiak6/subor/4_Boksa.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  7. ^ https://is.muni.cz/el/1423/jaro2017/POL150/um/Haughton_-_HZDS.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  8. ^ Hancová, Eva (2018). "Komparácia slovenských parlamentných volieb v rokoch 2012 a 2016 so zameraním na stranícky euroskepticizmus" (PDF) (in Czech).
  9. ^ "HNonline.sk - hnonline.sk - Mečiar HZDS do Európy nedostane". 8 June 2008.
  10. ^ "Rok 1997: Keď Slovensko ostatným len zamávalo".
  11. ^ "Ako sa premiér Fico obklopuje ľuďmi s prepojeniami na Rusko". 24 October 2016.
  12. ^ "Fico čelí před volbami skandálu. Jeho strana prý proprala 75 milionů". 10 June 2010.
  13. ^ Archleb Gály (2006), p. 534
  14. ^ Bartl (2002), p. 171
  15. ^ Bartl (2002), p. 173
  16. ^ Whitefield, Stephen; Evans, Geoffrey (1999). "Political Culture Versus Rational Choice: Explaining Responses to Transition in the Czech Republic and Slovakia". British Journal of Political Science. 29 (1): 129–154. doi:10.1017/S000712349900006X.
  17. ^ Elster, Jon; Offe, Claus; Preuss, Ulrich Klaus (1998). Institutional Design in Post-Communist Societies: Rebuilding the ship at sea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-521-47931-8.
  18. ^ Krause, Kevin (1996). "Dimensions of Party Competition in Slovakia". Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review. 1 (2): 169–86.
  19. ^ a b Szczerbiak et al (2008), p. 285
  20. ^ a b Henderson (2009), p. 4
  • Archleb Gály, Tamara (2006). The Encyclopaedia of Slovakia and the Slovaks: a concise encyclopaedia. Bratislava: Encyclopaedic Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences. ISBN 978-80-224-0925-4.
  • Bartl, Július (2002). Slovak History: Chronology & Lexicon. Chicago: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. ISBN 978-0-86516-444-4.
  • Henderson, Karen (11 September 2009). "The European Parliament election in Slovakia, 6 June 2009" (PDF). European Parties Elections and Referendums Network.[permanent dead link]
  • Szczerbiak, Aleks; Taggart, Paul A. (2008). Opposing Europe?: The Comparative Party Politics of Euroscepticism Volume 1: Case Studies and Country Surveys. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-19-925830-7.

External linksEdit