Medieval Serbian nobility

In the medieval Serbian states, the privileged class consisted of nobility and clergy, distinguished from commoners, part of the feudal society. The Serbian nobility (srpska vlastela, srpsko vlastelinstvo or srpsko plemstvo) were roughly grouped into magnates (velikaši or velmože), the upper stratum, and the lesser nobility (vlasteličići). Serbia followed the government model established by the Byzantine Empire.

The nobility possessed hereditary allodial estates, which were worked by dependent sebri, the equivalent of Byzantine paroikoi; peasants owing labour services, formally bound by decree. The nobility was obliged to serve the monarch in war.


The nobility (vlastela, vlastelinstvo or plemstvo) of Serbia in the Middle Ages is roughly divided into magnates (velikaši or velmože), nobility and petty noblemen (vlasteličići). Sometimes, the division is made between vlastela (including "great" and "small" ones) and vlasteličići, the petty nobility. The lower-half social class, commoners, were the sebri (себри).

  • The velikaši (великаши) were the highest nobility class of Serbia.
  • The vlasteličići (властеличићи) were the lower nobility class of Serbia.[1] It was a relatively numerous class of the small, warrior nobility, originating from the vojnici (warriors) from sources from the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century.[2] They held villages, with full rights,[1] and in socioeconomic and legal terms stood below the vlastela.[3] They had military obligations, such as the vlasteličić joining the army individually or with a group of his men (soldiers), dependent on his wealth.[4]



Early and High Middle AgesEdit

The Serbs at that time were organized into župe (sing. župa), a confederation of village communities (roughly the equivalent of a county), headed by a local župan (a magistrate or governor); the governorship was hereditary, and the župan reported to the Serbian prince, whom they were obliged to aid in war.[5]

According to Fine Jr.: Bosnia, Zahumlje and Rascia were never incorporated into an integrated state with Duklja (1043–1101); each principality had its own nobility and institutions, simply requiring a member of the royal family to rule as Prince or Duke.[6] After Constantine Bodin died, the principalities seceded from Duklja, and Vukan became the most powerful Serb ruler, as Grand Prince.[6] Subordinate to the ruler were local counts who seem to have been more or less autonomous in the internal affairs of their counties, but who swore loyalty and were obliged to support in war.[7] It seems that the counts were hereditary holders of their counties, holding their land before Duklja annexed Rascia.[7]

Kingdom of SerbiaEdit

Mourning nobility at the burial of Queen Anna Dandolo.

The hierarchy of the Serbian court titles was the following: stavilac, čelnik, kaznac, tepčija and vojvoda, the supreme title.[8]

In the Dečani chrysobulls, King Stefan Dečanski (r. 1321–1331) mentioned that the court dignitaries present at the Dečani assembly were the kaznac, tepčija, vojvoda, sluga and stavilac.[9]

Serbian EmpireEdit

On April 16, 1346 (Easter), Stephen Uroš IV Dušan of Serbia convoked a huge assembly at Skopje, attended by the Serbian Archbishop Joanikije II, the Archbishop of Ochrid Nikolaj I, the Bulgarian Patriarch Simeon and various religious leaders of Mount Athos.[10] The assembly and clerics agreed on, and then ceremonially performed the raising of the autocephalous Serbian Archbishopric to the status of Serbian Patriarchate.[11] The Archbishop from now on is titled Serbian Patriarch, although some documents called him Patriarch of Serbs and Greeks, with the seat at the Patriarchal Monastery of Peć.[11] The first Serbian Patriarch Joanikije II now solemnly crowned Dušan as "Emperor and autocrat of Serbs and Romans" (Greek Bασιλεὺς καὶ αὐτoκράτωρ Σερβίας καὶ Pωμανίας).[11] Dušan had his son crowned King of Serbs and Greeks, giving him nominal rule over the Serbian lands, and although Dušan was governing the whole state, he had special responsibility for the "Roman", i.e. Greek lands.[11]

A further increase in the Byzantinization of the Serbian court followed, particularly in court ceremonial and titles.[11] As Emperor, Dušan could grant titles only possible as an Emperor.[12] In the years that followed, Dušan's half-brother Symeon Uroš and brother-in-law Jovan Asen became despotes. Jovan Oliver already had the despot title, granted to him by Andronikos III. His brother-in-law Dejan Dragaš and Branko is granted the title of sebastocrator. The military commanders (voivodes) Preljub and Vojihna receive the title of caesar.[12] The raising of the Serbian Patriarch resulted in the same spirit, bishoprics became metropolitans, as for example the Metropolitanate of Skopje.[12]

Fall of the Serbian EmpireEdit

Emperor Uroš V died childless in December 2/4 1371, after much of the Serbian nobility had been destroyed in Maritsa earlier that year. This marked an end to the once powerful Empire. Vukašin's son Marko, who had earlier been crowned Young King was to inherit his father's royal title, and thus became one in the line of successors to the Serbian throne. Meanwhile, the nobles pursued their own interests, sometimes quarreling with each other. Serbia, without an Emperor "became a conglomerate of aristocratic territories",[13] and the Empire was thus divided between the provincial lords: Marko, the Dejanović brothers, Đurađ I Balšić, Vuk Branković, Nikola Altomanović, Lazar Hrebeljanović and other lesser ones.[14]

List of nobilityEdit


Serbian Grand Principality (1100–1217)Edit

  • Grdeša (fl. 1154–56), župan of Trebinje
  • Vučina (fl. 1150–51), župan
  • Radomir (fl. 1170), župan in Trebinje
  • Slavogast (fl. 1154–56), ban of Hum
  • Hramko, Lord of provinces in Hum (ca 1177–1200)
  • Svergius (?), župan
  • Đura (fl. 1186), satnik (stotnik), Stefan Nemanja's delegate in the city of Kotor

Serbian Kingdom (1217–1345)Edit

  • Obrad (fl. 1230s), veliki tepčija, served Stefan Vladislav
  • Manojlo (fl. 1237), vojvoda (duke), served king Vladislav, mentioned in king's charter to noblemen of Split
  • Pribilša, župan, son of Grdeša, "died in the time of Stefan Vladislav".[15]
  • Bogdan Radojević (fl. 1278), kaznac.[16]
  • several (small) nobles from charter of prince Andrija of Hum in 1240. - Hrelko Rastomirić, Dobrovit Radovčić, Hrelja Stepković, Odumisl i Strezimir Adamović, Čepren Osilić, Hranislav Prvoslavić, Bigren Mrđić, Dobromisl Pobratović, Desin Berivojević, Radovan Pribidružić, Hrelja Desavčić, Pribin Zlošević, Toma Čupetić, Galic Vuksanić, Hrelja Hranidružić, Predislav Vukmirić, Vojmir Vlastinić, Bogdan Dobromirić, Hrvatin Turbić, Prvoslav Prodančić, Bratoslav Vuković, Berko Radovančić
  • Vlado, kaznac, served between 1274 and 1279
  • Prvoslav Radojević (fl. 1280), kaznac, served Helen of Anjou.
  • Mrnjan (fl. 1288), kaznac, served Helen of Anjou at the court at Trebinje
  • Miroslav, kaznac, served Stefan Milutin
  • Kuzma (fl. 1306), tepčija, served Stefan Milutin.
  • Branko, čelnik, served Stefan Milutin.
  • Vladislav Jonima (fl. 1303–19), župan (fl. 1306), served Stefan Milutin in northern Albania (fl. 1303–06).
  • Dražen Bogopenec (fl. 1306–07), župan, served Stefan Milutin in eastern Hum.
  • Hardomil, tepčija (1306–1321), served Stefan Milutin.
  • Novak Grebostrek (fl. 1312), veliki vojvoda. fought at Gallipoli
  • Jovan Dragoslav (fl. 1290–1315), kaznac (fl. 1300), veliki kaznac (fl. 1315), serving Stefan Milutin. Founder of Church of Virgin Hodegetria.
  • Brajko/Bradko (fl. 1319)
  • Mišljen, veliki tepčija, served Stefan Dečanski.[17]
  • Radosav, tepčija, served Stefan Dečanski.
  • Ilija, kefalija (before 1326)
  • Vukdrag (d. 1327), čelnik. took monastic vows as Nikola
  • Baldovin, knez. Governed Vranje during Stefan Dečanski. Bagaš noble family.
  • Mladen (fl. 1323–26), vojvoda. Branković family ancestor.
  • Ružir (fl. 1336), vojvoda.
  • Nikola (fl. 1321-1329), župan. Governed northern Albania, younger brother of Mladen.
  • Petar Brajan, (fl. 1340–42), župan.
  • Đuraš Vrančić, stavilac.
  • Miloš Vojinović (fl. 1333), stavilac. son of Vojin
  • Hrelja, vojvoda, Governed Rila (fl. ca. 1320s-1342)
  • Vojin, vojvoda, Governed Gacko (fl. 1322-1347)
  • Vladoje (fl. 1326), tepčija.
  • Mrnjava, provincial lord (fl. 1329)
  • Bogoje, Lord of province in Zeta (fl. 1340)
  • Ivan Dragušin (fl. 1325–40). Dušan's maternal cousin.
  • Jovan and Radoslav, sons of vojvoda Dejan (Manjak?) and Vladislava
  • Milten Draživojević (fl. 1332–43), župan, served Stefan Dušan.
  • Vratko Čihorić (fl. 1335), župan.

Serbian Empire (1345–1371)Edit

Fall of the Serbian Empire (1371–1395)Edit

Lazar of Serbia
  • Crep (fl. 1380), vojvoda. Governed Paraćin. Son of Vukoslav.
  • Vitomir (fl. 1380), vojvoda.
  • Grubac (fl. 1377), protovestijar.
  • Nenad(a) (fl. 1372–87), logotet.[21] Son of kaznac Bogdan.
  • Petar (fl. 1387), župan[21]
  • Miho (fl. 1387), čelnik[21]
  • Gojislav (fl. 1387), kefalija.[21] Served Lazar. Governed Novo Brdo.[22]
  • Ljudina Bogosav (fl. 1381). Governor of Smederevo.[23]
  • Desivoje (fl. 1380).
  • Detoš (before 1389). Governed Dragobilj.
  • Dragoslav Veter (before 1389).[24] Lord of Sinji Vir.
  • Dragosav Probiščić, vojvoda.[25] Unknown in history.[26]
  • Vlatko Vlađević. Unknown in history.[26]
  • Ivaniš Ivanišević. Grandson of Ivaniš.[27]
  • Jugda (fl. 1381)
  • Krajmir or Krajko (d. 1389), vojvoda. Son of Jovan Oliver.[28]
  • Novak (fl. 1381), logotet.
  • Obrad Dragogaljić (fl. 1387)
  • Ognjan (fl. 1381).
  • Petar Vojinović
  • Uglješa Desisalić (d. 1394)
Vuk Branković
  • Branislav, treasurer
  • Todor, son of Žegar, nobleman
  • Todor Hamirović, nobleman
  • Smil, čelnik
  • Stefan, logothete
  • Dragosav, nobleman
Mrnjavčević brothers

Serbian Despotate (1402–1540)Edit

Stefan Lazarević
  • Hrebeljan (fl. 1399), čelnik.
  • Radič (fl. 1413–41), čelnik.
  • Mazarek (fl. 1414–23), vojvoda. Governor of Rudnik and Ostrovica (1414–?), and Zeta (1422–1423)
  • Logosit (fl. 1422), vojvoda.
  • Bogdan (fl. 1408), protovestijar. Served Despot Stefan Lazarević. ktetor of Kalenić.
  • Petar, brother of Bogdan.
  • Mihailo (fl. 1398–1413), vojvoda.
  • Nikola Zojić and Novak Belocrkvić (fl. 1398). conspiracists.
  • Mladen Psisin (fl. 1405). Holder of Jabučje.
  • Radoslav Mihaljević, veliki vojvoda
  • Mihal, nobleman, from Parakinov Brod
  • Vukašin (fl. 1399), treasurer
  • Šainac (fl. 1399), nobleman
  • Miltoš (fl. 1402), vojvoda
  • Ivan, treasurer, from Novo Brdo
  • Vuk, čelnik
  • Vitan, čelnik
  • Petar (fl. 1405), kefalija
  • Tuba (fl. 1402), kefalija of Novo Brdo
  • Vladislav, vojvoda (duke) in the vicinity of Užice
  • Novak Karaljuk (fl. 1404-1410), nobleman
  • Nikola Dorjenović (fl. 1425), nobleman, founder of Nikolje monastery
  • Ivčin Hodanović, emissary to city of Dubrovnik
  • Đurađ Zubrović, nobleman
  • Vlatko (fl. 1422), vojvoda (duke), emissary to Venice on behalf of despot Stefan
Despot Đurađ Branković
  • Paskoje Sorkočević, čelnik riznički
  • Damjan Đurđević, from Dubrovnik, counselor
  • Aloviz Rastić, from Dubrovnik, counselor
  • Nikola de Arhilupus, from Kotor, counselor
  • Nikola Rodop, treasurer
  • Stefan and Jovan Rodop (both fl. 1441), noblemen, brothers, possibly sons of Nikola Rodop
  • Andrija Humoj (fl. 1422), fortress of Baleč
  • Kalojan Rusota, counselor, nobleman from Greece
  • Mihailo Mihaljević, nobleman, brother of Radoslav Mihaljević
  • Vitomir (fl. 1435), vojvoda (duke), negotiator with Venetians on behalf of despot Đurađ.
  • Nikša (fl. 1435), cancellarium, mentioned in despot Đurađ's peace treaty with Venice (1435)
  • Altoman, vojvoda (duke), warfare in Zeta
  • Jeremija (fl. 1428), vojvoda (duke), fortress of Golubac
  • Mihal (fl. 1445), veliki čelnik
  • Thomas Kantakouzenos
  • Janja Kantakouzenos
  • Dimitrije Kantakuzin
  • Radič (fl. 1413–41), veliki čelnik.
  • Jakša (fl. 1453), vojvoda
  • Đurađ Golemović, nobleman
  • Oliver (Olko) Golemović (fl. 1448), kefalija of Priština
  • Miljen (fl. 1405), čelnik
  • Stefan (fl. 1405), čelnik
  • Divko Zaulović, nobleman from Drivast
  • Junc, nobleman from Dečani
  • Vukašin, nobleman from Paštrovići area, known to be a subject of despot after conflict with Venetians in Zeta
  • Stefan Belmužević (fl. 1448), nobleman
  • Miloš Belmužević (fl. 1453), vojvoda (duke), defender of Medun fortress in Upper Zeta
  • Novak Pavlović (fl. 1417), emissary of Đurađ Branković to city of Dubrovnik.
  • Mihajlo Nikolić (fl. 1415), courier of Đurađ Branković in Dubrovnik.
  • Radoman from Trepča, emissary of Đurađ Branković in Dubrovnik
  • Vojin Juga (fl. 1423), vojvoda (duke), present during peace talks with Venetians in Zeta
  • Radoje Jezdrović (fl. 1414), court clerk of despot Đurađ
  • Bogosav "Kruška" (fl. 1406), nobleman of Branković family, emissary in Dubrovnik
  • Novak (fl. 1423), vojvoda (duke)
  • Lukač (fl. 1405-1426), vojvoda (duke), witness on peace treaty between despot Đurađ an Venetian emissary F.Quirin
  • Mrkša (fl. 1426), vojvoda (duke)
  • Andrija Angelović (fl. 1442), ally of despot Đurađ Branković during siege of Drivast.
  • Manojlo Radić (fl. 1446), vojvoda (duke), trustee of Đurađ Branković in his correspondence with city of Dubrovnik.
  • Voihna, logothete of despot Đurađ
  • Dmitar Radojević (fl. 1455), čelnik, active in war against Bosnian kingdom
  • Dmitar Krajković (fl. 1450), grand čelnik
  • Stojko Gizdavić (fl. 1444), vojvoda (duke), negotiator of despot Đurađ during peace talks with Turks in Edirne in June 1444
  • Junije (Džono) Gradić, from Dubrovnik, counselor of despot Đurađ
  • Komnen, vojvoda (duke), despot Đurađ's commander in Zeta
  • Vuk Biomužević (fl. 1450), vojvoda (duke), despot's commander in Luštica
  • Radič Bogdašić (fl. 1435), nobleman, one of the witnesses on peace treaty with Venetian Republic
  • Radisav Zančić (fl. 1433), nobleman in Srebrenica
  • Branko Zančić (fl. 1433), nobleman, brother of Radisav, despot's official
  • Radič (fl. 1436), vojvoda (duke) of Srebrenica
  • Vukosav Govedinić (fl. 1450-1456), vojvoda (duke) of Smederevo
  • Petar Kovačević Dinjičić, vojvoda (duke) of Srebrenica, ally of despot Đurađ in 1443.
  • Bogavac Milaković, nobleman, entourage of Kantakuzina Branković
  • Pavle Mikšić, nobleman, entourage of Kantakuzina (Katarina) Branković when married to Ulrich II of Celje
  • Bezubica (fl. 1431), despot Đurađ's ambassador to Ottoman court in Edirne
  • Nikola Vitomirović, nobleman
  • Novak Naselorić (fl. 1428), in service of grand čelnik Radič
  • Dragić Ruparić (fl. 1430), nobleman, despot's negotiator during War of Konavle
  • Nikola Ptičić (fl. 1439), despot's emissary from Novo Brdo to Hungarian court
  • Petar Span (fl. 1441), nobleman in despot's entourage during exile in Dubrovnik in 1441.
  • Lješ (Aleksa) Span (fl. 1446), vojvoda of Novo Brdo, son of Peter, also in despot's service. Had two brothers Božidar and Hrvoje.
  • Radič Kužević (fl. 1446), vojvoda, member of despot Đurađ's embassy to welcome his future daughter-in-law Jelena Paleolog
  • Radoje Tvrtković (fl. 1446), vojvoda, also present on Jelena Paleolog's arrival in Dubrovnik
  • Ivan (fl. 1446), despot's negotiator during peace talks between Dubrovnik and herceg Stjepan Vukčić Kosača
  • Oliver (fl. 1451), ambassador in Dubrovnik
  • Vukosav Dobrojević (fl. 1450), kefalija of Trepča
  • Nikola Radulinović (fl. 1445-1459), merchant from Dubrovnik, despot Đurađ's trustee on several occasions
  • Brajan (fl. 1453), vojvoda of Srebrenica
  • Grgur Vlah, vojvoda Nikola and čelnik Radoslav, despot's witnesses when mine Rudište near Belgrade was granted to Janos Hunyadi in 1453.
  • Vukašin Lipić (fl. 1443), court man of despot Đurađ
  • Đuro Srdić (fl. 1443), court member
  • Bratić (fl. 1441), court member
  • Petar (fl. 1417), vojvoda (duke)
  • Bogdan Zlokunić (fl. 1444), counselor
  • Vladislav (fl. 1429), vojvoda, holder of "Seel" estate in the vicinity of Kovin
  • Mihailo (fl. 1439), vojvoda, also holder of "Seel" estate in the vicinity of Kovin
  • Nikola Skobaljić (fl. 1454), vojvoda. Lord of Zelen-grad.
  • Gojčin Crnojević (fl. 1444–51).
  • Stefan Ratković (fl. 1450-1458), veliki logotet.
  • Mihailo Anđelović (fl. 1458), veliki čelnik
  • Marko Altomanović (fl. 1457), vojvoda (duke)
  • Hrnjko, vojvoda (duke) in fortress of Novo Brdo
  • Prijezda (fl. 1438), vojvoda (duke) in Novo Brdo
  • Oliver Kosijer, knez (comes) in Rudnik
Despot Lazar Branković
  • Stefan Zahić (fl. 1457), court man of despot Lazar Branković
  • Paskoje Ćeljubinović (fl. 1457-1459), trustee of despot Lazar
  • Radoslav (fl. 1457), treasurer
Despot Stefan Branković
  • Bogdan Čokeša (fl. 1458), nobleman

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Ćirković, Sima; Mihaljčić, Rade (1999). Лексикон српског средњег века. Knowledge. pp. 91–92. ISBN 9788683233014.
  2. ^ Šarkić, Srđan (1996). Srednjovekovno srpsko pravo. Matica srpska. p. 27.
  3. ^ Janković, Dragoslav (1961). Istorija države i prava feudalne Srbije, XII-XV vek. Naućna knjiga. p. 46.
  4. ^ Nikola Stijepović (1954). Srpska feudalna vojska. p. 50.
  5. ^ Fine 1991, pp. 225, 304
  6. ^ a b Fine 1991, p. 223.
  7. ^ a b Fine 1991, p. 225.
  8. ^ Blagojević 2001, p. 211.
  9. ^ Šarkić 1996, p. 66. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFŠarkić1996 (help)
  10. ^ Temperley Harold William Vazeille (2009), History of Serbia, p. 72. ISBN 1-113-20142-8
  11. ^ a b c d e The Late Medieval Balkans, p. 309
  12. ^ a b c The Late Medieval Balkans, p. 310
  13. ^ Ross-Allen 1978, p. 505
  14. ^ Ćorović 2001, ch. 3, XIII. Boj na Kosovu
  15. ^ Mihaljcic (1982), pp. 112-114
  16. ^ Glas. U Kralj.-srpskoj državnoj štampariji. 1941. p. 8. 1278 ... казнац Богдан
  17. ^ Blagojević 2001, p. 26.
  18. ^ Nicol, Meteora: the rock monasteries of Thessaly, "Jeremias+Chranislav"&dq="Jeremias+Chranislav" p. 84
  19. ^ Ljubomir Maksimović (1988), The Byzantine provincial administration under the Palaiologoi, p. X
  20. ^ Орбин 1968, p. 60.
  21. ^ a b c d Blagojević 2001, p. 179: "Први по редоследу поменут је логотет Ненад, а тек после њега жупан Петар, челник Михо и кефалија Гојислав.40 Исто место у редоследу милосника имао је и логотет Богдан на исправи деспота Стефана којом се 2. децембра ..."
  22. ^ Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti (1955). Posebna izdanja. 240. p. 18.
  23. ^ Слободан Ристановић (2005). Kroz Srbiju i Crnu Goru. КСЕ-НА. 1381. године, први пут се иомињс рсч Смедсрево. Раваничком повељом је кнез Лазар „... и у Смеде- реву Људина Богосав с опкином и баштипом" предао град маиастиру
  24. ^ Вопросы истории славян. Изд-во Воронежского университета. 1966. p. 102.
  25. ^ Miladin Stevanović; Vuk Branković (srpski velmoža.) (2004). Vuk Branković. Knjiga-komerc. p. 252. ISBN 9788677120382.
  26. ^ a b Rade Mihaljčić (2001). Sabrana dela: I - VI. Kraj srpskog carstva. Srpska školska knj. p. 157. Влатко Влађевић и Драгосав Пробишчић
  27. ^ Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti (1908). Glas. p. 244. Још има спомен о старијем неком деспоту Иванишу на једној гробној плочи код манастира Дечана. Деспот Иваниш се помиње на гробном запису унука му Иваниша Алтоманића, који је (унук био анепсеј (синовац) кнезу Лазару.
  28. ^ Jov Mišković (1933). Kosovska bitka 15. juna 1389. godine. Planeta. Крајмир (Крајко) и Дамњан Оливеровићи, синови деспота овчепољског Јована Оливера. Крајмир је, — по Михајлу Константиновићу, држао здељу, у коју је пала глава кнеза Лазара, када је по наредби султановој био посечен, ...
  29. ^ Radosthlabos Sampias - Radoslav Sablja[permanent dead link]


Further readingEdit

  • Blagojević, M. "Vladar i podanici, vlastela i vojnici, zavisni ljudi i trgovci." Rulers and subjects, lords and soldiers, dependent people and traders). In Cirkovic (ed.): 141-156.
  • Božanić, Snežana (2016). "Srpski Velikaši u Političkim i Vojnim Previranjima Oko Izbora Vladislava II za Kralja Ugarske". ISTRAŽIVANJA, Journal of Historical Researches. 24 (24): 151–165. doi:10.19090/i.2013.24.151-165.
  • Иванић, Б. "Прстење српске средњовековне властеле." (1998).
  • Ivanović, Miloš B. (2013). "Властела Државе српских деспота". Belgrade: Filozofski fakultet. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  • Ivanović, Miloš (2014). "Развитак војне службе као основ формирања властеоског слоја у српској средњовековној држави" [Development of Military Service as Foundation for Creation of Nobility in Medieval Serbian State]. Војно-историјски гласник (I): 30–48.
  • Maksimović, L. (1993). "Sevasti u srednjovekovnoj Srbiji". Zbornik Radova Vizantološkog Instituta (32): 137–147.
  • Острогорски, Георгије. "Душан и његова властела у борби са Византијом." Зборник у част шесте стогодишњице Законика цара Душана 1 (1951): 79-86.
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