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Smederevo (Serbian Cyrillic: Смедерево, pronounced [smêdereʋo] (About this soundlisten)) is a city and the administrative center of the Podunavlje District in eastern Serbia. It is situated on the right bank of the Danube, about 45 kilometres (28 miles) downstream of the Serbian capital, Belgrade.

Smederevo

Град Смедерево
City of Smederevo
Црква Св. Георгија у Смедереву 3.jpg
Smederevo, Crkva Svetog Đorđa, 13.jpg
Smederevo city administration.JPG
Smederevo building at the market.JPG
Smederevo, Gimnazija Smederevo, 04.jpg
Smederevska tvrdjava kanal.jpg
Obrenoviceva vila u Smederevu.jpg
From top: Republic Square, Church of Saint George, Courthouse in Smederevo, Town hall, Gymnasium in Smederevo, Smederevo Fortress, Obrenović Villa
Coat of arms of Smederevo
Coat of arms
Location of the city of Smederevo within Serbia
Location of the city of Smederevo within Serbia
Coordinates: 44°40′N 20°56′E / 44.667°N 20.933°E / 44.667; 20.933Coordinates: 44°40′N 20°56′E / 44.667°N 20.933°E / 44.667; 20.933
CountrySerbia
RegionSouthern and Eastern Serbia
DistrictPodunavlje
Settlements28
Government
 • MayorJasna Avramović (SNS)
Area
 • Urban42.03 km2 (16.23 sq mi)
 • Administrative484.30 km2 (186.99 sq mi)
Elevation
72 m (236 ft)
Population
 (2011 census)[1]
 • Rank13th in Serbia
 • Urban
64,175
 • Urban density1,500/km2 (4,000/sq mi)
 • Administrative
108,209
 • Administrative density220/km2 (580/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
11300
11303
11304
11305
11330
Area code+381(0)26
Car platesSD
Websitewww.smederevo.org.rs

According to the 2011 census, the city has a population of 64,105, with 108,209 people living in its administrative area.

Its history starts in the 1st century BC, after the conquest of the Roman Empire, when there existed a settlement by the name of Vinceia. The modern city traces its roots back to the late Middle Ages when it was the capital (1430–39, and 1444–59) of the last independent Serbian state before Ottoman conquest.

Smederevo is said to be the city of iron (Serbian: gvožđe) and grapes (grožđe).

NamesEdit

In Serbian, the city is known as Smederevo (Смедерево), in Latin, Italian, Romanian and Greek as Semendria, in Hungarian as Szendrő or Vég-Szendrő, in Turkish as Semendire.

The name of Smederevo was first recorded in the Charter of the Byzantine Emperor Basil II from 1019, in the part related to the Eparchy of Braničevo (a suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Ochrid. Another written record is found in the Charter of Duke Lazar of Serbia from 1381, by which he bestowed the Monastery of Ravanica and villages and properties ’to the Great Bogosav with the commune and heritage’’.

The Latin-Italian name also occurs in Belogradum et Semendria and Belgrado e Semendria, two of the short-lived 20th-century synonyms of the Latin titular bishopric of Belgrade, which was suppressed in 1948 in favor of the residential Latin Archdiocese of Belgrade (Beograd) and 'newly' established titular bishopric of Alba marittima.

Coat of armsEdit

Smederevo Coat of Arms uses two shades of blue, which deviates from the heraldic principles (only one shade of every color, contrasting those). Also, the bar with the year 1430 is placed over the shield. Emblem elements are six white discs arranged 3 + 2 + 1, which represents grapes, Smederevo fortress, dark blue and white horizontal lines (representing the Danube).[citation needed]

HistoryEdit

EarlyEdit

In the 7th millennium BC, the Starčevo culture existed for a millennia, succeeded by the 6th millennium BC Vinča culture that prospered in the region. The Paleo-Balkan tribes of Dacians and Thracians emerged in the area in the 2nd millennia BC, with the Celtic Scordisci raiding the Balkans in the 3rd century B.C.

The Roman Empire conquered Vinceia in the 1st century BC. It was organized into Moesia, later Moesia Superior,[2] and in the administrative reforms of Diocletian (244–311) it was part of the Diocese of Moesia, then the Diocese of Dacia. It was a principal town of Moesia Superior, near the confluence of Margus and Brongus rivers.[3][4]

Middle AgesEdit

The modern founder of the city was the Serbian Despot Đurađ Branković in the 15th century, who built Smederevo Fortress in 1430 as the new Serbian capital. Smederevo was the residence of the Branković house and the capital of the Serbian Despotate from 1430 until 1439, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire after a siege lasting two months.

Sanjak of SmederevoEdit

In 1444, in accordance with the terms of the Peace of Szeged between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Ottoman Empire the Sultan returned Smederevo to Đurađ Branković, who was allied to John Hunyadi. On 22 August 1444 the Serb prince peacefully took possession of the evacuated town. When Hunyadi broke the peace treaty, Đurađ Branković remained neutral. Serbia became a battleground between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Ottomans, and the angry Branković captured Hunyadi after his defeat at the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448. Hunyadi was imprisoned in Smederevo fortress for a short time.

In 1454 Sultan Mehmed II besieged Smederevo and devastated Serbia. The town was liberated by Hunyadi. In 1459 Smederevo was again captured by the Ottomans after the death of Branković. The town became a Turkish border-fortress, and played an important part in Ottoman–Hungarian Wars until 1526. Due to its strategic location, Smederevo was gradually rebuilt and enlarged. For a long period, the town was the capital of the Sanjak of Smederevo.

In autumn 1476, a joint army of Hungarians and Serbs tried to capture the fortress from the Ottomans. They built three wooden counter-fortresses, but after months of siege Sultan Mehmed II himself came to drive them away. After fierce fighting the Hungarians agreed to withdraw. In 1494 Pál Kinizsi tried to capture Smederevo from the Ottomans but he was stricken with palsy and died. In 1512 John Zápolya unsuccessfully laid siege to the town.

ModernEdit

During the First Serbian Uprising in 1806, the city became the temporary capital of Serbia, as well as the seat of the Praviteljstvujušči sovjet, a government headed by Dositej Obradović. The first basic school was founded in 1806. During World War II, the city was occupied by German forces, who stored ammunition in the fortress. On 5 June 1941, a catastrophic explosion severely damaged the fortress, killing nearly 2,000 residents.

After World War II, Smederevo became an industrial and cultural center of Podunavlje district. Under the overall industrial development of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the city received a boost in infrastructure. Due to the ideal geographical position of Smederevo, socialist government supported building of roads, apartment buildings and tens of factories.

Some of the most notable factories built and renewed in period between 1950s until the end of 1980s were Zelvoz (Heroj Srba during the period of SFRJ), renewed in 1966. and a new steel plant built on outskirts of Smederevo at that time, Sartid (MKS during the period of SFRJ) which was completely operational in 1971.

Panorama of the city along the Danube coast

SettlementsEdit

 
Church of Saint George

Aside the city of Smederevo, the administrative area includes the following 27 settlements (number of population according to 2011 census in bracket[1]):

EconomyEdit

Smederevo has a recent history of heavy industry and manufacturing, which is a result of active and aggressive industrialization of the region conducted by Tito's regime during the 1950s-1960s era. Previously, this entire geographical region had a heavy focus on agricultural production.

The city is home to the only operating steel mill in the country - Železara Smederevo, previously known as Sartid, which is situated in the suburb of Radinac. This was privatized and sold to U.S. Steel in 2003 for $33 million.[5] Following the global economic crisis, U.S. Steel sold the plant to the government of Serbia for a symbolic $1 to avoid closing the plant. The plant was renamed Železara Smederevo and at the time employed 5,400 workers.[6] In 2016, the Serbian government managed to strike a deal with a Chinese conglomerate Hesteel Group, which purchased the effective assets for $46 million.[7]

The "Milan Blagojević" home appliance factory is the second largest industry company in the city. Smederevo is also an agricultural area, with significant production of fruit and vines. However, the large agricultural combine "Godomin" has been in financial difficulty since the 1990s and is almost defunct as of 2005. The grape variety known as Smederevka is named after the city. The "Ishrana" factory is an important supplier of bakery products in northern and eastern Serbia.[citation needed]

A U.S.-Dutch consortium, Comico Oil, planned to build a $250 million oil refinery in the industrial zone of the city in 2012.[8] However, the consortium lost its permit to build the refinery after it failed to meet payment deadlines for the land lease a year later.[9]

As of September 2017, Smederevo has one of 14 free economic zones established in Serbia.[10]

Economic preview

The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity (as of 2017):[11]

Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 217
Mining 12
Processing industry 9,548
Distribution of power, gas and water 206
Distribution of water and water waste management 575
Construction 713
Wholesale and retail, repair 3,351
Traffic, storage and communication 1,197
Hotels and restaurants 554
Media and telecommunications 247
Finance and insurance 428
Property stock and charter 75
Professional, scientific, innovative and technical activities 571
Administrative and other services 463
Administration and social assurance 1,351
Education 1,811
Healthcare and social work 1,544
Art, leisure and recreation 239
Other services 500
Total 23,603

River trafficEdit

Infrastructure of the river traffic of the city of Smederevo consists of Danube waterway, old port, marina, new port, terminal for liquid Jugopetrol loads, as well as smaller piers (gravel pits) which are located along the bank in the industrial zone. The port is registered for international traffic and is located in the very center of the City. It has reloading capacities which can realize 1.5 million freight tons a year. The city has significant development options in the area of river traffic, freight and passenger alike.

TourismEdit

 
Karađorđe's mulberry, under which Karađorđe received the city keys during the 1805 uprising.

Among the main tourist attractions in the city are the Smederevo Fortress and the Obrenović Villa.

There is an old white mulberry tree in the center of Smederevo. Called Karađorđev dud ("Karađorđe's mulberry"), it is estimated to be over 300 years old. Though there are no historical sources to specifically confirm that, it is believed that under this tree dizdar Muharem Guša, Ottoman commander of the fortress, handed over the keys to the city to Karađorđe on 8 November 1805, after the city was liberated during the First Serbian Uprising. In May 2018 the tree was declared a natural monument of the III category, as the first "living" monument in Smederevo. The three is supported by metallic pipes, but there is an initiative that two sculptures, shaped like a male and female hand, should be installed instead.[12]

DemographicsEdit

 
Hotel Grand – Regija

In the 2011 census, there was 108,209 residents in the city administrative area,[13] of which 101,908 were Serbs and 2,369 were Romani.[14]

Population changeEdit

The historical population for the current area of Smederevo, divided into urban and other is as follows:

1805-1941 (estimate)Edit

Year 1805 1834 1874 1884 1900 1905 1910 1921 1931 1941
Urban 4,000   3,907   8,343   6,600   7,141   7,097   7,411   8,500   10,500   11,500
Other n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Total n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

1948-present [1]Edit

Year 1948 1953 1961 1971 1981 1991 2002 2011
Urban   14,206   18,328   27,182   40,192   55,369   63,884   62,805   64,175
Other 45,339   47,804   50,500   50,458   51,997   51,733   47,004   44,034
Total 59,545   66,132   77,682   90,650   107,366   115,617   109,809   108,209

EthnicityEdit

The ethnicity by respondent in the 2011 census in Smederevo is shown below:[15]

Ethnic Group Urban Other Total
Number % Number % Number %
Serbs 59,798 93.18% 42,110 95.63% 101,908 94.18%
Albanians 45 0.07% 6 0.01% 51 0.05%
Bosniaks 6 0.01% 1 0.002% 7 0.006%
Bulgarians 18 0.03% 9 0.02% 27 0.02%
Bunjevci 2 0.003% 0 0% 2 0.002%
Vlachs 6 0.01% 0 0% 6 0.006%
Goranci 11 0.02% 0 0% 11 0.01%
Yugoslavs 87 0.14% 23 0.06% 110 0.1%
Hungarians 99 0.15% 21 0.05% 120 0.11%
Macedonians 224 0.35% 167 0.38% 291 0.27%
Muslims 44 0.07% 17 0.04% 61 0.06%
Germans 12 0.02% 3 0.007% 15 0.01%
Roma 1,921 2.99% 448 1.02% 2,369 2.19%
Romanians 23 0.04% 44 0.1% 67 0.06%
Russians 27 0.04% 10 0.02% 37 0.03%
Slovaks 8 0.01% 5 0.01% 13 0.01%
Slovenians 17 0.03% 3 0.007% 20 0.02%
Ukrainians 8 0.01% 5 0.01% 13 0.01%
Croats 131 0.2% 30 0.07% 161 0.15%
Montenegrins 235 0.37% 36 0.08% 271 0.25%
Other 101 0.16% 38 0.09% 139 0.13%
Did not declare 729 1.14% 351 0.8% 1,080 1%
Regional affiliation 29 0.05% 6 0.01% 35 0.03%
Unknown 591 0.92% 801 1.82% 1,392 1.29%
Total 64,175 100.00% 44,034 100.00% 108,209 100.00%

Twin townsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Comparative overview of the number of population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, pod2.stat.gov.rs; accessed 15 October 2016.
  2. ^ p. 317. Books.google.com. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  3. ^ p. 1310. Books.google.com. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  4. ^ Aaron Arrowsmith, A grammar of ancient geography: compiled for the use of King's College School (1832), p. 108, Hansard (London)
  5. ^ Reuters Editorial. "Serbia looks east for quick steel plant sale". Reuters. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  6. ^ "Serbia buys U.S. Steel plant; Price: $1". CBSNews. 31 January 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  7. ^ Insajder. "Zelezara Smederevo steel mill: China's offer accepted". Insajder.net. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  8. ^ "Comico Oil Wins Permit to Build $250 Million Refinery in Serbia". Bloomberg L.P. 13 March 2012.
  9. ^ "Serb City Scraps Comico Oil Refinery Project on Deadline". Bloomberg L.P. 5 February 2013.
  10. ^ Mikavica, A. (3 September 2017). "Slobodne zone mamac za investitore". politika.rs (in Serbian). Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  11. ^ ОПШТИНЕ И РЕГИОНИ У РЕПУБЛИЦИ СРБИЈИ, 2018. (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  12. ^ Olivera Milošević (31 May 2018). "Karađorđev dud postao prirodno dobro" [Karađorđećs mulberry became natural monument]. Politika (in Serbian). p. 12.
  13. ^ Census in the city of Smederevo, pop-stat.mashke.org; accessed 15 October 2016. (in Serbian)
  14. ^ "Microsoft Word - tekst, REV.GN.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  15. ^ ETHNICITY Data by municipalities and cities
  16. ^ POTPISAN SPORAZUM O BRATIMLJENJU SMEDEREVA I TANGŠANA (latin) / ПОТПИСАН СПОРАЗУМ О БРАТИМЉЕЊУ СМЕДЕРЕВА И ТАНГШАНА (cyrillic) smederevskenovine.rs (in Serbian)
  17. ^ Ozvaničena saradnja Tangšana i Smedereva danas.rs (in Serbian)
  18. ^ Ozvaničena saradnja Tangšana i Smedereva podunavlje.info (in Serbian)

SourcesEdit

Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Semendria" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 616.

External linksEdit