Open main menu

Wikipedia β

View of the General Sherman tree from below. The General Sherman tree is largest by volume: this view exaggerates apparent height

The world's superlative trees can be ranked by any factor. Records have been kept for trees with superlative height, trunk diameter or girth, canopy coverage, airspace volume, wood volume, estimated mass, and age.

Contents

TallestEdit

 
The coniferous Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is the tallest tree species on earth.

The heights of the tallest trees in the world have been the subject of considerable dispute and much exaggeration. Modern verified measurements with laser rangefinders or with tape drop measurements made by tree climbers (such as those carried out by canopy researchers), have shown that some older tree height measurement methods are often unreliable, sometimes producing exaggerations of 5% to 15% or more above the real height.[1] Historical claims of trees growing to 130 m (430 ft), and even 150 m (490 ft), are now largely disregarded as unreliable, and attributed to human error.

The following are the tallest reliably measured specimens from the top species. This table shows only currently standing specimens:

List of tallest trees by species
Species Height Tree name Location References
Meters Feet
Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) 115.92 380.3 Hyperion Redwood National Park, California, United States [2][3]
Mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans) 99.82 327.5 Centurion Arve Valley, Tasmania, Australia [4][5][6]
Coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) 99.7 327 Doerner Fir Brummit Creek, Coos County, Oregon, United States [7][8][9]
Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) 96.7 317 Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, California, United States [10][11]
Giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) 95.7 314 Sequoia National Forest, California, United States [12][13]
Yellow meranti (Shorea faguetiana) 94.1 309 Danum Valley Conservation Area, in Sabah on the island of Borneo [14]
Manna gum (Eucalyptus viminalis) 91 299 White Knight Evercreech Forest Reserve, Tasmania, Australia [15]
Southern blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) 90.7 298 Tasmania, Australia [16]
Alpine ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis) 87.9 288 Tasmania, Australia [16]
Brown top stringbark (Eucalyptus obliqua) 86 282 King Stringy Tasmania, Australia. [17]
Mengaris (Koompassia excelsa) 85.76 281.4 Tawau Hills National Park, in Sabah on the island of Borneo [18][19]
Shorea argentifolia 84.85 278.4 Gaharu ridge of Tawau Hills National Park, in Sabah on the island of Borneo. [18][19]
Shorea superba 84.41 276.9 Gergassi Ridge of Tawau Hills National Park, in Sabah on the island of Borneo. [18][19]
Shining gum (Eucalyptus nitens) 84.3 277 O'Shannassy Catchment, Victoria, Australia. [20]
Sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) 83.45 273.8 near Yosemite National Park, California, United States. [21]
Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) 83.34 273.4 was discovered in November 2014 by Mario Vaden and Chris Atkins in Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, California, United States. [22]
Hopea nutans 82.82 271.7 Gaharu ridge of Tawau Hills National Park, in Sabah on the island of Borneo. [18][19]
Shorea johorensis 82.39 270.3 Coco-Park boundary of Tawau Hills National Park, in Sabah on the island of Borneo. [18][19]
Shorea smithiana 82.27 269.9 Coco-Park boundary of Tawau Hills National Park, in Sabah on the island of Borneo. [18][19]
Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) 81.77 268.3 in Myers Creek drainage of Rogue River – Siskiyou National Forest, Oregon, United States. [23]
Entandrophragma excelsum 81.5 267 at Kilimanjaro, Tanzania [24]
Sydney blue gum (Eucalyptus saligna) 81.5 267 Woodbush State Forest, Magoebaskloof, Limpopo, South Africa. The world's tallest planted tree. [25][26]
Grand fir (Abies grandis) 81.4 267 in the Glacier Peak Wilderness, Washington, United States. [27]
Shorea gibbosa 81.11 266.1 River Flats of Tawau Hills National Park, in Sabah on the island of Borneo. [18][19]
Lawson cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) 81.08 266.0 In Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park, California, United States. [28]

DeepestEdit

A wild fig tree growing in Echo Caves near Ohrigstad, South Africa has roots going 121.92 m (400.0 ft) deep, giving it the deepest roots known of any tree.[29]

LargestEdit

The largest trees are defined as having the highest wood volume in a single-stem. These trees are both tall and large in diameter and, in particular, hold a large diameter high up the trunk. Measurement is very complex, particularly if branch volume is to be included as well as the trunk volume, so measurements have only been made for a small number of trees, and generally only for the trunk. Few attempts have ever been made to include root or leaf volume.

List of largest living trees by species, ranked by trunk volume
Species Trunk volume Tree name Location References
Cubic Meters Cubic Feet
Giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) 1,487 52,500 General Sherman Sequoia National Park [30]
Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) 1,084.5 38,300 Grogan's Fault Redwood National Park [31]
Kauri (Agathis australis) 516 18,200 Tāne Mahuta Waipoua Forest, New Zealand [32]
Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) 449 15,900 Cheewhat Giant British Columbia, Canada [33][34]:34
Eucalyptus regnans 391 13,800 Still Sorrow [5]
Tasmanian blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) 368 13,000 Rullah Longatyle Tasmania [16]
Coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) 349 12,300 Red Creek Fir British Columbia, Canada [35]
Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) 337 11,900 Queets Spruce [34]:58
Eucalyptus obliqua 337 11,900 Gothmog Styx Tall Trees FP, Tasmania [16]
Eucalyptus delegatensis 286 10,100 Styx River Valley [16]

StoutestEdit

The girth of a tree is usually much easier to measure than the height, as it is a simple matter of stretching a tape round the trunk, and pulling it taut to find the circumference. Despite this, UK tree author Alan Mitchell made the following comment about measurements of yew trees:

The aberrations of past measurements of yews are beyond belief. For example, the tree at Tisbury has a well-defined, clean, if irregular bole at least 1.5 m long. It has been found to have a girth that dilated and shrunk in the following way: 11.28 m (1834 Loudon), 9.3 m (1892 Lowe), 10.67 m (1903 Elwes and Henry), 9.0 m (1924 E. Swanton), 9.45 m (1959 Mitchell) ... Earlier measurements have therefore been omitted.

— Alan Mitchell; in a handbook "Conifers in the British Isles".[36]

As a general standard, tree girth is taken at "breast height". This is converted to and cited as dbh (diameter at breast height) in tree and forestry literature.[37][38] Breast height is defined differently in different situations, with most forestry measurements taking girth at 1.3 m above ground,[38] while those who measure ornamental trees usually measure at 1.5 m above ground;[37] in most cases this makes little difference to the measured girth. On sloping ground, the "above ground" reference point is usually taken as the highest point on the ground touching the trunk,[37][38] but in North America a point, that is the average of the highest point and the lowest point the tree trunk appears to contact the soil, is usually used.[39] Some of the inflated old measurements may have been taken at ground level. Some past exaggerated measurements also result from measuring the complete next-to-bark measurement, pushing the tape in and out over every crevice and buttress.[36] The measurements could also be influenced by deviation of the tape measure from a horizontal plane (which might seem called for if the trunk does not grow straight up), and the presence of features such as branches, spikes, etc.

Modern trends are to cite the tree's diameter rather than the circumference. The diameter of the tree is calculated by finding the mean diameter of the trunk, in most cases obtained by dividing the measured circumference by π; this assumes the trunk is mostly circular in cross-section (an oval or irregular cross-section would result in a mean diameter slightly greater than the assumed circle). Accurately measuring circumference or diameter is difficult in species with the large buttresses that are characteristic of many species of rainforest trees. Simple measurement of circumference of such trees can be misleading when the circumference includes much empty space between buttresses. See also Tree girth measurement

Baobabs (genus Adansonia) store large amounts of water in the very soft wood in their trunks. This leads to marked variation in their girth over the year (though not more than about 2.5%[40]), reaching maximum at the end of the rainy season, and minimum at the end of the dry season.

List of stoutest living single-trunk trees by species
Species Diameter Tree name Location Notes and References
Meters Feet
Montezuma cypress (Taxodium mucronatum) 11.62 38.1 Árbol del Tule Santa Maria del Tule, Oaxaca, Mexico. This diameter includes buttressing. A more accurate mean diameter for this tree is 9.38 m (30.8 ft).[41]
Baobab (Adansonia digitata): 10.64 34.9 Sunland Baobab South Africa Renowned because a bar and wine cellar operates inside its hollow trunk.[citation needed]
Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) 8.90 29.2 Jupiter Redwood National Park, California, United States [42][43]
Giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) 8.85 29.0 General Grant General Grant Grove, California, United States [44]
Za (Adansonia za) 8.85 29.0 The Ampanihy Baobab North of Morombe, southwest Madagascar [45]
Chinese camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) 8.23 27.0 Kamou no Okusu Kamou, Kagoshima, Japan [46][47]
Eucalyptus obliqua 6.72 22.0 [citation needed]
Eucalyptus regnans 6.52 21.4 Big Foot Geeveston, Tasmania [citation needed]
Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) 5.94 19.5 Quinault Lake Cedar Olympic National Park [48][34]:181
Eucalyptus delegatensis 5.82 19.1 Troll Hermons Road, Tasmania, Australia [citation needed]
Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) 5.39 17.7 Quinault Lake Spruce Olympic National Park [49]
Kauri (Agathis australis) 5.33 17.5 Te Matua Ngahere Waipoua Forest, New Zealand [50]

Measurements become ambiguous when multiple trunks (whether from an individual tree or multiple trees) grow together. The Sacred Fig grows adventitious roots from its branches, which become new trunks when the root reaches the ground and thickens; a single sacred fig tree can have hundreds of such trunks.[51] The multi-stemmed Hundred Horse Chestnut was known to have a circumference of 57.9 m (190 ft) when it was measured in 1780.

There are known more than 50 species of trees exceeding the diameter of 4.45 m or circumference of 14 m.[citation needed]

BroadestEdit

The trees with the broadest crowns have the widest spread of limbs from a single trunk.

List of trees with the broadest crowns, by species
Species Diameter Tree name Location Notes and References
Meters Feet
Coolibah (Eucalyptus microtheca) 72.8 239 Monkira Monster Neuragully Waterhole, southwestern Queensland, Australia [52][53]
Oriental plane (Platanus orientalis) 64.0 210 Oriental Plane Tree at Corsham Court Wiltshire, England. [54]
Raintree or monkeypod tree (Samanea saman) 63.1 207 Saman de Guere San Mateo, Aragua State, Venezuela [55]
Silk-cotton tree (Ceiba pentandra) 61.3 201 The Big Tree Barro Colorado Island, Panama [56]
European yew (Taxus baccata) 55.5 182 Shugborough Yew Shugborough Hall, Staffordshire, England [57][58]
Sand post oak (Quercus stellata margarettae) 55.2 181 Gilchrist County, Florida [59]
Turkey oak (Quercus cerris): 53.9 177 Devonshire, England. [54]
Moreton Bay fig (Ficus macrophylla) 53.6 176 Moreton Bay Fig Tree Chapala Street in Santa Barbara, California. [60]
Scarlet Oak (Quercus coccinea) 53.6 176 <name not given> Middlesboro, Kentucky [61]
Coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) 53.6 176 The Pechanga Great Oak Pechanga Native American Reservation east of Temecula, California. [62] [63]
Montezuma cypress (Taxodium mucronatum) 53.3 175 El Gigante Santa Maria del Tule, Oaxaca, Mexico [64]
Blackbutt (Eucalyptus pilularis) 51.8 170 Benaroon John's River in Middle Brother National Park, New South Wales, Australia. [65]
Live oak (Quercus virginiana) 51.8 170 The E. O. Hunt Oak Long Beach, Mississippi [66]
American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) 51.5 169 The Lansdowne Sycamore Lansdowne, Pennsylvania [67]
African Baobab (Adansonia digitata) 51.2 168 The Glencoe Tree Huidespruit, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Now severely damaged[68]
Batai (Albizzia falcata) 50.9 167 Hawai'i [69][70]

OldestEdit

 
Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is the longest living tree species on earth.

The oldest trees are determined by growth rings, which can be seen if the tree is cut down, or in cores taken from the bark to the center of the tree. Accurate determination is only possible for trees that produce growth rings, generally those in seasonal climates. Trees in uniform non-seasonal tropical climates grow continuously and do not have distinct growth rings. It is also only possible for trees that are solid to the center. Many very old trees become hollow as the dead heartwood decays. For some of these species, age estimates have been made on the basis of extrapolating current growth rates, but the results are usually largely speculation. White (1998)[71] proposes a method of estimating the age of large and veteran trees in the United Kingdom through the correlation of a tree's age with its diameter and growth character.

The verified oldest measured ages are:

List of oldest non-clonal trees by species
Species Age Tree name Location Notes and References
Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) 5,067 years Inyo County, California [72]
Alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides) 3,647 years Gran Abuelo Cordillera Pelada, Chile [73]
Giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) 3,266 years Sierra Nevada, California Dead[72]
Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) 2,675 years Sierra Nevada, California Dead[72]
Rocky Mountain Bristlecone Pine (Pinus aristata) 2,460 years central Colorado [72]
Sacred fig (Ficus religiosa) 2,302 years Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka [72]
Coast Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) 2,200 years northern California Dead[72]

Other species suspected of reaching exceptional age include European Yew (Taxus baccata) (probably over 2,000 years[74][75]), Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) (3,000 years or more[76]), and Western Redcedar (Thuja plicata). The oldest known European Yew may be the Llangernyw Yew in the Churchyard of Llangernyw village in North Wales, or the Fortingall Yew in Perthshire, Scotland. These yews may be from 1,500 to 3,000 years old.[77]

The olive tree also can live for centuries. The oldest verified age is 900 years[78] at Gethsemane (Mount of Olives, as mentioned in the Bible), while several other olive trees are suspected of being 2,000 to 3,000 years old.[79]

The pond cypress, Taxodium ascendens, has been known to live more than 1,000 years. One specimen in particular, named "The Senator", was estimated to be more than 3,400 years old at the time of its demise in early 2012.

Thickest Tree LimbEdit

This list is limited to horizontal or nearly horizontal limbs, in which the governing growth factor is phototropism. Vertical or near vertical limbs, in which the governing growth factor is negative geotropism, are called "reiterations" and are really divisions of the trunk, which by definition must be less than the trunk as a whole and therefore less remarkable. The thickest trunks have already been dealt with under "stoutest".[clarification needed]

List of thickest tree limbs by species
Species Diameter Tree name Location Notes and References
Meters Feet
Giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) 3.8 12.6 The Big Limb Tree Atwell Mills Grove, Sequoia National Park, California. [80]
Za (Adansonia za): 2.7 9 The Ampanihy Baobab north of Morombe, Madagascar. [81]
African baobab (Adansonia digitata) 2.4 8 The Big Tree Messina Nature Reserve, Limpopo Province, South Africa. [82][83]
Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) 2.1 7 Kronos Atlas Grove, Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park. [84]
Kauri (Agathis australis ) 2.1 7 Nga Mahangahua Tutamoe State Forest, North Island, New Zealand [85]
The White oak, (Quercus alba) 1.8 6 The Wye Oak Wye Mills, Maryland Died June 6, 2002[86]
Kapok or Silk Cotton Tree (Ceiba pentandra) 1.8 6 [87]
Canary Island Dragon Tree (Dracaena draco) 1.75 5.75 The Orotava Tree Orotava, Tenerife, Canary Islands Died October 1869[88]
Moreton Bay Fig (Ficus macrophylla) 1.7 5.5 Sydney Botanical Gardens, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia [89] [90]
Silver Fir ( Abies alba ) 1.7 5.5 Sabin Candelabre Jura Alps of France, near the Swiss border. [91][92]

Trees bearing the largest flowersEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Native Tree Society". 
  2. ^ Martin, G (2006-09-29). "World's tallest tree, a redwood, confirmed". SFGate. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  3. ^ "Sequoia". conifers.org. 
  4. ^ McIntosh, Derek. "Mountain Ash "Centurion" - tallest tree in Australia". National Register of Big Trees. Retrieved 19 March 2017. 
  5. ^ a b "Tasmania's Giant Trees". 
  6. ^ "The Arve and Huon Valleys". Tasmania's Giant Trees. 
  7. ^ "Doerner Fir - Tallest Douglas Fir". Retrieved 2013-02-25. 
  8. ^ "Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii". conifers.org. 
  9. ^ Richard, Terry (March 27, 2010). "Doerner Fir rises 327 feet into the Coos County heavens". The Oregonian. 
  10. ^ "Picea sitchensis". Gymnosperm Database. Retrieved 2007-06-10. This tree also has a sign nearby proclaiming it to be 'the world's largest spruce'. The two tallest on record, 96.7 m and 96.4 m, are in Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, California 
  11. ^ "Picea sitchensis". Gymnosperm Database. 
  12. ^ "A New Tallest Giant Sequoia". Sequoia Parks Foundation. 2011. 
  13. ^ "Sequoiadendron". Gymnosperm Database. 
  14. ^ "World's tallest tropical tree in Danum Valley". Retrieved 2017-03-14. 
  15. ^ "Gum - Manna (Eucalyptus viminalis) "White Knight"". Australia National Register of Big Trees. 
  16. ^ a b c d e "Tasmanian Giant Trees Register" (PDF). Forestry Tasmania. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-19. 
  17. ^ "Giant Trees Register". Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g "Borneo". Native Tree Society. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g James V. LaFrankie Jr. (2010). Trees of Tropical Asia. Black Tree Publications, Inc. p. 47. ISBN 978-971-94794-0-6. 
  20. ^ "Victoria's Giant Trees". 
  21. ^ "Pinus lambertiana". Gymnosperm Database. 
  22. ^ "Tsuga heterophylla". Gymnosperm Database. 
  23. ^ "Pinus ponderosa subsp. benthamiana". Gymnosperm Database. 
  24. ^ Hemp, Andreas. "Africa's highest mountain harbours Africa's tallest trees". Biodiversity and Conservation. 26: 103–113. doi:10.1007/s10531-016-1226-3. 
  25. ^ "Champion Trees of South Africa" (PDF). Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Republic of South Africa. 
  26. ^ "Ain't no tree high enough: Climbing South Africa's leafy summits". CNN. 
  27. ^ "Abies grandis". Gymnosperm Database. 
  28. ^ "Chamaecyparis lawsoniana". Gymnosperm Database. 
  29. ^ "Interesting Tree Facts". United Nations Environment Programme. Archived from the original on 2005-07-23. Retrieved 2016-05-24. 
  30. ^ Wendell D. Flint (1 January 2002). To Find the Biggest Tree. Sequoia Natural History Association. ISBN 978-1-878441-09-6. 
  31. ^ Earle, Christopher J. "Sequoia sempervirens". Gymnosperm Database. Retrieved 2017-12-30. 
  32. ^ Earle, Christopher J. "Agathis australis". Gymnosperm Database. 
  33. ^ Earle, Christopher J. "Thuja plicata". Gymnosperm Database. 
  34. ^ a b c Van Pelt, Robert (2001). Forest Giants of the Pacific Coast. Global Forest Society and University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-98140-7. 
  35. ^ Earle, Christopher J. "Pseudotsuga menziesii subsp. menziesii". Gymnosperm Database. Retrieved 2017-12-29. 
  36. ^ a b Mitchell, A. F. (1972). Conifers in the British Isles. Forestry Commission. Booklet 33. 
  37. ^ a b c Mitchell, A. F. (1974). A Field Guide to the Trees of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins. ISBN 0-00-212035-6. 
  38. ^ a b c Hamilton, G. J. (1975). Forest Mensuration Handbook. 39. Forestry Commission Booklet. ISBN 0-11-710023-4. 
  39. ^ "Tree Measuring Guidelines of the Eastern Native Tree Society" (PDF). Native Tree Society. March 2008. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  40. ^ Fenner, M (1980). "Some measurements on the water relations of baobab trees". Biotropica. 12 (3): 205–209. doi:10.2307/2387972. JSTOR 2387972. 
  41. ^ "Taxodium mucronatum". Gymnosperm Database. 
  42. ^ Dronkers, Mike (14 July 2015). "Girth first? Local man may just have found the world's fattest redwood". Lost Coast Outpost. 
  43. ^ "Coast Redwood Discovery. Sequoia sempervirens". mdvaden.com. Retrieved 11 November 2016. 
  44. ^ Earle, Christopher J. "Sequoiadendron giganteum". Gymnosperm Database. Retrieved 2007-06-10. the General Grant tree in Kings Canyon National Park, CA, which is 885 cm dbh and 81.1 m tall 
  45. ^ Salak, Marc (2002). "The Vanishing Thorn Forests of Madagascar, part 2". Cactus And Succulent Journal. 74 (1): 31–33. 
  46. ^ Carder, Al C. (2005). Giant Trees of Western America and the World. Madeira Park, British Columbia: Harbour Publisher. p. 105. 
  47. ^ "Big Trees Survey". Japan Ministry of Environment. 
  48. ^ Earle, Christopher J. "Thuja Plicata". Gymnosperm Database. 
  49. ^ Earle, Christopher J. "Picea sitchensis". Gymnosperm Database. Retrieved 2017-12-29. 
  50. ^ "Te Matua Ngahere". New Zealand Notable Trees. 
  51. ^ Huxley, A (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-47494-5. 
  52. ^ Groom, Arthur (January 1954). "The Monkira Monster". Wildlife and Outdoors: 9–13. 
  53. ^ Brooks, A. E. (1964). Tree Wonders of Australia. 
  54. ^ a b <not stated> (2013). ""Britain's Record Breaking Trees Identified"". Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  55. ^ "A. F." (6 January 1872). "title not noted". The Garden. 1: 155. 
  56. ^ Carder, Dr. Al C. (2005). Giant Trees of Western America and the World. Madeira Park, British Columbia: Harbour Publishing. p. 129. 
  57. ^ <not stated> (October 27, 2014). "Parks and Gardens UK". Retrieved December 3, 2014. 
  58. ^ Haycock, Stu (27 October 2014). "Stafford's Yew Tree is Top !". Retrieved December 3, 2014. 
  59. ^ <not stated> (2004). "Florida Forest Service". Retrieved August 7, 2013. 
  60. ^ Hayes, Virginia (December 21, 2011). "S.B. Big Trees: The Moreton Bay Fig Tree was Planted from a Cutting from Australia". Santa Barbara Independent. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  61. ^ Template:Cite periodical
  62. ^ <anonymous>. "Big Tree List". Retrieved January 30, 2003. 
  63. ^ Cristopher. "Old Temecula Valley". Retrieved 18 August 2017. 
  64. ^ Haller, John (January 1978). "A Most Remarkable Tree". American Forests. 84 (1): 23. 
  65. ^ <not stated>. ""National Register of Big Trees"". Retrieved October 27, 2017. 
  66. ^ Frank, Edward F. (19 July 2009). "The Middleton Oak and Sag Branch Tulip Tree Project". Retrieved 18 August 2017. 
  67. ^ <not stated--->. "Champion Trees of Pennsylvania". Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  68. ^ Walker, Clive (2013). Baobab Trails. p. 256. 
  69. ^ Littlecott, Lorna C. (February 1969). "Hawai'i First". American Forests. 75 (2): 15. 
  70. ^ McFarlan and McWhirter (1992). Guinness Book of World Records. p. 57. 
  71. ^ White, J (1990). Estimating the Age of Large and Veteran Trees in Britain. Edinburgh: Forestry Commission. 
  72. ^ a b c d e f "Oldlist". Rocky Mountain Tree Ring Research. Retrieved 2013-01-08. 
  73. ^ Lara, Antonio; Villalba, Ricardo (21 May 1993). "A 3620-Year Temperature Record from Fitzroya cupressoides Tree Rings in Southern South America". Science. 260 (5111): 1104–1106. Bibcode:1993Sci...260.1104L. doi:10.1126/science.260.5111.1104. PMID 17806339. 
  74. ^ Harte, J (1996). "How old is that old yew?". At the Edge. 4: 1–9. 
  75. ^ Kinmonth, F (2005). "Ageing the yew - no core, no curve?". International Dendrology Society Yearbook: 41–46. ISSN 0307-322X. 
  76. ^ Suzuki, E (1997). "The Dynamics of Old Cryptomeria japonica Forest on Yakushima Island" (PDF). Tropics. 6 (4): 421–428. doi:10.3759/tropics.6.421. 
  77. ^ Bevan-Jones, Robert (2004). The ancient yew: a history of Taxus baccata. Bollington: Windgather Press. pp. 38–39. ISBN 0-9545575-3-0. 
  78. ^ "Oldest olive trees". Reuters. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  79. ^ "World's 10 oldest trees". Mother Nature Network. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  80. ^ Flint, Wendell D. (1987). To Find the Biggest Tree. Three Rivers, Calif.: Sequoia Natural History Assoc. pp. 26 & 92. 
  81. ^ Salak, Marc (January–February 2002). "The Vanishing Thorn Forests of Madagascar". Cactus and Succulent Journal. 74 (1): 31–33. 
  82. ^ Carder, Dr. Al C. (1995). Forest Giants of the World. Markham, Ontario: Fitzhenry and Whiteside. p. 148. 
  83. ^ "Dubel African Travel". 1993. 
  84. ^ <not stated>. ""Kenneth L. Fisher Chair in Redwood Ecology - Collaborators"". Retrieved June 20, 2007. 
  85. ^ Kirk F.L.S., T. (1889). The Forest Flora of New Zealand. Wellington: Government Printer. p. 144. 
  86. ^ Preston, Dickson J. (November 1984). "Our Largest Oak Looses a Limb". American Forests. 90 (11): 42–43 & 62–63. 
  87. ^ Gamlin, Linda and Anuschka de Rohan (1998). Mysteries of the Rain Forest. Pleasantville, New York: Reader's Digest Assoc. p. 79. 
  88. ^ Stone, Olivia M. (1889). Teneriffe and Its Six Satelites. London: Marcus Ward and Co. p. 198. 
  89. ^ <Full names not stated> (February 28, 2010). "Rick and Gail Australia 2010". Retrieved November 15, 2011. 
  90. ^ Seselja, Loui (August 18, 2000). "Performance around the giant fig tree, Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney". Retrieved February 8, 2005. 
  91. ^ Goll, Bernard (January 2001). "Jura Sauvage". Retrieved June 13, 2017. 
  92. ^ "Grimper dans un arbre a plus de cinquante ans". November 22, 2010. Retrieved January 27, 2015. 
  93. ^ Croat, Thomas B. (1978). Flora of Barro Colorado Island. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Univ. Press. p. 589. 
  94. ^ Fayaz, Ahmed (2011). Encyclopedia of Tropical Plants. Buffalo, New York: Firefly Books. p. 517. 
  95. ^ Pertchik, Bernard and Harriet, with Paul Knapp (1951). Flowering Trees of the Caribbean. New York: Rinehart & Co, Inc. p. 44. 
  96. ^ <anonymous>. "The Virtual Field Herbarium". Retrieved July 5, 2005. 
  97. ^ Raynel, Charles E. (May 1938). "Big Leaf Magnolia". American Forests. 44 (5): 204 Photo with caption. 
  98. ^ not stated (March 1928). "<not recorded>". Nature Magazine. 11 (3): 184 Photo with caption. 
  99. ^ Menninger, Edwin A. Hon.D.Sc. Flowering Trees of the World. New York: Hearthside Press. p. 145. 
  100. ^ <anonymous>. "Pl@ntNet". Retrieved April 17, 2018. 
  101. ^ Pl@ntNet loc. cit.

External linksEdit

Species and Family Where native? Largest of kind. Comments
Guyana Chestnut, or Provision Tree (Pachira aquatica) Bombacaceae. Central America, northern South America and the West Indies. Up to 26 inches (66 cm) if the thirteen inch (33 cm) petals are held outright.[93] According to Fayaz, this species can have 14 inch (35.5 cm) petals and therefore a 28 inch (71 cm) diameter.[94]
Cacao Sauvage (Pachira insigna) (Bombacaceae) Along brackish estuaries of South America and the Lesser Antilles. Its 13 inch (33 cm) petals also are 26 inches (66 cm) wide if held horizontally.[95] [96] Both P. insigne and P. aquatic have a staminal column up to 14 inches (35.5 cm) in length.
Big Leaf Magnolia, or Big Bloom (Magnolia macrophylla) (Magnoliaceae) The deep southern United States, especially Alabama and Mississippi, but excluding Florida. The largest on record was 21.5 inches (54.6 cm) in width,[97] while another found and photographed by Adele Sayle was twenty inches (51 cm) wide.[98] Magnolias are pollinated by flower beetles.
Magnolia dealbata (Magnoliaceae) The humid regions of Mexico. Up to 16 inches (40.6 cm) in diameter.[99] Considered by some taxonomists to be a subspecies of M. macrophylla.
Mandacaru (Cereus jamacaru) (Cactaceae) The Caatinga region of N.E.ern Brazil. Also naturalized to South Africa. Up to 12 inches (30 cm) long by up to 8 inches (20 cm) wide.[100] One of the largest tree-cacti at up to 59 feet (18 meters) in height, 33 feet (ten meters) crown spread and up to 39 inch (one meter) thick trunk.[101] It can bear spines up to 7.5 inches (19 cm) long. By reason of its succulence, these may be the most massive (heaviest) of all tree flowers.