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Eucalyptus globulus, commonly known as southern blue gum,[2] is a species of tall, evergreen tree endemic in south-eastern Australia. It has mostly smooth bark, juvenile leaves that are whitish and waxy on the lower surface, glossy green, lance-shaped adult leaves, glaucous, ribbed flower buds arranged singly or in groups of three or seven in leaf axils, white flowers and woody fruit. There are four subspecies, each with a different distibution, occurring in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.

Blue gum
Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii.jpg
Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Myrtales
Family: Myrtaceae
Genus: Eucalyptus
Species:
E. globulus
Binomial name
Eucalyptus globulus
Synonyms[1]
flower buds of subsp. bicostata
fruit of subsp. bicostata

Contents

DescriptionEdit

Eucalyptus globulus is a tree that typically grows to a height of 45 m (148 ft) but sometimes a stunted shrub or as tall as 70 m (230 ft), and forms a lignotuber. The bark is usually smooth, white to cream-coloured but there are sometimes slabs of persistent, unshed bark at the base. Young plants, often several metres tall, and coppice regrowth have stems that are more or less square in cross-section with a prominent wing on each corner. Juvenile leaves are mostly arranged in opposite pairs, sessile, glaucous elliptic to egg-shaped, up to 150 mm (5.9 in) long and 105 mm (4.1 in) wide. Adult leaves are arranged alternately, the same glossy to dark green on both sides, lance-shaped or curved, 150–300 mm (5.9–11.8 in) long and 17–30 mm (0.67–1.18 in) wide on a petiole 1.5–6 mm (0.059–0.236 in) long. The flower buds are arranged singly or in groups of three or seven in leaf axils, sometimes sessile or on a short thick peduncle. The individual buds are also usually sessile, sometimes on a pedicel up to 5 mm (0.20 in) long. Mature buds are top-shaped to conical, glaucous or green, with a flattened hemispherical, warty operculum with a central knob. Flowering time varies with subspecies and distribution but the flowers are always white. The fruit is a woody conical or hemispherical capsule with the valves close to rim level.[3][4][5][6][2][7][8]

Taxonomy and namingEdit

Eucalyptus globulus was first formally described in 1800 by the French botanist Jacques Labillardière in his book, Relation du Voyage à la Recherche de la Pérouse.[9][10][11] Labillardière collected specimens at Recherche Bay during the d'Entrecasteaux expedition in 1792.[12]

The d'Entrecasteaux expedition made immediate use of the species when they discovered it, the timber being used to improve their oared boats.[12] The Tasmanian blue gum was proclaimed as the floral emblem of Tasmania on 27 November 1962. The species name is from the Latin globulus, a little ball or small sphere,[13] referring to the shape of the fruit.[3]

In 1974, James Barrie Kirkpatrick described four subspecies and the names have been accepted by the Australian Plant Census.[14] Each subspecies has a characteristic arrangement of its flower buds:[15]

Distribution and habitatEdit

Blue gum grows in forests in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania, including some of the Bass Strait Islands. Subspecies bicostata occurs in montane and tableland areas between the Carrai Plateau in northern New South Wales and the Pyrenees in Victoria. Subspecies globulus is mainly found in lowland parts of Tasmania, but is also found on some Bass Strait islands including King Island, and in the extreme south-west of Victoria. Subspecies maidenii occurs on near-coastal ranges of south-eastern New South Wales and eastern Victoria. Subspecies pseudoglobulus is mostly distributed in eastern Gippsland but there are isolated populations further inland and in the Nadgee Nature Reserve in south-eastern New South Wales.[3]

There are naturalised non-native occurrences in Spain and Portugal, and other parts of southern Europe incl. Cyprus, southern Africa, New Zealand, western United States (California), Hawaii, Macaronesia.[20]

Unusual specimensEdit

They typically grow from 30–55 m (98–180 ft) tall. The tallest currently known specimen in Tasmania is 90.7 m (298 ft) tall.[21] There are historical claims of even taller trees, the tallest being 101 m (331 ft).[22]

PlantationsEdit

 
Large blue gum eucalyptus in Pleasanton, California, 46.5 m (153 ft) in height and 10.5 m (34 ft) in circumference.

Blue gum is one of the most extensively planted eucalypts. Its rapid growth and adaptability to a range of conditions is responsible for its popularity. It is especially well-suited to countries with a Mediterranean-type climate, but also grows well in high altitudes in the tropics.[23]

It comprises 65% of all plantation hardwood in Australia with approximately 4,500 km2 (1,100,000 acres) planted.[24]

In about 1860 Francis Cook planted the tree on Monserrate Palace, his property at Sintra in Portugal and within twenty years it had attained the height of 100 m and a circumference of 5 m. By 1878 the tree ″had spread from one end of Portugal to the other″. In 1878 the tree was also planted, partly on Cook's recommendation, in Galway, Ireland to reclaim ″useless bog land″.[25]

E. globulus begun to be planted as plantations in Los Lagos and Los Ríos regions of Chile in the 1990s.[26] However at these latitudes around the 40th parallel south the tree is at the southern border of the climatic conditions where it can grow, hence good growth in this part of southern Chile requires good site selection such as sunny north-facing slopes.[26] Some of these plantations grow on red clay soil.[26]

UsesEdit

TimberEdit

Blue gum timber is yellow-brown, fairly heavy, with an interlocked grain, and is difficult to season.[27] It has poor lumber qualities due to growth stress problems, but can be used in construction, fence posts and poles.[28]

PulpwoodEdit

Essential oilEdit

The leaves are steam distilled to extract eucalyptus oil. E. globulus is the primary source of global eucalyptus oil production, with China being the largest commercial producer.[29][30] The oil has therapeutic, perfumery, flavoring, antimicrobial and biopesticide properties.[31][32][33] Oil yield ranges from 1.0-2.4% (fresh weight), with cineole being the major isolate. E. globulus oil has established itself internationally because it is virtually phellandrene free, a necessary characteristic for internal pharmaceutical use.[34] In 1870, Cloez identified and ascribed the name "eucalyptol" — now more often called cineole — to the dominant portion of E. globulus oil.[35]

Herb teaEdit

Tasmanian blue gum leaves are used as a herbal tea.[36]

HoneyEdit

Blue gum flowers are considered a good source of nectar and pollen for bees.[citation needed]

PhenolicsEdit

E. globulus bark contains quinic, dihydroxyphenylacetic and caffeic acids, bis(hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP))-glucose, galloyl-bis(HHDP)-glucose, galloyl-HHDP-glucose, isorhamentin-hexoside, quercetin-hexoside, methylellagic acid (EA)-pentose conjugate, myricetin-rhamnoside, isorhamnetin-rhamnoside, mearnsetin, phloridzin, mearnsetin-hexoside, luteolin and a proanthocyanidin B-type dimer, digalloylglucose and catechin.[37] The hydrolyzable tannins tellimagrandin I, eucalbanin C, 2-O-digalloyl-1,3,4-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 6-O-digalloyl-1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, as well as gallic acid and (+)-catechin can also be isolated.[38]Tricetin is a rare flavone aglycone found in the pollen of members of the Myrtaceae, subfamily Leptospermoideae, such as E. globulus.[39]

Environmental weedEdit

It was introduced to California in the mid-19th century, partly in response to the Southern Pacific Railroad's need for timber to make railroad ties, and is prominent in many parks in San Francisco and throughout the state. Naturalists, ecologists, and the United States National Park Service consider it an invasive species due to its ability to quickly spread via seeds and displace native plant communities, while local authorities, especially many fire departments across California consider it to be a major fire hazard,[40][41][42] although the United States Department of Agriculture does not list it among its "Invasive and Noxious plants" list in California.[43] Due to these factors, programs across the state of California have been established to remove all eucalyptus growth, and restore native biomes in certain park areas, such as on Angel Island in San Francisco Bay, and in the hills of Oakland, California.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Eucalyptus globulus". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  2. ^ a b Brooker, M. Ian H. "Eucalyptus globulus". Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d "Eucalyptus globulus subsp. globulus". Euclid: Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  4. ^ a b "Eucalyptus globulus subsp. bicostata". Euclid: Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  5. ^ a b "Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii". Euclid: Centre for Australian National Biodiversdity Research. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Eucalyptus globulus subsp. pseudoglobulus". Euclid: Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  7. ^ Chippendale, George M. "Eucalyptus globulus". Australian Biological Resources Study, Department of the Environment and Energy, Canberra. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  8. ^ "Eucalyptus globulus". Kew: Plants of the World online. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  9. ^ "Eucalyptus globulus". APNI. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  10. ^ La Billardière, , Jacques-Julien Houtou de (1800). Relation du Voyage à la Recherche de la Pérouse. Paris: chez H. J. Jansen. p. 13. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  11. ^ La Billardière, , Jacques-Julien Houtou de (1800). Relation du Voyage à la Recherche de la Pérouse. Paris: chez H. J. Jansen. p. 153. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  12. ^ a b Mulvaney, John (c. 2006). "4. Botanising". 'The axe had never sounded': place, people and heritage of Recherche Bay, Tasmania (Online ed.). Australian National University. ISBN 978-1-921313-21-9. Retrieved 16 February 2009.
  13. ^ Brown, Roland Wilbur (1956). The Composition of Scientific Words. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 119.
  14. ^ Kirkpatrick, James Barrie (September 1974). "The numerical intraspecific taxonomy of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Myrtaceae)". The Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 69: 89–104.
  15. ^ Brooker, M. Ian H.; Slee, Andrew V. "Key to the subspecies of Eucalyptus globulus". Royal Botanic Gardens, Victoria. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  16. ^ "Eucalyptus globulus subsp. bicostata". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  17. ^ "Eucalyptus globulus subsp. bicostata". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  18. ^ "Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  19. ^ "Eucalyptus globulus subsp. maidenii". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  20. ^ "Eucalyptus globulus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  21. ^ Giant Trees Consultative Committee Archived 16 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Lewin, D. W. 1906: The Eucalypti Hardwood Timbers of Tasmania
  23. ^ Hillis, W.E., Brown, A.G., Eucalypts for Wood Production, Academic Press, 1984, p20, ISBN 0-12-348762-5
  24. ^ Australia's Plantations 2006 (PDF). Bureau of Rural Sciences. Retrieved 24 January 2007.
  25. ^ "The Eucalyptus for the West of England". The Cornishman (16). 31 October 1878. p. 5.
  26. ^ a b c Geldres, Edith; Schlatter, Juan E. (2004). "Crecimiento de las plantaciones de Eucalyptus globulussobre suelos rojo arcillosos de la provinciad Osorno, Décima Región" [Growth of Eucalyptus globulus plantations on red clay soils in the Province of Osorno, 10th Region, Chile] (PDF). Bosque (in Spanish). 25 (1): 95–101. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  27. ^ Cribb, A.B. & J.W., Useful Wild Plants in Australia, Collins 1982, p25 ISBN 0-00-636397-0
  28. ^ Index of Species Information, Eucalyptus globulus
  29. ^ Edited by Boland, D.J., Brophy, J.J., and A.P.N. House, Eucalyptus Leaf Oils - Use, Chemistry, Distillation and Marketing, Inkata Press, 1991, p4.
  30. ^ Eucalyptus Oil, FAO Corporate Document Repository
  31. ^ Eucalyptus globulus Monograph, Australian Naturopathic Network
  32. ^ Eucalyptus globulus, Association of Societies for Growing Australian Plants (ASGAP)"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ Young-Cheol Yang, Han-Young Choi, Won-Sil Choi, J. M. Clark, and Young-Joon Ahn, Ovicidal and Adulticidal Activity of Eucalyptus globulus Leaf Oil Terpenoids against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae), J. Agric. Food Chem., 52 (9), 2507 -2511, 2004.[1]
  34. ^ Edited by Boland, D.J., Brophy, J.J., and A.P.N. House, Eucalyptus Leaf Oils - Use, Chemistry, Distillation and Marketing, Inkata Press, 1991, p3., & pp78-82.
  35. ^ Boland, D.J., Brophy, J.J., and A.P.N. House, Eucalyptus Leaf Oils, 1991, p6 ISBN 0-909605-69-6
  36. ^ Eucalyptus Globulus Labill Leaf Pieces Tea
  37. ^ Santos, SA; Freire, CS; Domingues, MR; Silvestre, AJ; Pascoal Neto, C (2011). "Characterization of phenolic components in polar extracts of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Bark by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59 (17): 9386–93. doi:10.1021/jf201801q. PMID 21761864.
  38. ^ Hou, Ai-Jun; Liu, Yan-Ze; Yang, Hui; Lin, Zhong-Wen; Sun, Han-Dong (2000). "Hydrolyzable Tannins and Related Polyphenols fromEucalyptus globulus". Journal of Asian Natural Products Research. 2 (3): 205–12. doi:10.1080/10286020008039912. PMID 11256694.
  39. ^ The Unique Occurrence of the Flavone Aglycone Tricetin in Myrtaceae Pollen. Maria G. Campos, Rosemary F. Webby and Kenneth R. Markham, Z. Naturforsch, 2002, 57c, pages 944-946 (article)
  40. ^ "Conflagration Overview". Sfmuseum.org. 20 October 1991. Archived from the original on 3 August 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
  41. ^ Jim Staats (13 September 2008). "Eucalyptus tree removal riles Tamalpais Valley - Marin Independent Journal". Marinij.com. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
  42. ^ California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC) Invasive Plant Inventory 2006 http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/inventory/pdf/Inventory2006.pdf
  43. ^ "California State Noxious Weeds List | USDA PLANTS". Plants.usda.gov. 20 October 2003. Retrieved 18 August 2013.

External linksEdit