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Eucalyptus oil for pharmaceutical use.

Eucalyptus oil is the generic name for distilled oil from the leaf of Eucalyptus, a genus of the plant family Myrtaceae native to Australia and cultivated worldwide. Eucalyptus oil has a history of wide application, as a pharmaceutical, antiseptic, repellent, flavouring, fragrance and industrial uses. The leaves of selected Eucalyptus species are steam distilled to extract eucalyptus oil.

Types and productionEdit

Eucalyptus oils in the trade are categorized into three broad types according to their composition and main end-use: medicinal, perfumery and industrial.[1] The most prevalent is the standard cineole-based "oil of eucalyptus", a colourless mobile liquid (yellow with age) with a penetrating, camphoraceous, woody-sweet scent.[2]

China produces about 75% of the world trade, but most of this is derived from the cineole fractions of camphor laurel rather than being true eucalyptus oil.[3] Significant producers of true eucalyptus oil include South Africa, Portugal, Spain, Brazil, Australia, Chile, and Swaziland.

 
Eucalyptus polybractea or Blue-leaf Mallee, a species yielding high quality eucalyptus oil

Global production is dominated by Eucalyptus globulus. However, Eucalyptus kochii and Eucalyptus polybractea have the highest cineole content, ranging from 80-95%. The British Pharmacopoeia states that the oil must have a minimum cineole content of 70% if it is pharmaceutical grade. Rectification is used to bring lower grade oils up to the high cineole standard required. In 1991, global annual production was estimated at 3,000 tonnes for the medicinal eucalyptus oil with another 1500 tonnes for the main perfumery oil (produced from Eucalyptus citriodora).[4] The eucalyptus genus also produces non-cineole oils, including piperitone, phellandrene, citral, methyl cinnamate and geranyl acetate.

UsesEdit

As an ingredientEdit

The cineole-based oil is used as component in pharmaceutical preparations to relieve the symptoms of influenza and colds, in products like cough sweets, lozenges, ointments and inhalants. Inhaled eucalyptus oil vapor may be a decongestant.[citation needed] The main chemical components of eucalyptus oil, eucalyptol and alpha-terpineol,[citation needed] give the oil a soothing, cooling vapor. This makes eucalyptus oil useful for massage.[citation needed] Eucalyptus oil is used in personal hygiene products in dental care.[5]

Repellent and biopesticideEdit

Cineole-based eucalyptus oil is used as an insect repellent and biopesticide.[6] In the U.S., eucalyptus oil was first registered in 1948 as an insecticide and miticide.[7]

Flavouring and fragranceEdit

Eucalyptus oil is used in flavouring. Cineole-based eucalyptus oil is used as a flavouring at low levels (0.002%) in various products, including baked goods, confectionery, meat products and beverages.[8] Eucalyptus oil has antimicrobial activity against a broad range of foodborne human pathogens and food spoilage microorganisms.[9] Non-cineole peppermint gum, strawberry gum and lemon ironbark are also used as flavouring. Eucalyptus oil is also used as a fragrance component to impart a fresh and clean aroma in soaps, detergents, lotions, and perfumes. It is known for its pungent, intoxicating scent. Due to its cleansing properties, Eucalyptus oil is found in mouthrinses to freshen breath.

IndustrialEdit

Research shows that cineole-based eucalyptus oil (5% of mixture) prevents the separation problem with ethanol and petrol fuel blends. Eucalyptus oil also has a respectable octane rating and can be used as a fuel in its own right. However, production costs are currently too high for the oil to be economically viable as a fuel.[10]

Phellandrene- and piperitone-based eucalyptus oils have been used in mining to separate sulfide minerals via flotation.

CleaningEdit

Eucalyptus oil has natural anti-microbial[11][12] and antiseptic[13] properties and is used in household cleaning applications.[14][15][16] It is commonly used in commercial laundry products such as wool wash liquid.[17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] It is used as a solvent for removing grease and sticky residue.[26][27]

Safety and toxicityEdit

If consumed internally at low dosage as a flavouring component or in pharmaceutical products at the recommended rate, cineole-based 'oil of eucalyptus' is safe for adults. However, systemic toxicity can result from ingestion or topical application at higher than recommended doses.[28]

The probable lethal dose of pure eucalyptus oil for an adult is in the range of 0.05 mL to 0.5 mL/per kg of body weight.[29] Because of their high body-surface-area-to-mass ratio, children are more vulnerable to poisons absorbed transdermally. Severe poisoning has occurred in children after ingestion of 4 mL to 5 mL of eucalyptus oil.[30]

Eucalyptus oil has also been shown to be dangerous to domestic cats, causing an unstable gait, excessive drooling, and other symptoms of ill health.[31]

HistoryEdit

Australian Aboriginals use eucalyptus leaf infusions (which contain eucalyptus oil) as a traditional medicine for treating body pains, sinus congestion, fever, and colds.[32][33]

Dennis Considen and John White, surgeons on the First Fleet, distilled eucalyptus oil from Eucalyptus piperita found growing on the shores of Port Jackson in 1788 to treat convicts and marines.[34][35][36][37] Eucalyptus oil was subsequently extracted by early colonists, but was not commercially exploited for some time.

Baron Ferdinand von Mueller, Victorian botanist, promoted the qualities of Eucalyptus as a disinfectant in "fever districts", and also encouraged Joseph Bosisto, a Melbourne pharmacist, to investigate the commercial potential of the oil.[38] Bosisto started the commercial eucalyptus oil industry in 1852 near Dandenong, Victoria, Australia, when he set up a distillation plant and extracted the essential oil from the cineole chemotype of Eucalyptus radiata. This resulted in the cineole chemotype becoming the generic 'oil of eucalyptus', and "Bosisto's Eucalyptus Oil" still survives as a brand.

French chemist, F. S. Cloez, identified and ascribed the name eucalyptol — also known as cineole — to the dominant portion of E. globulus oil.[39] By the 1870s oil from Eucalyptus globulus, Tasmanian blue gum, was being exported worldwide and eventually dominated world trade, while other higher quality species were also being distilled to a lesser extent. Surgeons were using eucalyptus oil as an antiseptic during surgery by the 1880s.[40]

Eucalyptus oil became an important industry in the box-ironbark forests of Victoria during the post gold-rush era of the 1870s. The oil was often described as Australia's natural wonder and was exported to a growing international market, mostly for medicinal purposes. Eucalyptus oil was in particularly big demand during the global influenza pandemic of 1918-19. A distillation plant was established by the Forests Commission Victoria at Wellsford State Forest[41] near Bendigo in 1926. The Principal of the Victorian School of Forestry, Edwin James Semmens, undertook much of the pioneering chemistry into the composition of eucalyptus oil.[42] His steam extraction kilns are in the museum at the school.

The Australian eucalyptus oil industry peaked in the 1940s, the main area of production being the central goldfields region of Victoria, particularly Inglewood; then the global establishment of eucalyptus plantations for timber resulted in increased volumes of eucalyptus oil as a plantation by-product. By the 1950s the cost of producing eucalyptus oil in Australia had increased so much that it could not compete against cheaper Spanish and Portuguese oils (closer to European Market therefore less costs). Non-Australian sources now dominate commercial eucalyptus oil supply, although Australia continues to produce high grade oils, mainly from blue mallee (E. polybractea) stands.

Species utilisedEdit

Commercial cineole-based eucalyptus oils are produced from several species of Eucalyptus:

Non-cineole oil producing species:

The former lemon eucalyptus species Eucalyptus citriodora is now classified as Corymbia citriodora, which produces a citronellal-based oil.

Compendial statusEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ William M. Ciesla. "Types of oil and uses". Non-wood Forest Products from Temperate Broad-leaved Trees. Food & Agriculture Org (2002). p. 30.
  2. ^ Lawless, J., The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils, Element Books 1995 ISBN 1-85230-661-0
  3. ^ Ashurst, P. R (31 July 1999). Food Flavorings. ISBN 9780834216211.
  4. ^ FOA
  5. ^ Nagata, Hideki; Inagaki, Yoshika; Tanaka, Muneo; Ojima, Miki; Kataoka, Kosuke; Kuboniwa, Masae; Nishida, Nobuko; Shimizu, Katsumasa; Osawa, Kenji; Shizukuishi, Satoshi (2008). "Effect of Eucalyptus Extract Chewing Gum on Periodontal Health: A Double-Masked, Randomized Trial". Journal of Periodontology. 79 (8): 1378–85. doi:10.1902/jop.2008.070622. PMID 18672986.
  6. ^ Batish, Daizy R.; Singh, Harminder Pal; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Kaur, Shalinder (10 December 2008). "Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural pesticide". Forest Ecology and Management. 256 (12): 2166–2174. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2008.08.008.
  7. ^ Flower and Vegetable Oils, R.E.D. Facts, EPA
  8. ^ Harborne, J.B., Baxter, H., Chemical Dictionary of Economic Plants, ISBN 0-471-49226-4
  9. ^ Zhao, J., Agboola, S., Functional Properties of Australian Bushfoods Archived 21 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine - A Report for the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 2007, RIRDC Publication No 07/030
  10. ^ Boland, D.J., Brophy, J.J., and A.P.N. House, Eucalyptus Leaf Oils, 1991, p. 8 ISBN 0-909605-69-6
  11. ^ Sadlon, Angela E.; Lamson, Davis W. (April 2010). "Immune-modifying and antimicrobial effects of Eucalyptus oil and simple inhalation devices". Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic. 15 (1): 33–47. ISSN 1089-5159. PMID 20359267.
  12. ^ Ali, Babar; Al-Wabel, Naser Ali; Shams, Saiba; Ahamad, Aftab; Khan, Shah Alam; Anwar, Firoz (1 August 2015). "Essential oils used in aromatherapy: A systemic review". Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 5 (8): 601–611. doi:10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.007. ISSN 2221-1691.
  13. ^ Barbosa, Luiz Claudio Almeida; Filomeno, Claudinei Andrade; Teixeira, Robson Ricardo (7 December 2016). "Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Eucalyptus spp. Essential Oils". Molecules. 21 (12). doi:10.3390/molecules21121671. ISSN 1420-3049. PMC 6273930. PMID 27941612.
  14. ^ Feeney, Katherine (14 January 2011). "Pressure hoses and pantyhose: How to clean houses after the flood". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  15. ^ Barbosa, Luiz Claudio Almeida; Filomeno, Claudinei Andrade; Teixeira, Robson Ricardo (7 December 2016). "Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Eucalyptus spp. Essential Oils". Molecules. 21 (12). doi:10.3390/molecules21121671. ISSN 1420-3049. PMC 6273930. PMID 27941612.
  16. ^ Australia, Atlas of Living. "Eucalyptus". bie.ala.org.au. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  17. ^ "Bosisto's Wool & Delicates | Bosisto's". www.bosistos.com.au. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  18. ^ "Earth Choice Wool and Delicates Wash | Wool Detergent". Natures Organics. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  19. ^ "Eucalyptus wool & delicates - Laundry". shop.ecostore.com.au. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  20. ^ "Eucalyptus Woolwash – Aimix Chemicals". Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  21. ^ "WOOL WASH Speciality Laundry Care | Peerless Jal". www.peerlessjal.com.au. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  22. ^ "Softly – Pental". www.pental.com.au. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  23. ^ "Coles Eucalyptus Wool Wash".
  24. ^ "Abode Cleaning Products Wool Wash Eucalyptus 1L". Buy Organics Online. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  25. ^ "Ecologic Eucalyptus Wool Wash ~ 1lt | Wholesome Hub". www.wholesomehub.net.au. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  26. ^ "History of Eucalyptus Oil". www.eucalyptusoil.com. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  27. ^ Coppen, ed, John (2002). Eucalyptus: The Genus Eucalyptus. Taylor & Francis. p. 198. ISBN 9780367396183.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  28. ^ Darben, T; Cominos, B; Lee, CT (1998). "Topical eucalyptus oil poisoning". The Australasian Journal of Dermatology. 39 (4): 265–7. doi:10.1111/j.1440-0960.1998.tb01488.x. PMID 9838728.
  29. ^ Hindle, R.C. (1994). "Eucalyptus oil ingestion". New Zealand Medical Journal: 185–186.
  30. ^ Foggie, WE (1911). "Eucalyptus Oil Poisoning". British Medical Journal. 1 (2616): 359–360. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.2616.359. PMC 2332914. PMID 20765463.
  31. ^ Snopes, Are essential oils dangerous to cats?, Jan. 7 2018
  32. ^ Low, T., Bush Medicine, A Pharmacopeia of Natural Remedies, Angus & Robertson, p. 85, 1990.
  33. ^ Barr, A., Chapman, J., Smith, N., Beveridge, M., Traditional Bush Medicines, An Aboriginal Pharmacopoeia, Greenhouse Publications, pp. 116–117, 1988, ISBN 086436167X
  34. ^ Maiden, J.H., The Forest Flora of New South Wales, vol. 4, Government Printer, Sydney, 1922.
  35. ^ Copy of letter received by Dr Anthony Hamiltion, from Dennis Considen, 18 November 1788, and sent onto Joseph Banks.
  36. ^ Lassak, E.V., & McCarthy, T., Australian Medicinal Plants, Methuen Australia, 1983, p. 15, ISBN 0-454-00438-9.
  37. ^ White, J., Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales, 1790
  38. ^ Grieve, M.,(author) & Leyel, C.F., (ed), A Modern Herbal, Jonathon Cape, 1931, p. 287.
  39. ^ Boland, D.J., Brophy, J.J., and A.P.N. House, Eucalyptus Leaf Oils, 1991, p. 6 ISBN 0-909605-69-6
  40. ^ Maiden, J.H., The Useful Native Plants of Australia, pp. 255, 1889
  41. ^ Amy Groch (2015). "Wellsford State Forest" (PDF).
  42. ^ Moulds, F. R. (1991). The Dynamic Forest – A History of Forestry and Forest Industries in Victoria. Lynedoch Publications. Richmond, Australia. pp. 232pp. ISBN 0646062654.
  43. ^ The British Pharmacopoeia Secretariat (2009). "Index, BP 2009" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 April 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2009.

Further readingEdit

  • Boland, D.J., Brophy, J.J., and A.P.N. House, Eucalyptus Leaf Oils, 1991, ISBN 0-909605-69-6
  • FAO Corporate Document Repository, Flavours and fragrances of plant origin

External linksEdit