An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile (easily evaporated at normal temperatures) chemical compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils, aetheroleum, or simply as the oil of the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove. An essential oil is essential in the sense that it contains the essence of the plant's fragrance—the characteristic fragrance of the plant from which it is derived.[1] The term "essential" used here does not mean indispensable or usable by the human body, as with the terms essential amino acid or essential fatty acid, which are so called because they are nutritionally required by a living organism.[2]

Essential oils are generally extracted by distillation, often by using steam. Other processes include expression, solvent extraction, sfumatura, absolute oil extraction, resin tapping, wax embedding, and cold pressing. They are used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps, air fresheners and other products, for flavoring food and drink, and for adding scents to incense and household cleaning products.

Essential oils are often used for aromatherapy, a form of alternative medicine in which healing effects are ascribed to aromatic compounds. Aromatherapy may be useful to induce relaxation, but there is not sufficient evidence that essential oils can effectively treat any condition.[3] Improper use of essential oils may cause harm including allergic reactions, inflammation and skin irritation. Children may be particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of improper use.[4][5] Essential oils can be poisonous if ingested or absorbed through the skin.[5]

Production edit

Distillation edit

Most common essential oils such as lavender, peppermint, tea tree oil, patchouli, and eucalyptus are distilled. Raw plant material, consisting of the flowers, leaves, wood, bark, roots, seeds, or peel, is put into an alembic (distillation apparatus) over water. As the water is heated, the steam passes through the plant material, vaporizing the volatile compounds. The vapors flow through a coil, where they condense back to liquid, which is then collected in the receiving vessel.

Most oils are distilled in a single process. One exception is ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata) which is purified through a fractional distillation.

The recondensed water is referred to as a hydrosol, hydrolat, herbal distillate, or plant water essence, which may be sold as another fragrant product. Hydrosols include rose water, lavender water, lemon balm, clary sage, and orange blossom water.

Expression edit

Most citrus peel oils are expressed mechanically or cold-pressed (similar to olive oil extraction).[6] Due to the relatively large quantities of oil in citrus peel and low cost to grow and harvest the raw materials, citrus-fruit oils are cheaper than most other essential oils. Lemon or sweet orange oils are obtained as byproducts of the citrus industry.

Before the discovery of distillation, all essential oils were extracted by pressing.[7]

Solvent extraction edit

Most flowers contain too little volatile oil to undergo expression, but their chemical components are too delicate and easily denatured by the high heat used in steam distillation. Instead, a solvent such as hexane or supercritical carbon dioxide is used to extract the oils.[8] Extracts from hexane and other hydrophobic solvents are called concretes, which are a mixture of essential oil, waxes, resins, and other lipophilic (oil-soluble) plant material.

Although highly fragrant, concretes contain large quantities of non-fragrant waxes and resins. Often, another solvent, such as ethyl alcohol, is used to extract the fragrant oil from the concrete. The alcohol solution is chilled to −18 °C (0 °F) for more than 48 hours which causes the waxes and lipids to precipitate out. The precipitates are then filtered out and the ethanol is removed from the remaining solution by evaporation, vacuum purge, or both, leaving behind the absolute.

Supercritical carbon dioxide is used as a solvent in supercritical fluid extraction. This method can avoid petrochemical residues in the product and the loss of some "top notes" when steam distillation is used. It does not yield an absolute directly. The supercritical carbon dioxide will extract both the waxes and the essential oils that make up the concrete. Subsequent processing with liquid carbon dioxide, achieved in the same extractor by merely lowering the extraction temperature, will separate the waxes from the essential oils. This lower temperature process prevents the decomposition and denaturing of compounds. When the extraction is complete, the pressure is reduced to ambient and the carbon dioxide reverts to a gas, leaving no residue.

Production quantities edit

Estimates of total production of essential oils are difficult to obtain. One estimate, compiled from data in 1989, 1990, and 1994 from various sources, gives the following total production, in tonnes, of essential oils for which more than 1,000 tonnes were produced.[9]

Oil Tonnes
Sweet orange 12,000
Mentha arvensis 4,800
Peppermint 3,200
Cedarwood 2,600
Lemon 2,300
Eucalyptus globulus 2,070
Litsea cubeba 2,000
Clove (leaf) 2,000
Spearmint 1,300

Uses and cautions edit

Taken by mouth, many essential oils can be dangerous in high concentrations. Typical effects begin with a burning feeling, followed by salivation.[10] Different essential oils may have drastically different pharmacology. Some act as local anesthetic counterirritants and, thereby, exert an antitussive (cough suppressing) effect.[10][11] Many essential oils, particularly tea tree oil, may cause contact dermatitis.[12][13][14][15] Menthol and some others produce a feeling of cold followed by a sense of burning.

In Australia essential oils (mainly eucalyptus) have been increasingly causing cases of poisoning, mostly of children. In the period 2014–2018 there were 4,412 poisoning incidents reported in New South Wales.[16]

Use in aromatherapy edit

Essential oils are used in aromatherapy as part of, for example, essential oil diffusers.[17]

Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine in which healing effects are ascribed to the aromatic compounds in essential oils and other plant extracts. Aromatherapy may be useful to induce relaxation, but there is not sufficient evidence that essential oils can effectively treat any condition.[3] Scientific research indicates that essential oils cannot treat or cure any chronic disease or other illnesses.[3] Much of the research on the use of essential oils for health purposes has serious methodological errors. In a systemic review of 201 published studies on essential oils as alternative medicines, only 10 were found to be of acceptable methodological quality, and even these 10 were still weak in reference to scientific standards.[3] Use of essential oils may cause harm including allergic reactions and skin irritation; After receiving a facial at an all-natural salon, a person experienced severe skin irritation, which highlighted the potential dangers of using "clean" beauty products marketed as being made from natural ingredients. This incident underscores the misconception that natural compounds are always safe, revealing a growing awareness within the beauty industry about the risks associated with essential oils, which can lead to allergic reactions and skin damage;[18] there has been at least one case of death.[4]

Use as pesticide edit

Research has shown that some essential oils have potential as a natural pesticide. In case studies, certain oils have been shown to have a variety of deterring effects on pests, specifically insects and select arthropods.[19] These effects may include repelling, inhibiting digestion, stunting growth,[20] decreasing rate of reproduction, or death of pests that consume the oil. However, the molecules within the oils that cause these effects are normally non-toxic for mammals. These specific actions of the molecules allow for widespread use of these "green" pesticides without harmful effects to anything else other than pests.[21] Essential oils that have been investigated include rose, lemon grass, lavender, thyme, peppermint, basil, cedarwood, and eucalyptus.[22]

Although they may not be the perfect replacement for all synthetic pesticides, essential oils have prospects for crop or indoor plant protection, urban pest control,[23] and marketed insect repellents, such as bug spray. Certain essential oils have been shown in studies to be comparable, if not exceeding, in effectiveness to DEET, which is currently marketed as the most effective mosquito repellent. Although essential oils are effective as pesticides when first applied in uses such as mosquito repellent applied to the skin, it is only effective in the vapor stage. Since this stage is relatively short-lived, creams and polymer mixtures are used in order to elongate the vapor period of effective repellency.[19]

In any form, using essential oils as green pesticides rather than synthetic pesticides has ecological benefits such as decreased residual actions.[22] In addition, increased use of essential oils as pest control could have not only ecological, but economical benefits as the essential oil market diversifies[21] and popularity increases among organic farmers and environmentally conscious consumers.[20] As of 2012 some EOs are authorized, and in use, in the European Union: Melaleuca oil as a fungicide, citronella oil as a herbicide, Syzygium aromaticum oil as a fungicide and bactericide, Mentha spicata oil as a plant growth regulator; Citrus sinensis oil (only in France) for Bemisia tabaci on Cucurbita pepo and Trialeurodes vaporariorum on Solanum lycopersicum; and approvals for oils of Thymus, C. sinensis, and Tagetes as insecticides are pending.[20]

Use in food edit

In relation with their food applications, although these oils have been used throughout history as food preservatives, it was in the 20th century when EOs were considered as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).[24]

GRAS substances according to the FDA[25]

Common name Botanical name of plant source
Alfalfa Medicago sativa L.
Allspice Pimenta officinalis Lindl.
Bitter almond, free from cyanide[26] Prunus amygdalus Batsch, Prunus armeniaca L., or Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.
Ambrette (seed) Hibiscus moschatus Moench.
Angelica root Angelica archangelica L.
Angelica seed
Angelica stem
Angostura (cusparia bark) Galipea officinalis Hancock, Angostura trifoliata
Anise Pimpinella anisum L.
Asafetida Ferula assa-foetida L. and related spp. of Ferula
Balm (lemon balm) Melissa officinalis L.
Balsam of Peru Myroxylon pereirae Klotzsch.
Basil Ocimum basilicum L.
Bay leaves Laurus nobilis L.
Bay (myrcia oil) Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J. W. Moore.
Bergamot (bergamot orange) Citrus aurantium L. subsp. bergamia Wright et Arn.
Bitter almond (free from prussic acid) Prunus amygdalus Batsch, Prunus armeniaca L., or Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.
Bois de rose Aniba rosaeodora Ducke.
Cacao Theobroma cacao L.
Camomile (chamomile) flowers, German or Hungarian Matricaria chamomilla L.
Camomile (chamomile) flowers, Roman or English Anthemis nobilis L.
Cananga Cananga odorata Hook. f. and Thoms.
Capsicum Capsicum frutescens L. and Capsicum annuum L.
Caraway Carum carvi L.
Cardamom seed (cardamon) Elettaria cardamomum Maton.
Carob bean Ceratonia siliqua L.
Carrot Daucus carota L.
Cascarilla bark Croton eluteria Benn.
Cassia bark, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume.
Cassia bark, Padang or Batavia Cinnamomum burmanni Blume.
Cassia bark, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees.
Celery seed Apium graveolens L.
Cherry, wild, bark Prunus serotina Ehrh.
Chervil Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm.
Chicory Cichorium intybus L.
Cinnamon bark, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees.
Cinnamon bark, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume.
Cinnamon bark, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees.
Cinnamon leaf, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees.
Cinnamon leaf, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume.
Cinnamon leaf, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees.
Citronella Cymbopogon nardus Rendle.
Citrus peels Citrus spp.
Clary (clary sage) Salvia sclarea L.
Clover Trifolium spp.
Coca (decocainized) Erythroxylum coca Lam. and other spp. of Erythroxylum
Coffee Coffea spp.
Cola nut Cola acuminata Schott and Endl., and other spp. of Cola
Coriander Coriandrum sativum L.
Cumin (cummin) Cuminum cyminum L.
Curaçao orange peel (orange, bitter peel) Citrus aurantium L.
Cusparia bark Galipea officinalis Hancock
Dandelion Taraxacum officinale Weber and Taraxacum laevigatum DC.
Dandelion root
Dog grass (quackgrass, triticum) Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.
Elder flowers Sambucus canadensis L. and Sambucus nigra I.
Estragole (esdragol, esdragon, tarragon) Artemisia dracunculus L.
Estragon (tarragon)
Fennel, sweet Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
Galanga (galangal) Alpinia officinarum Hance.
Geranium Pelargonium spp.
Geranium, East Indian Cymbopogon martini Stapf.
Geranium, rose Pelargonium graveolens L'Her.
Ginger Zingiber officinale Rosc.
Grapefruit Citrus paradisi Macf.
Guava Psidium spp.
Hickory bark Carya spp.
Horehound (hoarhound) Marrubium vulgare L.
Hops Humulus lupulus L.
Horsemint Monarda punctata L.
Hyssop Hyssopus officinalis L.
Immortelle Helichrysum augustifolium DC.
Jasmine Jasminum officinale L. and other spp. of Jasminum
Juniper (berries) Juniperus communis L.
Kola nut Cola acuminata Schott and Endl., and other spp. of Cola
Laurel berries Laurus nobilis L.
Laurel leaves Laurus spp.
Lavender Lavandula officinalis Chaix
Lavender, spike Lavandula latifolia Vill.
Lavandin Hybrids between Lavandula officinalis Chaix and Lavandula latifolin Vill.
Lemon Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.
Lemon balm (see balm) Melissa officinalis L.
Lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus DC. and Cymbopogon lexuosus Stapf.
Lemon peel Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.
Lime Citrus aurantifolia Swingle.
Linden flowers Tilia spp.
Locust bean Ceratonia siliqua L,
Lupulin Humulus lupulus L.
Mace Myristica fragrans Houtt.
Mandarin Citrus reticulata Blanco.
Marjoram, sweet Majorana hortensis Moench.
Mate, yerba Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.
Melissa (see balm)
Menthol Mentha spp.
Menthyl acetate
Molasses (extract) Saccharum officinarum L.
Mustard Brassica spp.
Naringin Citrus paradisi Macf.
Neroli, bigarade Citrus aurantium L.
Nutmeg Myristica fragrans Houtt.
Onion Allium cepa L.
Orange, bitter, flowers Citrus aurantium L.
Orange, bitter, peel
Orange leaf Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck.
Orange, sweet
Orange, sweet, flowers
Orange, sweet, peel
Origanum Origanum spp.
Palmarosa Cymbopogon martini Stapf.
Paprika Capsicum annuum L.
Parsley Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Mansf.
Pepper, black Piper nigrum L.
Pepper, white
Peppermint Mentha piperita L.
Peruvian balsam Myroxylon pereirae Klotzsch.
Petitgrain Citrus aurantium L.
Petitgrain lemon Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.
Petitgrain mandarin or tangerine Citrus reticulata Blanco.
Pimenta Pimenta officinalis Lindl.
Pimenta leaf
Pipsissewa leaves Chimaphila umbellata Nutt.
Pomegranate Punica granatum L.
Prickly ash bark Xanthoxylum (or Zanthoxylum) americanum Mill. or Xanthoxylum clava-herculis L.
Rose absolute Rosa alba L., Rosa centifolia L., Rosa damascena Mill., Rosa gallica L., and vars. of these spp.
Rose (otto of roses, attar of roses)
Rose buds
Rose flowers
Rose fruit (hips)
Rose geranium Pelargonium graveolens L'Her.
Rose leaves Rosa spp.
Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L.
Saffron Crocus sativus L.
Sage Salvia officinalis L.
Sage, Greek Salvia triloba L.
Sage, Spanish Salvia officinalis subsp. lavandulifolia (Vahl) Gams
St. John's bread Ceratonia siliqua L.
Savory, summer Satureia hortensis L.
Savory, winter Satureia montana L.
Schinus molle Schinus molle L.
Sloe berries (blackthorn berries) Prunus spinosa L.
Spearmint Mentha spicata L.
Spike lavender Lavandula latifolia Vill.
Tamarind Tamarindus indica L.
Tangerine Citrus reticulata Blanco.
Tarragon Artemisia dracunculus L.
Tea Thea sinensis L.
Thyme Thymus vulgaris L. and Thymus zygis var. gracilis Boiss.
Thyme, white
Thyme, wild or creeping Thymus serpyllum L.
Triticum (see dog grass) Elymus repens
Tuberose Polianthes tuberosa L.
Turmeric Curcuma longa L.
Vanilla Vanilla planifolia Andr. or Vanilla tahitensis J. W. Moore.
Violet flowers Viola odorata L.
Violet leaves
Violet leaves absolute
Wild cherry bark Prunus serotina Ehrh.
Ylang-ylang Cananga odorata Hook. f. and Thoms.
Zedoary bark Curcuma zedoaria Rosc.

As antimicrobials edit

The most commonly used essential oils with antimicrobial action are: β-caryophyllene, eugenol, eugenol acetate, carvacrol, linalool, thymol, geraniol, geranyl acetate, bicyclogermacrene, cinnamaldehyde, geranial, neral, 1,8-cineole, methyl chavicol, methyl cinnamate, methyl eugenol, camphor, α-thujone, viridiflorol, limonene, (Z)-linalool oxide, α-pinene, p-cymene, (E)-caryophyllene, γ-terpinene.[27]

Some essential oils are effective antimicrobials and have been evaluated for food incorporation in vitro. However, actual deployment is rare because much higher concentrations are required in real foods. Some or all of this lower effectiveness is due to large differences between culture medium and foods in chemistry (especially lipid content), viscosity, and duration of inoculation/storage.[27]

Dilution edit

Essential oils are usually lipophilic (literally: "oil-loving") compounds that are immiscible (not miscible) with water. They can be diluted in solvents like pure ethanol and polyethylene glycol.[citation needed]

Raw materials edit

Essential oils are derived from sections of plants. Some plants, like the bitter orange, are sources of several types of essential oil.


Balsam of Peru edit

Balsam of Peru, an essential oil derived from Myroxylon plants, is used in food and drink for flavoring, in perfumes and toiletries for fragrance, and in animal care products.[28] However, national and international surveys identified balsam of Peru among the "top five" allergens most commonly causing patch test allergic reactions in people referred to dermatology clinics.[29][30][31]

Garlic oil edit

Garlic oil is an essential oil derived from garlic.[32]

Eucalyptus oil edit

Most eucalyptus oil on the market is produced from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus. Steam-distilled eucalyptus oil is used throughout Asia, Africa, Latin America and South America as a primary cleaning/disinfecting agent added to soaped mop and countertop cleaning solutions; it also possesses insect and limited vermin control properties.[33] Note, however, there are hundreds of species of eucalyptus, and perhaps some dozens are used to various extents as sources of essential oils. Not only do the products of different species differ greatly in characteristics and effects, but also the products of the very same tree can vary grossly.[34]

Lavender oil edit

Lavender essential oil sold at a market in France

Lavender oil has long been used in the production of perfume.[35] However, studies have shown it can be estrogenic and antiandrogenic, causing problems for prepubescent boys and pregnant women, in particular.[36] Lavender essential oil is also used as an insect repellent.[37]

Rose oil edit

Rose oil is produced from the petals of Rosa damascena and Rosa centifolia. Steam-distilled rose oil is known as "rose otto", while the solvent extracted product is known as "rose absolute".

Toxicity edit

The potential toxicity of essential oil is related to its level or grade of purity, and to the toxicity of specific chemical components of the oil.[5] Many essential oils are designed exclusively for their aroma-therapeutic quality; these essential oils generally should not be applied directly to the skin in their undiluted form.[5] Some can cause severe irritation, provoke an allergic reaction and, over time, prove toxic to the liver. If ingested or rubbed into the skin, essential oils can be highly poisonous, causing confusion, choking, loss of muscle coordination, difficulty in breathing, pneumonia, seizures, and possibly severe allergic reactions or coma.[5]

Some essential oils, including many of the citrus peel oils, are photosensitizers, increasing vulnerability of the skin to sunlight.[38]

Industrial users of essential oils should consult the safety data sheets to determine the hazards and handling requirements of particular oils.[5] Even certain therapeutic-grade oils can pose potential threats to individuals with epilepsy or pregnant women.

Essential oil use in children can pose a danger when misused because of their thin skin and immature livers. This might cause them to be more susceptible to toxic effects than adults.[5]

Flammability edit

The flash point of each essential oil is different. Many of the common essential oils, such as tea tree, lavender, and citrus oils, are classed as Class 3 Flammable Liquids, as they have a flash point of 50–60 °C.

Gynecomastia edit

Estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity have been reported by in vitro study of tea tree oil and lavender essential oils. Two published sets of case reports suggest that lavender oil may be implicated in some cases of gynecomastia, an abnormal breast tissue growth in prepubescent boys.[39][40] The European Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety dismissed the claims against tea tree oil as implausible, but did not comment on lavender oil.[41] In 2018, a BBC report on a study stated that tea tree and lavender oils contain eight substances that when tested in tissue culture experiments, increasing the level of estrogen and decreasing the level of testosterone. Some of the substances are found in "at least 65 other essential oils". The study did not include animal or human testing.[42]

Handling edit

Exposure to essential oils may cause contact dermatitis.[13][14][15] Essential oils can be aggressive toward rubbers and plastics, so care must be taken in choosing the correct handling equipment. Glass syringes are often used, but have coarse volumetric graduations. Chemistry syringes are ideal, as they resist essential oils, are long enough to enter deep vessels, and have fine graduations, facilitating quality control. Unlike traditional pipettes, which have difficulty handling viscous fluids, the chemistry syringe, also known as a positive displacement pipette, has a seal and piston arrangement which slides inside the pipette, wiping the essential oil off the pipette wall.

Ingestion edit

Some essential oils qualify as GRAS flavoring agents for use in foods, beverages, and confectioneries according to strict good manufacturing practice and flavorist standards.[25] Pharmacopoeia standards for medicinal oils should be heeded. Some oils can be toxic to some domestic animals, cats in particular.[43] The internal use of essential oils can pose hazards to pregnant women, as some can be abortifacients in dose 0.5–10 mL, and thus should not be used during pregnancy.[citation needed]

Pesticide residues edit

Concern about pesticide residues in essential oils, particularly those used therapeutically, means many practitioners of aromatherapy buy organically produced oils. Not only are pesticides present in trace quantities, but also the oils themselves are used in tiny quantities and usually in high dilutions. Where there is a concern about pesticide residues in food essential oils, such as mint or orange oils, the proper criterion is not solely whether the material is organically produced, but whether it meets the government standards based on actual analysis of its pesticide content.[44]

Pregnancy edit

Some essential oils may contain impurities and additives that may be harmful to pregnant women.[45] Certain essential oils are safe to use during pregnancy, but care must be taken when selecting quality and brand. Sensitivity to certain smells may cause pregnant women to have adverse side effects with essential oil use, such as headache, vertigo, and nausea. Pregnant women often report an abnormal sensitivity to smells and taste,[46] and essential oils can cause irritation and nausea when ingested.[5]

Toxicology edit

The following table lists the LD50 or median lethal dose for common oils; this is the dose required to kill half the members of a tested animal population. LD50 is intended as a guideline only, and reported values can vary widely due to differences in tested species and testing conditions.[47]

Common Name Oral LD50 Dermal LD50 Notes
Neem 14 g/kg >2 g/kg
Lemon myrtle 2.43 g/kg 2.25 g/kg
Frankincense >5 g/kg >5 g/kg Boswellia carterii
Frankincense >2 g/kg >2 g/kg Boswellia sacra
Indian frankincense >2 g/kg >2 g/kg Boswellia serrata
Ylang-ylang >5 g/kg >5 g/kg
Cedarwood >5 g/kg >5 g/kg
Roman chamomile >5 g/kg >5 g/kg
White camphor >5 g/kg >5 g/kg Cinnamomum camphora, extracted from leaves
Yellow camphor 3.73 g/kg >5 g/kg Cinnamomum camphora, extracted from bark
Hot oil 3.80 g/kg >5 g/kg Cinnamomum camphora, oil extracted from leaves
Cassia 2.80 g/kg 0.32 g/kg

Standardization of derived products edit

In 2002, ISO published ISO 4720 in which the botanical names of the relevant plants are standardized.[48] The rest of the standards with regards to this topic can be found in the section of ICS 71.100.60 [49]

History edit

The resins of aromatics and plant extracts were retained to produce traditional medicines and scented preparations, such as perfumes and incense, including frankincense, myrrh, cedarwood, juniper berry and cinnamon in ancient Egypt may have contained essential oils.[50][51] In 1923, when archaeologists opened Pharaoh Tutankhamun’s tomb, they found 50 alabaster jars of essential oils.[51][dubious ]

Essential oils have been used in folk medicine over centuries. The Persian physician Ibn Sina, known as Avicenna in Europe, was first to derive the fragrance of flowers from distillation,[52] while the earliest recorded mention of the techniques and methods used to produce essential oils may be Ibn al-Baitar (1188–1248), an Arab Al-Andalusian (Muslim Spain) physician, pharmacist and chemist.[53]

Rather than refer to essential oils themselves, modern works typically discuss specific chemical compounds of which the essential oils are composed, such as referring to methyl salicylate rather than "oil of wintergreen".[54][55]

Essential oils are used in aromatherapy, a branch of alternative medicine that uses essential oils and other aromatic compounds.[56] Oils are volatilized, diluted in a carrier oil and used in massage, diffused in the air by a nebulizer or diffuser, heated over a candle flame, or burned as incense.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "essential oil". Oxford English Dictionary (online, American English ed.). Archived from the original on 2014-08-09. Retrieved 2014-07-21.
  2. ^ Reeds PJ (2000). "Dispensable and indispensable amino acids for humans". The Journal of Nutrition. 130 (7): 1835S–40S. doi:10.1093/jn/130.7.1835S. PMID 10867060.
  3. ^ a b c d Lee MS, Choi JC (2012). "Aromatherapy for health care: an overview of systematic reviews". Maturitas. 3 (71): 257–260. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.12.018. PMID 22285469.
  4. ^ a b Posadzki P, Alotaibi A, Ernst E (2012). "Adverse effects of aromatherapy: A systematic review of case reports and case series". The International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine. 24 (3): 147–61. doi:10.3233/JRS-2012-0568. PMID 22936057.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Essential oils: Poisonous when misused". US National Capital Poison Center. Retrieved 2017-12-01.
  6. ^ Shutes J. "How Are Essential Oils Extracted?". NAHA – National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy. Archived from the original on 11 June 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  7. ^ Ryman D (1984). The Aromatherapy Handbook: The Secret Healing Power Of Essential Oils. Century Publishing CO. Ltd. pp. Chapter 3. ISBN 978-0-85207-215-8.
  8. ^ Aizpurua-Olaizola O, Ormazabal M, Vallejo A, Olivares M, Navarro P, Etxebarria N, Usobiaga A (2015-01-01). "Optimization of supercritical fluid consecutive extractions of fatty acids and polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes". Journal of Food Science. 80 (1): E101–107. doi:10.1111/1750-3841.12715. ISSN 1750-3841. PMID 25471637.
  9. ^ "ISO TC 54 Business Plan – Essential oils" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-09-14. It is unclear from the source what period of time the quoted figures include.
  10. ^ a b Sapeika N (1963). Actions and Uses of Drugs. A.A. Balkema.[page needed]
  11. ^ Haneke KE (February 2002), Turpentine (Turpentine Oil, Wood Turpentine, Sulfate Turpentine, Sulfite Turpentine) [8006-64-2]: Review of Toxicological Literature (PDF), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences[page needed]
  12. ^ Larson D, Jacob SE (2012). "Tea Tree Oil". Dermatitis. 23 (1): 48–9. doi:10.1097/DER.0b013e31823e202d. PMID 22653070.
  13. ^ a b Trattner A, David M, Lazarov A (2008). "Occupational contact dermatitis due to essential oils". Contact Dermatitis. 58 (5): 282–4. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.2007.01275.x. PMID 18416758. S2CID 10674102.
  14. ^ a b Bleasel N, Tate B, Rademaker M (2002). "Allergic contact dermatitis following exposure to essential oils". Australasian Journal of Dermatology. 43 (3): 211–3. doi:10.1046/j.1440-0960.2002.00598.x. PMID 12121401. S2CID 46674505.
  15. ^ a b Isaksson M, Brandão FM, Bruze M, Goossens A (2000). "Short Communications". Contact Dermatitis. 43 (1): 41–2. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0536.2000.043001041.x. PMID 10902588. S2CID 221576846.
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Further reading edit

  • Baser, K.H.C., G. Buchbauer (2010). Handbook of Essential Oils: Science, Technology and Applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, London, New York. ISBN 978-1-4200-6315-8.
  • Schnaubelt, Kurt (1999). Advanced Aromatherapy: The Science of Essential Oil Therapy. Healing Arts Press. ISBN 978-0-89281-743-6.
  • Sellar, Wanda (2001). The Directory of Essential Oils (Reprint ed.). Essex: The C.W. Daniel Company, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-85207-346-9.
  • Tisserand, Robert (1995). Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals. Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-443-05260-6.
  • Rimal V, Shishodia S, Srivastava PK, Gupta S, Mallick AI (2021). "Synthesis and characterization of Indian essential oil Carbon Dots for interdisciplinary applications". Applied Nanoscience. 11 (4): 1225–1239. Bibcode:2021ApNan..11.1225R. doi:10.1007/s13204-021-01737-3. ISSN 2190-5509. S2CID 232145772.