List of largest giant sequoias
The giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) is the world's most massive tree, and arguably the largest living organism on Earth. It is neither the tallest extant species of tree (that distinction belongs to the coast redwood), nor is it the widest (that distinction belongs to the baobab tree or Montezuma cypresses), nor is it the longest-lived (that distinction belongs to the Great Basin bristlecone pine). However, with a height of 87.2 m (286 ft) or more, a circumference of 34.44 m (113.0 ft) or more, an estimated bole volume of up to 1,486.6 m3 (52,500 cu ft), and an estimated life span of 1800–2700 years, the giant sequoia is among the tallest, widest and longest-lived of all organisms on Earth.
Giant sequoias grow in well-defined groves in California mixed evergreen forests, along with other old-growth species such as California incense-cedar (Calocedrus decurrens). Because most of the neighboring trees are also quite large, it can be difficult to appreciate the size of an individual giant sequoia. The largest giant sequoias are as tall as a 26-story building, and the width of their bases can exceed that of a city street. They grow at such a rate as to produce roughly 1.13 m3 (40 cu ft) of wood each year, approximately equal to the volume of a 50-foot-tall tree one foot in diameter. This makes them among the fastest growing organisms on Earth, in terms of annual increase in mass.
Giant sequoias occur naturally in only one place on Earth—the western slope of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in California, on moist, unglaciated ridges and valleys at an altitude of 1,524 to 2,438 m (5,000 to 7,999 ft) above mean sea level. There are 65–75 groves of giant sequoias in the Sierra Nevada, depending upon the criteria used to define a grove. The northernmost of these groves is Placer County Grove in the Tahoe National Forest, Placer County, California, while the southernmost grove is Deer Creek Grove in the Giant Sequoia National Monument, Tulare County, California. The combined total area of all groves of giant sequoias is approximately 14,407 ha (35,600 acres).
Fire limits growthEdit
Giant sequoias are in many ways adapted to forest fires. Their bark is unusually fire resistant, and their cones will normally open immediately after a fire. However, fire is also the most serious damaging agent of giant sequoias. Seedlings and saplings are highly susceptible to death or serious injury by fire. Larger giant sequoias are more resistant to fire damage, due to their thick protective layer of nonresinous bark and elevated crowns. However, repeated fires over many centuries may penetrate the bark and destroy the vascular cambium. Nearly all of the larger trees have fire scars, many of which cover a large area of the base of the tree. Older trees are rarely killed by fire alone, but the resulting structural damage may predispose a tree to collapse and fire scars also provide entry for fungi which may cause root disease and heart rot. The resulting decayed wood is then more easily consumed by subsequent fires. The result of this cycle is further structural weakening of the tree, which may eventually lead to its collapse.
Fire scars are thought to be the main cause of dead tops. Although lightning strikes rarely kill mature trees, lightning sometimes knocks out large portions of crowns or ignites dead tops. The most common cause of death in mature giant sequoias is toppling, due to weakening of the roots and lower trunk by fire and decay. The extreme weight of the trees coupled with their shallow root systems contributes to this weakening. Other causative factors include wind, water-softened soils, undercutting by streams, and heavy snow loads in the crowns
The Washington tree, located in the Giant Forest Grove in Sequoia National Park provides a good example of the aforementioned phenomenon. This tree was the second largest tree in the world (only the General Sherman tree was larger) until just a few years ago. In September 2003, the tree lost a portion of its crown as a result of a fire caused by a lightning strike. This reduced its height from nearly 77.7 m (255 ft) to about 69.8 m (229 ft). The structurally weakened tree partially collapsed in January 2005, as the result of a heavy snow load in the remaining portion of its crown; it is now approximately 35 m (115 ft) tall.
As with other trees, measurement of giant sequoias is conducted using established dendrometric techniques. The most frequent measurements acquired in the field include the height of the tree, the horizontal dimension of its canopy, and its diameter at breast height (DBH). These measurements are then subjected to tree allometry, which employs certain mathematical and statistical principles to estimate the amount of timber volume in a tree.
Calculating the volume of a standing tree is the practical equivalent of calculating the volume of an irregular cone, and is subject to error for various reasons. This is partly due to technical difficulties in measurement, and variations in the shape of trees and their trunks. Measurements of trunk circumference are taken at only a few predetermined heights up the trunk, and assume that the trunk is circular in cross-section, and that taper between measurement points is even. Also, only the volume of the trunk (including the restored volume of basal fire scars) is taken into account, and not the volume of wood in the branches or roots. The volume measurements also do not take cavities into account. For example, while studying sequoia tree canopies in 1999, researchers discovered that the Washington tree in Giant Forest Grove was largely hollow.
List of largest giant sequoias by trunk volumeEdit
The following table is a list of the largest giant sequoias, all of which are located in California. The table is sorted by trunk volume, ignoring wood in the branches of the tree. Many sequoias cut down in the past were probably far larger, such as the Mother of the Forest.
giant sequoia that sustained heavy fire damage after its most recent volume estimate.
|1||General Sherman||Giant Forest Grove||83.79 m (274.9 ft)||31.27 m (102.6 ft)||9.97 m (32.7 ft)||1,486.86 m3 (52,508 cu ft)||Named after William Tecumseh Sherman.|||
|2[note 1]||General Grant||General Grant Grove||81.72 m (268.1 ft)||32.77 m (107.5 ft)||10.42 m (34.2 ft)||1,319.79 m3 (46,608 cu ft)[note 1]||Named after Ulysses S. Grant; designated as the "Nation's Christmas Tree" since 1926.|||
|3[note 1]||President||Giant Forest Grove||73.43 m (240.9 ft)||28.35 m (93.0 ft)||9.02 m (29.6 ft)||1,278.45 m3 (45,148 cu ft)[note 1]||Named after U.S. President Warren G. Harding.|||
|4||Lincoln||Giant Forest Grove||77.97 m (255.8 ft)||29.96 m (98.3 ft)||9.54 m (31.3 ft)||1,259.28 m3 (44,471 cu ft)||Named after Abraham Lincoln.|
|5||Stagg||Alder Creek Grove||74.07 m (243.0 ft)||33.22 m (109.0 ft)||10.58 m (34.7 ft)||1,205.08 m3 (42,557 cu ft)||Named after Amos Alonzo Stagg.|||
|6||Boole||Converse Basin Grove||81.69 m (268.0 ft)||34.44 m (113.0 ft)||10.97 m (36.0 ft)||1,202.67 m3 (42,472 cu ft)||Named after Franklin A. Boole. The tree has the largest footprint of any living giant sequoia.|||
|7||Genesis||Mountain Home Grove||77.11 m (253.0 ft)||26.0 m (85.3 ft)||8.29 m (27.2 ft)||1,186.39 m3 (41,897 cu ft)||Named after Genesis.|||
|8||Franklin||Giant Forest Grove||68.21 m (223.8 ft)||28.9 m (95 ft)||9.2 m (30 ft)||1,168.92 m3 (41,280 cu ft)||Named after Benjamin Franklin. Located near Washington.|
|9||King Arthur||Garfield Grove||82.39 m (270.3 ft)||31.76 m (104.2 ft)||10.12 m (33.2 ft)||1,151.25 m3 (40,656 cu ft)||Named after King Arthur.|
|10||Monroe||Giant Forest Grove||75.53 m (247.8 ft)||27.83 m (91.3 ft)||8.87 m (29.1 ft)||1,135.62 m3 (40,104 cu ft)||Named after James Monroe, located near Auto Log.|
|11||Robert E. Lee||General Grant Grove||77.63 m (254.7 ft)||26.91 m (88.3 ft)||8.56 m (28.1 ft)||1,135.56 m3 (40,102 cu ft)||Named after Robert E. Lee.|
|12||Floyd Otter||Garfield Grove||83.24 m (273.1 ft)||23.94 m (78.5 ft)||7.62 m (25.0 ft)||1,120.27 m3 (39,562 cu ft)||Named after Floyd Otter, a former manager of the Mountain Home Demonstration State Forest.|||
|13||John Adams||Giant Forest Grove||76.38 m (250.6 ft)||25.39 m (83.3 ft)||8.08 m (26.5 ft)||1,103.11 m3 (38,956 cu ft)||Named after John Adams, located near Cattle Cabin.|||
|14||Ishi Giant||Kennedy Grove||75.62 m (248.1 ft)||32.03 m (105.1 ft)||10.21 m (33.5 ft)||1,080.46 m3 (38,156 cu ft)||Lost significant trunk volume and over 8 m (26 ft) in height during the 2015 Rough Fire. New volume and height estimates needed to determine the current size of the tree.|||
|15||Column||Giant Forest Grove||74.31 m (243.8 ft)||28.35 m (93.0 ft)||9.02 m (29.6 ft)||1,056.08 m3 (37,295 cu ft)||Located near General Pershing.|||
|16||Summit Road||Mountain Home Grove||74.37 m (244.0 ft)||25.05 m (82.2 ft)||7.99 m (26.2 ft)||1,036.4 m3 (36,600 cu ft)||Named after a nearby road.|||
|17||Euclid||Mountain Home Grove||83.12 m (272.7 ft)||25.42 m (83.4 ft)||8.08 m (26.5 ft)||1,022.86 m3 (36,122 cu ft)||Named after Euclid.|||
|18||Washington||Mariposa Grove||71.93 m (236.0 ft)||29.17 m (95.7 ft)||6.25 m (20.5 ft)||1,016.6 m3 (35,900 cu ft)||The largest giant sequoia north of Boole. Named after George Washington. Not to be confused with the Washington tree of Giant Forest Grove.|||
|19||General Pershing||Giant Forest Grove||74.98 m (246.0 ft)||27.8 m (91 ft)||8.84 m (29.0 ft)||1,016.15 m3 (35,885 cu ft)||Named after John J. Pershing.|||
|20||Diamond||Atwell Mill Grove||87.17 m (286.0 ft)||29.05 m (95.3 ft)||9.24 m (30.3 ft)||999.36 m3 (35,292 cu ft)||Named for a large diamond-shaped scar present on the southeastern side of the trunk.|||
|21||Adam||Mountain Home Grove||75.41 m (247.4 ft)||28.71 m (94.2 ft)||9.14 m (30.0 ft)||991.57 m3 (35,017 cu ft)||Named after Adam.|||
|22||Roosevelt||Redwood Mountain Grove||79.25 m (260.0 ft)||24.38 m (80.0 ft)||7.77 m (25.5 ft)||991.46 m3 (35,013 cu ft)||Named after Theodore Roosevelt, located near Hart.|
|23||Nelder||Nelder Grove||81.14 m (266.2 ft)||27.43 m (90.0 ft)||8.72 m (28.6 ft)||990.89 m3 (34,993 cu ft)||Named after John A. Nelder.|||
|24||AD||Atwell Mill Grove||73.88 m (242.4 ft)||30.18 m (99.0 ft)||9.6 m (31 ft)||982.76 m3 (34,706 cu ft)||Situated just above Diamond, hence the name "AD".|||
|25||Hart||Redwood Mountain Grove||84.7 m (278 ft)||22.95 m (75.3 ft)||7.32 m (24.0 ft)||974.3 m3 (34,410 cu ft)||Named after Michael Hart, who discovered it.|||
|26||Grizzly Giant||Mariposa Grove||63.7 m (209 ft)||28.19 m (92.5 ft)||8.96 m (29.4 ft)||962.91 m3 (34,005 cu ft)||Originally named the "Grizzled Giant" by Galen Clark.|||
|27||Chief Sequoyah||Giant Forest Grove||69.56 m (228.2 ft)||27.55 m (90.4 ft)||8.78 m (28.8 ft)||951.7 m3 (33,610 cu ft)||Named after Sequoyah.|||
|28||Methuselah||Mountain Home Grove||63.34 m (207.8 ft)||29.2 m (96 ft)||6.25 m (20.5 ft)||931.54 m3 (32,897 cu ft)||Named after Methuselah.|
|29||Great Goshawk||Freeman Creek Grove||77.78 m (255.2 ft)||27.49 m (90.2 ft)||8.75 m (28.7 ft)||928.31 m3 (32,783 cu ft)||Named after the Northern goshawk, a hawk native to the Sierra Nevada.|
|30||Hamilton||Giant Forest Grove||72.69 m (238.5 ft)||25.18 m (82.6 ft)||8.02 m (26.3 ft)||928.31 m3 (32,783 cu ft)||Named after Alexander Hamilton.|
|31||Dean||Atwell Mill Grove||71.9 m (236 ft)||29.38 m (96.4 ft)||9.36 m (30.7 ft)||915.57 m3 (32,333 cu ft)|||
|32||Black Mountain Beauty||Black Mountain Grove||80.16 m (263.0 ft)||23.16 m (76.0 ft)||7.38 m (24.2 ft)||912.48 m3 (32,224 cu ft)||Also known as "Black Mountain Shaft". The tree lost significant volume after it burned during the 2017 Pier Fire. New volume estimate needed to determine the current volume of the tree.|||
|33||Packsaddle Giant||Packsaddle Grove||66.75 m (219.0 ft)||32.43 m (106.4 ft)||10.33 m (33.9 ft)||910.56 m3 (32,156 cu ft)||The largest giant sequoia south of Stagg. Named for being the largest tree of Packsaddle Grove.|
|34||Allen Russell||Mountain Home Grove||77.45 m (254.1 ft)||24.44 m (80.2 ft)||7.77 m (25.5 ft)||896.23 m3 (31,650 cu ft)||Named after Allen I. Russell, who from 1962 to 1990 was ranger of Balch Park.|||
|35||Cleveland||Giant Forest Grove||76.5 m (251 ft)||24.44 m (80.2 ft)||7.77 m (25.5 ft)||887.34 m3 (31,336 cu ft)||Named after Grover Cleveland.|||
|36||Dalton||Muir Grove||83.67 m (274.5 ft)||23.2 m (76 ft)||7.38 m (24.2 ft)||879.66 m3 (31,065 cu ft)|||
|37||Louis Agassiz||Calaveras Big Trees State Park||79.86 m (262.0 ft)||29.87 m (98.0 ft)||9.51 m (31.2 ft)||865.93 m3 (30,580 cu ft)||Named after Louis Agassiz.|||
|38||Near Ed by Ned||Giant Forest Grove||76.5 m (251 ft)||24.23 m (79.5 ft)||7.71 m (25.3 ft)||858.93 m3 (30,333 cu ft)||Located near 'Ed by Ned'.|||
|39||Evans||Evans Grove||70.84 m (232.4 ft)||23.62 m (77.5 ft)||7.53 m (24.7 ft)||856.07 m3 (30,232 cu ft)|
|40||Three Fingered Jack||Mountain Home Grove||73.15 m (240.0 ft)||25.15 m (82.5 ft)||8.02 m (26.3 ft)||852.88 m3 (30,119 cu ft)||Pinnacle of the tree resembles the fingers of a human hand.|||
|41||Patriarch||McIntyre Grove||53.8 m (177 ft)||22.13 m (72.6 ft)||7.04 m (23.1 ft)||850.07 m3 (30,020 cu ft)|
|42||Red Chief||Long Meadow Grove||74.68 m (245.0 ft)||24.57 m (80.6 ft)||7.83 m (25.7 ft)||813.34 m3 (28,723 cu ft)|
|43||Sentinel||Giant Forest Grove||78.52 m (257.6 ft)||24.08 m (79.0 ft)||7.65 m (25.1 ft)||790.04 m3 (27,900 cu ft)||Located in front of the Giant Forest Museum.|||
|44||Bull Buck||Nelder Grove||75.01 m (246.1 ft)||30.21 m (99.1 ft)||9.6 m (31 ft)||775.4 m3 (27,380 cu ft)||Name origin disputed, though the name itself means the "boss of the woods".|||
|45||Near Gutless||McIntyre Grove||76.84 m (252.1 ft)||23.04 m (75.6 ft)||7.35 m (24.1 ft)||757.11 m3 (26,737 cu ft)|
|46||Gutless Goliath||McIntyre Grove||83.85 m (275.1 ft)||20.73 m (68.0 ft)||6.58 m (21.6 ft)||751.7 m3 (26,550 cu ft)|
|47||Candelabra||Packsaddle Grove||62.64 m (205.5 ft)||745.89 m3 (26,341 cu ft)|
|48||Bannister||Freeman Creek Grove||59.44 m (195.0 ft)||31.55 m (103.5 ft)||10.03 m (32.9 ft)||739.07 m3 (26,100 cu ft)|
|49||Ghost||Packsaddle Grove||55.05 m (180.6 ft)||28.96 m (95.0 ft)||9.2 m (30 ft)||709.25 m3 (25,047 cu ft)|
- The trees Named "Franklin", "Column", "Monroe", "Hamilton" and "Adams" were Named by Wendell Flint and others. These five are now included on the official map of Giant Forest, where they are all situated.
- The Washington Tree was previously arguably the second largest tree with a volume of 1,354.96 m3 (47,850 cu ft) (although the upper half of its trunk was hollow, making the calculated volume debatable), but after losing the hollow upper half of its trunk in January 2005 following a fire, it is no longer of exceptional size.
- The Hazelwood Tree (not listed above) had a volume of 1,025.86 m3 (36,228 cu ft) before losing half its trunk in a lightning storm in 2002, if it were still at full size it would currently be the 17th largest giant sequoia on earth.
The nine largest treesEdit
- This table presents giant sequoias sorted by the volume of their trunks. In December 2012, Stephen Sillett announced a measurement of the President tree with a total of 1,529.11 m3 (54,000 cu ft) of wood and 254.85 m3 (9,000 cu ft) of wood in the branches. Ranked according to the total amount of wood in the tree, the General Sherman tree is first, the President tree is second, and the General Grant tree is third. General Sherman has 56.63 m3 (2,000 cu ft) more wood than the President tree.
- Martin, G (2005-02-08). "Giant sequoia getting shorter: Washington tree has lost 42.37 m (139.0 ft) to fire, winter storms". The San Francisco Chronicle. San Francisco. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
- United States Forest Service (2010). "Welcome to the Giant Sequoia National Monument". Sequoia National Forest. Porterville, California: Giant Sequoia National Monument, Sequoia National Forest, United States Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
- National Park Service (2010). "Mariposa Grove of Giant Sequoias". Plan Your Visit. Washington, DC: National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
- Martin, G (2006-09-07). "Eureka! New tallest living thing discovered". San Francisco Chronicle. San Francisco. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
- Earle, CJ (2011). "Sequoia sempervirens". The Gymnosperm Database. Olympia, Washington: self-published. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
- Earle, CJ (2011). "Pinus longaeva". The Gymnosperm Database. Olympia, Washington: self-published. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
- National Park Service (2009). "The Giant Sequoia: Forest Masterpiece". Sequoia and Kings Canyon: Plants. Washington, DC: National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
- Zinke, PJ; Stangenberger, AG (1994). Soil and Nutrient Element Aspects of Sequoiadendron Giganteum (General Technical Report PSW-151) (PDF) (Report). USDA Forest Service. pp. 69–77. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
- Willard, D (1994). "The Natural Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron Giganteum) Groves of the Sierra Nevada, California-An Updated Annotated List" (PDF). USDA Forest Service. Retrieved 2011-08-19. Cite journal requires
- Schaffer, JP (1998). The Tahoe Sierra: a natural history guide to 112 hikes in the northern Sierra (1st ed.). Berkeley, California: Wilderness Press. pp. 138–42. ISBN 978-0-89997-220-6.
- National Geographic Magazine, December 2012
- Weatherspoon, C. Phillip (1990). "Sequoiadendron giganteum". In Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H. (eds.). Conifers. Silvics of North America. Washington, D.C.: United States Forest Service (USFS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 1 – via Southern Research Station (www.srs.fs.fed.us).
- Sillett, SC; Spickler, JC; Van Pelt, R (2001). "Crown structure of the world's second largest tree (abstract only)". Madroño. 47 (2): 127–33. ISSN 0024-9637.
- Block, M (2005-02-25). "Giant 'Washington Tree' Gets Smaller". NPR. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
- National Park Service (1997). "The General Sherman Tree". Sequoia National Park. Washington, DC: National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
- Flint, WD (2002). To Find the Biggest Tree (1st ed.). Three Rivers, California: Sequoia Natural History Association. ISBN 978-1-878441-09-6.
- "General Sherman Tree". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
- Stephenson, NL (2002). "Estimated Ages of Some Large Giant Sequoias: General Sherman Keeps Getting Younger". Sierra Nature Notes: the Online Journal of Natural History News in the Sierra Nevada. 2 (1). Archived from the original on 2012-03-23. Retrieved 2011-08-13.
- "General Grant Tree". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
- Fischer, D (2003-12-08). "Nation's Christmas tree aged 1,650 General Grant in Kings Canyon National Park no young whippersnapper". Oakland Tribune. Oakland, California. Archived from the original on 2012-11-05. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
- Cone, Tracie (2012-12-01). "Upon further review, giant sequoia tops a neighbor". Associated Press.
- Quammen, David. "Giant Sequoias". National Geographic.
- "Giant redwood dedicated to memory of late president". National Lumber Bulletin. September 7, 1923. p. 13.
- United States Forest Service (2010). "Alder Creek Grove". Giant Sequoia Groves. Porterville, California: Giant Sequoia National Monument, Sequoia National Forest, United States Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
- "Boole Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- Flint, WD; Law, M (1988). "The Genesis Tree" (PDF). Mountain Home Demonstration State Forest Newsletter. 1988 (8): 1–8. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
- "Floyd Otter Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "The Largest Giant Sequoias by Trunk Volume" (PDF). National Park Service - Sequoia and Kings Canyon. December 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
- "Adams Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Ishi Giant Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Giant sequoias - long survivors of the forest - succumbing to climate-driven wildfires". SFChronicle.com. 2019-09-12. Retrieved 2019-11-17.
- "Column Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Summit Road Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Euclid Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Washington Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "General Pershing Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Diamond Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- Cook, NW; Dulitz, DJ (1979). "Measuring the Adam tree, largest Sierra redwood on the Mountain Home State Forest" (PDF). State Forest Notes. 73 (January): 1–5. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
- "Nelder Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Above Diamond Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Hart tree". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
- "Grizzly Giant Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Chief Sequoyah Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Dean Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Black Mountain Beauty Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Allen Russell Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Cleveland Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Dalton Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Louis Agassiz Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Near Ed by Ned Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Three Fingered Jack Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Sentinel Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Bull Buck Tree - Famous Redwoods". famousredwoods.com. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- Cook, LF (1955). The Giant Sequoias of California. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office.
- Dilsaver, LM; Tweed, WC (1990). Challenge of the big trees:a resource history of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (1st ed.). Three Rivers, California: Sequoia Natural History Association. ISBN 978-1-878441-00-3.
- Otter, FL; Dulitz, DJ; Otter, JI; Otter, MK (2007). The history of a giant sequoia forest: the story of Mountain Home Demonstration State Forest. Springville, California: self-published. ISBN 978-0-9614459-3-5.
- Swetnam, TW (1993). "Fire History and Climate Change in Giant Sequoia Groves (abstract)". Science. 262 (5135): 885–9. doi:10.1126/science.262.5135.885. PMID 17757357.