List of presidents of Vietnam

The President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Chủ tịch nước Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam), known as Chairman of the Council of State (Vietnamese: Chủ tịch Hội đồng Nhà nước) from 1981 to 1992, is the head of state of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Beside, the president is also the head of government with prime minister. Since Vietnam is a single-party state, the president is generally considered to hold the second highest position in the political system, after the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam. The president represents Vietnam internally and externally, supervises the work as well as preserving the stability of the national governmental system and safeguards the independence and territorial integrity of the country. The president appoints prime minister, vice-presidents, ministers and other officials with the consent of the National Assembly. The head of state is the de jure commander-in-chief of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces and Chairman of the Council for Defence and Security, an organ of the National Assembly. Since Vietnam is a one-party state, with the Communist Party of Vietnam being the sole party allowed by the constitution, all the presidents of the Democratic Republic and the Socialist Republic have been members of the party while holding office. The current President is Nguyễn Xuân Phúc, since 5 April 2021. He is also the former Prime Minister of Vietnam.

The modern office of the President of the Socialist Republic traces its lineage back to Hồ Chí Minh, the first President of the North Vietnam, and the office has no connection, or lineage, officially at least, to the head of state of the former South Vietnam (Nguyễn Hữu Thọ, a communist and the head of state of South Vietnam). Officially there have been 11 presidents, but there have, in total, been 12 presidents should the one of South Vietnam be counted.

Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam, 1945–76)Edit

Status
  Denotes Acting President
No.
[note 1]
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party
Officially In this state Took office Left office Time in office
President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
1 1   Hồ Chí Minh
(1890–1969)
2 September 1945 2 September 1969† 24 years Indochinese Communist Party
(until February 1951)
Worker's Party of Vietnam
(from February 1951)
  Huỳnh Thúc Kháng
(1876–1947)
29 May 1946 21 October 1946 145 days None
  Tôn Đức Thắng
(1888–1980)
2 September 1969 23 September 1969 21 days Worker's Party of Vietnam
2 2 23 September 1969 2 July 1976 6 years, 283 days

Republic of South Vietnam (1969–76)Edit

No.
[note 1]
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party
Officially In the state Took office Left office Time in office
Chairman of the Consultative Council of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam
1   Nguyễn Hữu Thọ
(1910–1996)
8 June 1969 2 July 1976 7 years, 24 days People's Revolutionary Party of Vietnam
(National Liberation Front)
(influenced by Worker's Party of Vietnam)

Socialist Republic of Vietnam (1976–present)Edit

Status
  Denotes Acting President
No.
[note 1]
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party
Officially In the state Took office Left office Time in office
President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
(2) 1   Tôn Đức Thắng
(1888–1980)
2 July 1976 30 March 1980† 3 years, 272 days Worker's Party of Vietnam
(until December 1976)
Communist Party of Vietnam
(from December 1976)
  Nguyễn Hữu Thọ
(1910–1996)
30 March 1980 4 July 1981 1 year, 96 days Communist Party of Vietnam
Chairman of the Council of State of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
3 2   Trường Chinh
(1907–1988)
4 July 1981 18 June 1987 5 years, 349 days Communist Party of Vietnam
4 3 Võ Chí Công
(1912–2011)
18 June 1987 22 September 1992 5 years, 96 days Communist Party of Vietnam
President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
5 4   Army general Lê Đức Anh
(1920–2019)
23 September 1992 24 September 1997 5 years, 1 day Communist Party of Vietnam
6 5   Trần Đức Lương
(1937–)
24 September 1997 27 June 2006
resignation
8 years, 276 days Communist Party of Vietnam
7 6 Nguyễn Minh Triết
(1942–)
27 June 2006 25 July 2011 5 years, 28 days Communist Party of Vietnam
8 7 Trương Tấn Sang
(1949–)
25 July 2011 2 April 2016 4 years, 252 days Communist Party of Vietnam
9 8 Police general Trần Đại Quang
(1956–2018)
2 April 2016 21 September 2018† 2 years, 172 days Communist Party of Vietnam
Đặng Thị Ngọc Thịnh
(1959–)
21 September 2018 23 October 2018 32 days Communist Party of Vietnam
10 9   Nguyễn Phú Trọng
(1944–)
23 October 2018 5 April 2021 2 years, 164 days Communist Party of Vietnam
11 10 Nguyễn Xuân Phúc
(1954–)
5 April 2021 Incumbent 1 year, 47 days Communist Party of Vietnam

TimelineEdit

Nguyễn Xuân PhúcNguyễn Phú TrọngĐặng Thị Ngọc ThịnhTrần Đại QuangTrương Tấn SangNguyễn Minh TriếtTrần Đức LươngLê Đức AnhVõ Chí CôngTrường ChinhNguyễn Hữu ThọTôn Đức ThắngHuỳnh Thúc KhángHồ Chí Minh

List of presidents by length of tenureEdit

Rank No. Name Party Length of term
1 1 Hồ Chí Minh ICP/WPV 24 years
2 2 Tôn Đức Thắng WPV/CPV 10 years, 210 days
3 6 Trần Đức Lương CPV 8 years, 276 days
4 3 Trường Chinh CPV 5 years, 349 days
5 4 Võ Chí Công CPV 5 years, 97 days
6 7 Nguyễn Minh Triết CPV 5 years, 28 days
7 5 Lê Đức Anh CPV 5 years
8 8 Trương Tấn Sang CPV 4 years, 252 days
9 9 Trần Đại Quang CPV 2 years, 172 days
10 10 Nguyễn Phú Trọng CPV 2 years, 164 days
11 Nguyễn Hữu Thọ CPV 1 year, 96 days
12 11 Nguyễn Xuân Phúc CPV 1 year, 47 days
13 Huỳnh Thúc Kháng None 145 days
14 Đặng Thị Ngọc Thịnh CPV 32 days

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

1.^ These numbers are official. The "—" denotes acting head of state. The first column shows how many presidents there have been in Vietnamese history, while the second show how many presidents there was in that state.

ReferencesEdit

BibliographyEdit

  • Koh, David (July–August 2008). "Leadership Changes at the 10th Congress of the Vietnamese Communist Party". Asian Survey. 48 (4): 650–672. doi:10.1525/as.2008.48.4.650. JSTOR 3738744.
  • Van, Canh Nguyen; Cooper, Earle (1983). Vietnam under Communism, 1975–1982. Hoover Press. ISBN 9780817978518.