List of political parties in China

China, officially the People's Republic of China, is a one-party state under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Despite this, eight minor parties officially exist alongside the CCP in a United Front similar to the popular fronts of former Cold War-era Eastern European countries such as the National Front of the German Democratic Republic. The CCP's CGTN wing officially states that the Communist Party acts as the ruling party but cooperates with the eight minor parties.[1]

Under the one country, two systems system, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, which were previously colonies of European powers, operate under a different political system to the rest of China. Currently, neither Hong Kong and Macau possess multi-party systems that were introduced just before the handover of the territories to China.[2]

Relationships with the Communist Party of ChinaEdit

In practice, only one political party holds effective power at the national level, namely the CPC. Its dominance is such that China is effectively a one-party state. The eight minor parties are part of the United Front and also take part in the political system, but they have limited power at national level.[3][4] The minor parties must accept the "leading role" of the CPC as a condition of their continued existence.[5] According to Human Rights Watch, these parties "play an advisory rather than an oppositional role".[6] The Chinese political system allows for the participation of some non-CPC members (independents) and members of minor parties in the National People's Congress (NPC), but they are vetted by the CPC. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China states in the preamble: "The system of the multi-party cooperation and political consultation led by the Communist Party of China will exist and develop for a long time to come."[7]

PartiesEdit

Institutional partiesEdit

Name
(abbreviation)
Date founded Existed Location founded Members Current leader Official
website
Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
中国共产党(中共)
23 July 1921 99 years, 353 days Shanghai French Concession 89,450,000 General Secretary
Xi Jinping
[8]
China Zhi Gong Party (CZGP)
中国致公党(致公党)
10 October 1925 95 years, 252 days Los Angeles, United States 48,000 Chairman
Prof. Wan Gang
[9]
Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party (CPWDP)
中国农工民主党(农工党)
9 August 1930 90 years, 314 days Shanghai, China 145,000 Chairman
Prof. Chen Zhu
[10]
China Democratic League (CDL)
中国民主同盟(民盟)
19 March 1941 80 years, 92 days Chongqing, China 282,000 Chairman
Prof. Ding Zhongli
[11]
Jiusan Society (JS)
九三学社
3 September 1945 75 years, 289 days Chongqing, China 167,218 Chairman
Prof. Wu Weihua
[12]
China National Democratic Construction Association (CNDCA)
中国民主建国会(民建)
16 December 1945 75 years, 185 days Chongqing, China 170,000 Chairman
Prof. Hao Mingjin
[13]
China Association for Promoting Democracy (CAPD)
中国民主促进会(民进)
30 December 1945 75 years, 171 days Shanghai, China 156,808 Chairman
Prof. Cai Dafeng
[14]
Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League (TDSGL)
台湾民主自治同盟(台盟)
12 November 1947 73 years, 219 days British Hong Kong 3,000 Chairwoman
Su Hui
[15]
Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang (RCCK)
中国国民党革命委员会(民革)
1 January 1948 73 years, 169 days British Hong Kong 127,930 Chairman
Prof. Wan Exiang
[16]

Suppressed partiesEdit

The following parties formed in China are (or have previously been) banned by the government:

Historical partiesEdit

 
Sun Yat-sen together with the members of the Singapore branch of the Tongmenghui

The Republic of China (ROC) was founded by the Kuomintang (KMT) leader Dr. Sun Yat-sen in 1912. The Kuomintang's prior revolutionary political group, the Revive China Society, was founded on 24 November 1894. It later merged with various other revolutionary groups to form the Tongmenghui in 1905. In August 1911, the Tongmenghui further merged with various other political parties in Beijing to form the KMT. In July 1914, the KMT re-organized itself as the Chinese Revolutionary Party in Tokyo, Japan. In 1919, the party officially renamed itself as Kuomintang of China, which literally translates to Chinese Nationalist Party.[27] It was China's first major political party. In 1921, the CCP was founded by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao in Shanghai as a study society and an informal network. Slowly, the CCP began to grow. These were the two major political parties in China during the time when the ROC ruled mainland China from 1911 to 1949.

During the Chinese Civil War, under the leadership of the CCP the People's Liberation Army defeated the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang in 1949. The Kuomintang had no choice but to leave mainland China and relocate to the island of Taiwan in 1945 from Japan, then fled there with the aim to retake mainland China and retained the name Republic of China even though the CCP claimed that it had ceased to exist after 1949.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ How does China’s political system work?, retrieved 2021-04-22
  2. ^ Buckley, Roger (1997). Hong Kong: The Road to 1997. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-46979-1.
  3. ^ Kesselman, Mark (2012-01-01). Introduction to Politics of the Developing World: Political Challenges and Changing Agendas. Cengage Learning. p. 324. ISBN 978-1-133-71258-9.
  4. ^ Liao, Xingmiu; Tsai, Wen-Hsuan (2019). "Clientelistic State Corporatism: The United Front Model of "Pairing-Up" in the Xi Jinping Era". China Review. 19 (1): 31–56. ISSN 1680-2012. JSTOR 26603249.
  5. ^ Tselichtchev, Ivan (2011-12-27). China Versus the West: The Global Power Shift of the 21st Century. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-82975-2. OCLC 883259659.
  6. ^ "China: Nipped In The Bud - Background". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2021-03-18.
  7. ^ "The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China". npc.gov.cn. 2007-11-15. Archived from the original on 2016-02-06. Retrieved 2018-01-05.
  8. ^ "Info". english.cpc.com.cn.[permanent dead link]
  9. ^ "Info". zg.org.cn. Archived from the original on 2017-09-11. Retrieved 2020-05-13.
  10. ^ "Info". ngd.org.cn. Archived from the original on 2017-09-19. Retrieved 2020-05-13.
  11. ^ "Info". dem-league.org.cn. Archived from the original on 2017-11-04. Retrieved 2020-05-13.
  12. ^ "Info". 93.org.cn. Archived from the original on 2018-08-03. Retrieved 2020-05-13.
  13. ^ "Info". cdnca.org.cn.[permanent dead link]
  14. ^ "Info". mj.org.cn. Archived from the original on 2017-10-12. Retrieved 2020-05-13.
  15. ^ "Info". taimeng.org.cn. Archived from the original on 2017-09-07. Retrieved 2020-05-13.
  16. ^ "Info". minge.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2017-09-12. Retrieved 2020-05-13.
  17. ^ Su, Yuan (2017). 1978-1979: Diary. China Cultural Communication Press.
  18. ^ "'四人帮'在福建打游击". 展望. 01. 1977-01-01.
  19. ^ "福建四人帮战讯". 展望. 1977-12-01.
  20. ^ a b Gittings, John (2005). The Changing Face of China: From Mao to Market. Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-280612-2.
  21. ^ a b Goldsmith, Jack L.; and Wu, Tim (2006). Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a Borderless World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515266-2.
  22. ^ Demick, Barbara (20 March 2012). "China puts a stop to Maoist revival". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 4 June 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  23. ^ Moore, Malcolm. "Former teacher names Bo Xilai chairman of 'new political party'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
  24. ^ Benjamin Kang Lim and Ben Blanchard (9 November 2013). "Bo Xilai supporters launch new political party in China". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
  25. ^ Shao, Heng. "Bizarre China Report: The Grand Wedding, Power Play & Smog-Inspired Creativity". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2018-01-27. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  26. ^ "北京民政局发出取缔"至宪党"决定". Deutsche Welle. 14 December 2013. Archived from the original on 16 May 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  27. ^ "- 中國國民黨全球資訊網 KMT Official Website". 中國國民黨全球資訊網. Archived from the original on 2012-08-23. Retrieved 2018-08-03.

External linksEdit

See alsoEdit