List of plants in the Bible

This page lists plants referenced in The Bible, ordered alphabetically by English common/colloquial name. For plants whose identities are unconfirmed or debated the most probable species is listed. Plants named in the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible or Tenakh) are given with their Hebrew name, while those mentioned in the New Testament are given with their Greek names.

AEdit

Name in Bible Plant name Scientific name References
סנהsəneh Abraham's Bush or
Blackberry
Vitex agnus-castus, Rubus sanctus or Loranthus acaciae Exodus 3:2
שטהšiṭṭāh Acacia, Spirale Acacia raddiana Savi Exodus 25:10
אלמגים’almuggîm Almug tree; traditionally thought to denominate Red Sandalwood and/or
White Sandalwood, but a few claim it is Juniper
Pterocarpus santalinus
Santalum album
Juniperus excelsa
2 Chronicles 2:8; 9:10, 11; 1 Kings 10:11, 12
שקדšāqêḏ Almond Amygdalus communis Genesis 43:11
אהלים’ăhālîm Agarwood ("Aloe") Aquilaria malaccensis or Aloe succotrina Proverbs 7:17
κρίνον, krinon Anemone Anemone coronaria L. Matthew 6:28
ἄνηθον, anēthon Anise or Dill Pimpinella anisum, Anethum graveolens Matthew 23:23
תפוחיtappūaḥ Apple[a] or citron Malus domestica or Citrus medica Genesis 2:7; Job 31:39; Jeremiah 15:9

B–EEdit

Name in Bible Plant name Scientific name References
בשמbōśem, בכאbəḵā’îm Balsam Commiphora gileadensis[1] Exodus, Songs
שערהśə‘ōrāh Barley Hordeum spp. Numbers 5:15; Ezekiel 4:9
אזרחbā’ezrāḥ Bay Laurus nobilis Psalm 37:35
בדלחbəḏōlaḥ Bdellium Commiphora africana Genesis 2:12; Numbers 11:7
פולp̄ōl Bean Vicia faba Ezekiel 4:9
תאשורṯə’aššūr Box Buxus sempervirens Isaiah 41:19
צנtsin Boxthorn Lycium europaeum Proverbs 22:5
אטד’āṭāḏ Bramble Rubus ulmifolius Judges 9:15
רתמrōṯem Broom Calycotome villosa, Retama raetam or Spartium junceum Psalm 120:4, 1 Kings 19:4
גמאgōme Bulrush or
Papyrus
Typha spp.
Cyperus papyrus
Exodus 2:3, Job 40:21 (ABP and NETS)
אביונה’ăḇîyōnāh Caper, Desire Capparis spinosa L. Ecclesiastes 12:5
κεράτιον, keration Carob and Locust Ceratonia siliqua Luke 15:16, Matthew 3:1
קדהqiddāh Cassia Cinnamomum iners Exodus 30:24, Psalm 45:8, Job 42:14
קיקיוןqîqōnāh Castor Oil Tree ("Jonah's gourd") Ricinus communis L. Jonah 4:9
ארז’ārez Cedar of Lebanon Cedrus libani 1 Kings 5:10, 2 Kings 19:23
קנמוןqinnāmōn Cinnamon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Proverbs 7:17
באשהḇā’əšāh Cockle or Stinkweed Agrostemma githago Job 31:40
גדgad Coriander Coriandrum sativum Exodus 16:31
כרפסkarpas Cotton Gossypium herbaceum Esther 1:6
חבצלתḥăḇatseleṯ Crocus Crocus sativus Song of Solomon 2:1, Isaiah 35:1
קשאqiššu’a Cucumber Cucumis melo Numbers 11:5
כמןkammōn; κύμινον, kuminon Cumin Cumimum cyminum Isaiah 28:27
קצחqetsaḥ Cumin, Black Nigella sativa Isaiah 44:14
תרזהtirzāh Cypress Cupressus sempervirens L. Isaiah 44:14
ברושbərōš Cypress or fir Cupressus sempervirens Isaiah 44:14
תמרtāmār
φοίνιξ, phoinix
Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera Song of Solomon 5:11; 7:7, 8, John 12:13
דביוניםdiḇyōnîm Dove's Dung Ornithogalum narbonense 2 Kings 6:25
תדהרtiḏhār Elm Ulmus minor subsp. canescens Song of Solomon 5:11; 7:7, 8, John 12:13

F–IEdit

Name in Bible Plant name Scientific name References
תאנṯə’ênāh Fig Ficus carica L. Joel 1:7
ארן’ōren Fir Abies cilicica 1 Kings etc.
פשתהpešeth Flax Linum usitatissimum Proverbs 31:13
פרחperaḥ Flowers, unidentified 1 Kings 7:26
לבונהləḇōnāh Frankincense Boswellia thurifera Matthew 2:10, 11
שוםšūm Garlic Allium sativum Numbers 11:5
ענב‘ănāḇ Grape Vitis vinifera Genesis 40:10 etc.
חצירḥătsîr Grass Numbers 11:5
כמשכת חדקkimśuḵaṯ ḥāḏeq Hedge of Thorns Solanum incanum L. Proverbs 15:19[2]
ראשrōš Hemlock or gall Conium maculatum, Papaver somniferum Amos 6:12
כפרkōp̄er Henna Lawsonia inermis L. Song of Solomon 1:14
אזוב’êzōḇ
ὕσσωπος, hysōpos
Hyssop Hyssopus officinalis Leviticus 14:52
קטרתqaṭṭərāh Incense Boswellia sacra Hosea 4:13
שושנšōšannāh Iris (then denominated "Lily") Iris palaestina 1 Kings 7:22

J–MEdit

Name in Bible Plant name Scientific name References
n/a Judas Tree Cercis siliquastrum Matthew 27:5
ערוער‘ărō‘êr Juniper Juniperus excelsa Jeremiah 17:6, 48:6
ἄκανθα, akantha Jujube Ziziphus spina-christi Matthew 27:29
חצירḥātsîr Leek Allium porrum Numbers 11:5
עדש‘ăḏāša Lentil Lens esculenta 2 Samuel 17:28; Ezekiel 4:9
שושנת העמקים šōwōšannaṯ hā-‘ămāqîm Lily-of-the-valley Convallaria majalis Song of Solomon 2:1
ששšêš Linen Linum usitatissimum Exodus 35:25
צאלtse’ĕlîm Lotus Nelumbo nucifera Job 40:21–22
מלוחmallūaḥ Mallow Atriplex halimus L. Job 30:4
מלוחḏūḏā’î Mandrake Mandragora autumnalis Bertol. Genesis 30:15
מןman Manna Alhagi camelorum Numbers 11:7
ἡδύοσμον, hēduosmon Mint Mentha sp. Matthew 23:23
σίναπι, sinapi Mustard Brassica nigra Matthew 13:31
לטlōṭ Myrrh Commiphora guidotti Engl. Genesis 37:25, 43:11
הדסhăḏas Myrtle Myrtus communis L. Isaiah 55:13

N–REdit

Name in Bible Plant name Scientific name References
סרפדsirpaḏ Nettle Acanthus spinosus Isaiah 55:13
בטנbeten Pistachio Pistacia vera L. Song of Solomon 6:11
אלונ’allōn Oak Quercus calliprinos Webb Joshua 24:26
זיתzāyiṯ Olive Olea europaea Judges 9:9
בצלbətsāl Onion Allium cepa Numbers 11:5
ערמון‘armōn Plane Platanus orientalis L. Ezekiel 31:8, Genesis 30:37
רמונrimmōn Pomegranate Punica granatum Song of Solomon 7:12
לבנהliḇneh Poplar species Populus sp. Isaiah 44:4
חלמותḥallāmūṯ Purslane Portulaca oleracea Job 6:6
אבה’êḇeh Reed (see also Cane) Phragmites Ezekiel 40:vv., Job 40:21
πήγανον, pēganon Rue Ruta graveolens Luke 11:42
אגמון’aḡmōn Rush Juncus sp. Isaiah 9:14

SEdit

Name in Bible Plant name Scientific name References
כרכםkarkōm Saffron Crocus sp. Song of Solomon 4:14[b]
כסמתkussemeṯ Spelt Triticum spelta Isaiah 28:25; Ezekiel 4:9
נרדnêrəd Spikenard Nardostachys jatamansi Song of Solomon 4:14
נטפnāṭāf Stacte or Storax Styrax officinalis, Liquidambar orientalis Exodus 30:34
συκάμινος, sykaminos Sycamine (Mulberry) Morus sp. Luke 17:6

T–ZEdit

Name in Bible Plant name Scientific name References
אשל’ešel Tamarisk Tamarix aphylla Genesis 21:33
ζιζάνιον, zizanion "Tares", Darnel[3][4] Lolium temulentum Matthew 13:25–40
אלה’êlāh Terebinth Pistacia terebinthus 2 Samuel 18:9
חוחḥōwaḥ Thistle Cardueae Job 31:40, 2 Chronicles 25:18
קוצqōts Thorn, thornbush Vachellia tortilis or similar Jeremiah 4:3
θύϊνος, thyinos Thyine Wood Tetraclinis articulata Revelation 18:12
עצ‘êts Timber 2 Kings 12:12
השרון שושנתhă-ḇatseleṯ ha-Šārōn Tulip Sharon Tulipa agenensis Song of Solomon 2:1
אגוז’ĕḡōz Walnut Juglans regia Song of Solomon 6:11,[5] Genesis 43:11
אבטיח’ăḇaṭṭiḥ Watermelon Citrullus lanatus Numbers 11:5
חטהḥiṭṭāh
חנטאḥinṭa’
Wheat Triticum sp. Ezra 7:22; Ezekiel 4:9
ערב‘ărāḇ Willow Salix alba L. Job 40:22
ἄψινθος, apsinthos
לענהla‘ănāh
Wormwood Artemisia absinthium Revelation 8:11

NotesEdit

  1. ^ To change a "p" to "f" in Hebrew a dot is changed; the word indicates that which is distinguished by its fragrance; it derives from the root "na·phach?" denoting "blow, pant, struggle for breath" (see Genesis 2:7; Job 31:39; Jeremiah 15:9); regarding this, M. C. Fisher wrote that "relationship [to na·phach?] seems at first semantically strained, but the ideas of 'breathe' and 'exhale an odor' are related. The by-form puah means both 'blow' (of wind) and 'exhale a pleasant odor, be fragrant.'" (see Proverbs 25:11)
  2. ^ referenced as the plant or the product consisting of its pollen?

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Amar, Zohar; Iluz, David. "Balsam: the most expensive perfume plant in the ancient world". In Ferziger, A. S. (ed.). The Paths of Daniel: Studies in Judaism and Jewish Culture in Honor of Rabbi Professor Daniel Sperber. Bar-Ilan University press. pp. 15–27. Quote: "Botanical synonyms: Amyris gileadensis L., Amyris opoBalsamum L., Balsamodendrum ehrenbergianum O. Berg, Balsamodendrum gileadense Kunth, Balsamodendrum opobalsamum Kunth, Commiphora opobalsamum (L.) Engl."
  2. ^ Zohar Amar, Flora of the Bible: A New Investigation Aimed at Identifying All of the Plants of the Bible in Light of Jewish Sources and Scientific Research, Jerusalem, 2012, p. 220 (s. v. חדק)
  3. ^ H. G. Liddell and R. Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1843–1996, under "ζιζάνια". The plural form "Zizania" has modernly denominated in botany wild rice.
  4. ^ Thayer's Lexicon: ζιζάνια
  5. ^ *Longman, Tremper (2001). Songs of Songs. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Volume 26. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 184. ISBN 9780802825438. |volume= has extra text (help)

SourcesEdit

External linksEdit