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Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm,[2] is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Although its place of origin is unknown because of long cultivation, it probably originated from the Fertile Crescent, region straddling between Egypt and Mesopotamia.[3] The species is widely cultivated across Northern Africa, Middle East and South Asia, and is naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions worldwide.[4][5][6] P. dactylifera is the type species of genus Phoenix, which contains 12–19 species of wild date palms, and is the major source of commercial production.[3]

Date palm
Dates on date palm.jpg
Dates on date palm
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Arecales
Family: Arecaceae
Genus: Phoenix
Species: P. dactylifera
Binomial name
Phoenix dactylifera
L.
Synonyms[1]
  • Palma dactylifera (L.) Mill.
  • Phoenix chevalieri D.Rivera, S.Ríos & Obón
  • Phoenix iberica D.Rivera, S.Ríos & Obón

Date trees typically reach about 21–23 metres (69–75 ft) in height,[7] growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. Date fruits (dates) are oval-cylindrical, 3–7 cm (1.2–2.8 in) long, and about an inch (2.5 cm) in diameter, ranging from bright red to bright yellow in color, depending on variety. They are very sweet, containing about 75 percent of sugar when dried.

Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East and the Indus Valley for thousands of years. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in Arabia from the 6th millennium BCE. The total annual world production of dates amounts to 8.5 million metric tons, countries of the Middle East and North Africa being the largest producers.[8]

Contents

EtymologyEdit

The species name dactylifera "date-bearing" comes from the Greek words daktylos (δάκτυλος), which means "date" (also "finger"),[9] and fero (φέρω), which means "I bear".[10] The fruit is known as a date.[11] The fruit's English name (through Old French), as well as the Latin both come from the Greek word for "finger", dáktulos, because of the fruit's elongated shape.

HistoryEdit

Fossil records show that the date palm has existed for at least 50 million years.[12]

 
Dried date, peach, and apricot from Lahun, Fayum, Egypt. Late Middle Kingdom

Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East and the Indus Valley for thousands of years. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in eastern Arabia between 5530 and 5320 calBC.[13] They are believed to have originated around what is now Iraq, and have been cultivated since ancient times from Mesopotamia to prehistoric Egypt. The Ancient Egyptians used the fruits to make date wine, and ate them at harvest.

There is archeological evidence of date cultivation in Mehrgarh around 7000 BCE, a Neolithic civilization in what is now western Pakistan. Evidence of cultivation is continually found throughout later civilizations in the Indus Valley, including the Harappan period 2600 to 1900 BCE.[14][page needed]

In Ancient Rome the palm fronds used in triumphal processions to symbolize victory were most likely those of Phoenix dactylifera.[15] The date palm was a popular garden plant in Roman peristyle gardens, though it would not bear fruit in the more temperate climate of Italy.[16] It is recognizable in frescoes from Pompeii and elsewhere in Italy, including a garden scene from the House of the Wedding of Alexander.[17]

In later times, traders spread dates around South West Asia, northern Africa, and Spain. Dates were introduced into Mexico and California by the Spaniards in 1765, around Mission San Ignacio.

A date palm cultivar, probably what used to be called Judean date palm, is renowned for its long-lived orthodox seed, which successfully sprouted after accidental storage for 2000 years.[18] The upper survival time limit of properly stored seeds remains unknown.[19]

DescriptionEdit

 
Date fruit clumps

Date trees typically reach about 21–23 metres (69–75 ft) in height,[7] growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. The leaves are 4–6 metres (13–20 ft) long, with spines on the petiole, and pinnate, with about 150 leaflets. The leaflets are 30 cm (12 in) long and 2 cm (0.79 in) wide. The full span of the crown ranges from 6–10 m (20–33 ft).

The date palm is dioecious, having separate male and female plants. They can be easily grown from seed, but only 50% of seedlings will be female and hence fruit bearing, and dates from seedling plants are often smaller and of poorer quality. Most commercial plantations thus use cuttings of heavily cropping cultivars. Plants grown from cuttings will fruit 2–3 years earlier than seedling plants.

Dates are naturally wind pollinated, but in both traditional oasis horticulture and in the modern commercial orchards they are entirely pollinated manually. Natural pollination occurs with about an equal number of male and female plants. However, with assistance, one male can pollinate up to 100 females. Since the males are of value only as pollinators, this allows the growers to use their resources for many more fruit-producing female plants. Some growers do not even maintain any male plants, as male flowers become available at local markets at pollination time. Manual pollination is done by skilled labourers on ladders, or by use of a wind machine. In some areas such as Iraq the pollinator climbs the tree using a special climbing tool that wraps around the tree trunk and the climber's back (called تبلية in Arabic) to keep him attached to the trunk while climbing.

 
Fresh dates, clockwise from top right: crunchy, crunchy opened, soft out of skin, soft

Date fruits are oval-cylindrical, 3–7 cm (1.2–2.8 in) long, and 2–3 cm (0.79–1.18 in) diameter, and when ripe, range from bright red to bright yellow in colour, depending on variety. Dates contain a single stone about 2–2.5 cm (0.8–1.0 in) long and 6–8 mm (0.2–0.3 in) thick. Three main cultivar groups of date exist: soft (e.g. 'Barhee', 'Halawy', 'Khadrawy', 'Medjool'), semi-dry (e.g. 'Dayri', 'Deglet Noor', 'Zahdi'), and dry (e.g. 'Thoory'). The type of fruit depends on the glucose, fructose, and sucrose content.

Parthenocarpic cultivars are available but the seedless fruit is smaller and of lower quality.[citation needed] Dates ripen in four stages, which are known throughout the world by their Arabic names kimri (unripe), khlal (full-size, crunchy), rutab (ripe, soft), tamr (ripe, sun-dried).[citation needed]

GenomeEdit

In 2009, a team of researchers at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar published a draft version of the date palm genome (Khalas variety).[20][21]

CultivationEdit

Dates are an important traditional crop in Iraq, Arabia, and north Africa west to Morocco. Dates (especially Medjool and Deglet Noor) are also cultivated in America in southern California, Arizona and southern Florida in the United States and in Sonora and Baja California in Mexico.

Date palms can take 4 to 8 years after planting before they will bear fruit, and start producing viable yields for commercial harvest between 7 and 10 years. Mature date palms can produce 150–300 lb (70–140 kg)[22][23] of dates per harvest season, although they do not all ripen at the same time so several harvests are required. In order to get fruit of marketable quality, the bunches of dates must be thinned and bagged or covered before ripening so that the remaining fruits grow larger and are protected from weather and pests such as birds.

Date palms require well-drained deep sandy loam soils with pH 8-11. The soil should have the ability to hold the moisture. The soil should also be free from calcium carbonate.[citation needed]

ProductionEdit

 
Date production per country in 2012
Top ten date producers – 2016
(1000 metric tonnes, 1000 short tons)
  Egypt 1,694 1,867
  Iran 1,066 1,175
  Algeria 1,030 1,140
  Saudi Arabia 964 1,063
  United Arab Emirates 672 741
  Iraq 615 678
  Pakistan 495 546
  Sudan 439 484
  Oman 348 384
  Tunisia 241 266
World total 8,460 9,330
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
[8]
 
Date seller in the old souq in Kuwait City
 
Date City in Buraidah

CultivarsEdit

 
Date palm orchard, Boumalne, Morocco
 
Dates in the souq in Sayada

A large number of date cultivars are grown. The most important are:

  • Aabel – common in Libya.
  • Ajwah – from the town of Medina in Saudi Arabia, it is the subject of a Hadith.
  • Al-Khunaizi – from the town of Qatif in Saudi Arabia.
  • Amir Hajj or Amer Hajj – from Iraq, these are soft with a thin skin and thick flesh, sometimes called "the visitor's date" because it is a delicacy served to guests.
  • ʿAbid Rahim (Arabic: عبد رحيم‎) – from Sudan. In Nigeria it is called Dabino.
  • Barakawi (Arabic: بركاوي‎) – from Sudan.
  • Barhee or barhi (from Arabic barh, meaning 'a hot wind') – these are nearly spherical, light amber to dark brown when ripe; soft, with thick flesh and rich flavour. One of the few varieties that are good in the khalal stage when they are yellow (like a fresh grape, as opposed to dry, like a raisin).
  • Bireir (Arabic: برير‎) – from Sudan.
  • Dabbas – from United Arab Emirates.
  • Datça – in Turkey
  • Deglet Noor Algerian cultivar originated from the zibane region in the north eastern Algerian desert (the oases of Tolga, Biskra) — so named because the centre appears light or golden when held up to the sun. This is a leading date in Libya, Algeria, the United States, and Tunisia.
  • Derrie or Dayri (the "Monastery" date) – from southern Iraq – these are long, slender, nearly black, and soft.
  • Empress – developed by the DaVall family in Indio, California, United States, from a seedling of Thoory. It is large, and is softer and sweeter than Thoory. It generally has a light tan top half and brown bottom half.
  • Fardh or Fard – common in Oman, deep dark brown, tender skin, sweet flavor, small seed. Keeps well when well packed.
  • Ftimi or Alligue – these are grown in inland oases of Tunisia.
  • Holwah (Halawi) (Arabic for sweet) – these are soft, and extremely sweet, small to medium in size.
  • Haleema – in Hoon, Libya (Haleema is a woman's name).
  • Hayany (Hayani) – from Egypt ("Hayany" is a man's name) – these dates are dark-red to nearly black and soft.
  • Iteema – common in Algeria.
  • Kenta – common in Tunisia.
 
Medjool date
  • Khadrawi or Khadrawy (Arabic: 'green') – a cultivar favoured by many Arabs, it is a soft, very dark date.
  • Khalasah (Arabic for quintessence) – one of the major palm cultivars in Saudi Arabia. Its fruit is called Khlas. Notably produced in Hofuf (Al-Ahsa) and Qatif in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia (ash-Sharqīyah).
  • Khastawi (Khusatawi, Kustawy) – this is the leading soft date in Iraq; it is syrupy and small in size, prized for dessert.
  • Khenaizi – from United Arab Emirates.
  • Lulu – from United Arab Emirates.
  • Maktoom (Arabic for hidden) – this is a large, red-brown, thick-skinned, soft, medium-sweet date.
  • Manakbir – a large fruit that ripens early.
  • Medjool or (Majdool) (Arabic: مجدول‎) – from Morocco, also grown in the United States, Israel, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Jordan, and United Arab Emirates; a large, sweet and succulent date.[12]
  • Migraf (Mejraf) – very popular in Southern Yemen, these are large, golden-amber dates.
  • Mgmaget Ayuob – from Hun, Libya.
  • Mishriq (Arabic: مشرق‎ "east") – from Sudan and Saudi Arabia.
  • Mazafati or Mozafati – (Persian: مضافتی‎, "Suburban/Peripheral") It is a dark, fleshy and sweet date of medium size with a relatively high moisture content and is suited for fresh consumption, i.e. not dried. At a temperature of −5 degrees Celsius (23 °F) it can be kept for up to 2 years. It is grown in Iran, in particular in Kerman province, and often named "Bam date", after the city of Bam in that province.[24]
  • Nabtat-seyf – in Saudi Arabia.
  • Piarom (also known as maryami, mariami, marayami or "chocolate") – A round, black-brown semi-dry date.[25]
  • Rotab (Arabic: رطب) – from Saudi Arabia, they are dark and soft.
  • Sag‘ai – from Saudi Arabia.
  • Saidy (Saidi) – soft, very sweet, these are popular in Libya.
  • Sayer (Sayir) (Arabic for common) – these dates are dark orange-brown, of medium size, soft and syrupy.
  • Sukkary – (lit. sugary) (Arabic: سكري) Dark brown skin; sweet and soft flesh, from Saudi Arabia (Qassim), it is the most expensive kind.
  • Sellaj – (Arabic: سلّج‎) in Saudi Arabia.
  • indi - (Sinhala: ඉඳ) called in Sri Lanka.
  • Tagyat – common in Libya.
  • Tamej – in Libya.
  • Thoory (Thuri) – popular in Algeria, this dry date is brown-red when cured with a bluish bloom and very wrinkled skin. Its flesh is sometimes hard and brittle but the flavour described as sweet and nutty.
  • Umeljwary – in Libya.
  • Umelkhashab – Brilliant red skin; bittersweet, hard white flesh (Saudi Arabia).
  • Zahidi (Arabic for [Of the] ascetic) – these medium size, cylindrical, light golden-brown semi-dry dates are very sugary, and sold as soft, medium-hard and hard.
  • Zaghloul (Arabic: زغلول‎) – Dark red skin, long, and very crunchy when fresh (when they are typically served); extremely sweet, with sugar content creating a sense of desiccation in the mouth when eaten. The variety is essentially exclusive to Egypt, where it is subject to an element of nationalist sentiment on account of sharing a name with national hero Saad Zaghloul.

The Gaza Strip, especially Deir al-Balah ("Village of Dates"), is known for its exceptionally sweet red dates.

Several types of dates can be found in Arabia, some of them are listed here.[citation needed]

English Arabic English Arabic English Arabic English Arabic
Afandi أفندي Jebaily جبيلي Medjoul مجهول Sawaida سويدا
Ajwah عجوة Ka'ikah كعيكه Menaify منيفي Shahel شهل
Anbarah عنبرة Khalas خلاص Meskany مسكاني Shalaaby شلابي
Baiḍ بيض Khudry خضري Mushukah مشوكة Shuqry شقري
Barny برني Khuḍab خصاب Rabiyyah ربيعة Sufry صفري
Berḥi برحي Lunah لونة Rashudiah رشوديه Sukkary سكري
Gharr غر Lubanah لبانة Safaawy صفاوي Suqa'ey صقعي
Ḥelwah حلوة Mabrum مبروم Sheeshee شيشي Wananah ونانة
Ḥilya حلية Maktoomi مكتومي Sariyyah سارية Dhawy ذاوي
Khunayzey خنيزي Um Ruhaim ام رحيم Hilali هلالي Nabtat Sultan نبتة سلطان

Diseases and pestsEdit

Date palms are susceptible to Bayoud disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. This disease, which kills many of the popular older cultivars like Deglet Noor, has led to a major decline in production where it is present, notably Morocco and western Algeria. However, new cultivars resistant to the disease are being developed.[citation needed]

A major palm pest, the red palm beetle (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) currently poses a significant threat to date production in parts of the Middle East as well as to iconic landscape specimens throughout the Mediterranean world.

In the 1920s, eleven healthy Madjool palms were transferred from Morocco to the United States where they were tended by members of the Chemehuevi tribe[which?] in a remote region of Nevada. Nine of these survived and in 1935, cultivars were transferred to the "U.S. Date Garden" in Indio, California. Eventually this stock was reintroduced to Africa and led to the U.S. production of dates in Yuma, Arizona and the Bard Valley in California.[26]

UsesEdit

 
Date Palm stump showing the wood structure

FruitsEdit

Dry or soft dates are eaten out-of-hand, or may be pitted and stuffed with fillings such as almonds, walnuts, pecans, candied orange and lemon peel, tahini, marzipan or cream cheese. Pitted dates are also referred to as stoned dates. Partially dried pitted dates may be glazed with glucose syrup for use as a snack food. Dates can also be chopped and used in a range of sweet and savory dishes, from tajines (tagines) in Morocco to puddings, ka'ak (types of Arab cookies) and other dessert items. Date nut bread, a type of cake, is very popular in the United States, especially around holidays. Dates are also processed into cubes, paste called "'ajwa", spread, date syrup or "honey" called "dibs" or "rub" in Libya, powder (date sugar), vinegar or alcohol. Vinegar made from dates is a traditional product of the Middle East.[27][28] Recent innovations include chocolate-covered dates and products such as sparkling date juice, used in some Islamic countries as a non-alcoholic version of champagne, for special occasions and religious times such as Ramadan. When Muslims break fast in the evening meal of Ramadan, it is traditional to eat a date first.

Reflecting the maritime trading heritage of Britain, imported chopped dates are added to, or form the main basis of a variety of traditional dessert recipes including sticky toffee pudding, Christmas pudding and date and walnut loaf. They are particularly available to eat whole at Christmas time. Dates and tamarind are ingredients in a commercial condiment, HP Sauce.

Dates can also be dehydrated, ground and mixed with grain to form a nutritious stockfeed.

In Southeast Spain (where a large date plantation exists including UNESCO-protected Palmeral of Elche) dates (usually pitted with fried almond) are served wrapped in bacon and shallow fried.

In Israel date syrup, termed "silan", is used while cooking chicken and also for sweet and desserts, and as a honey substitute.

It is also used to make Jallab.

In Pakistan, a viscous, thick syrup made from the ripe fruits is used as a coating for leather bags and pipes to prevent leaking.

Nutritional valueEdit

Dates, Deglet Noor
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,178 kJ (282 kcal)
75.03 g (2.647 oz)
Sugars 63.35 g (2.235 oz)
Dietary fiber 8 g (0.28 oz)
0.39 g (0.014 oz)
2.45 g (0.086 oz)
Vitamins Quantity
%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%
6 μg
75 μg
Vitamin A 10 IU
Thiamine (B1)
5%
0.052 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
6%
0.066 mg
Niacin (B3)
8%
1.274 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
12%
0.589 mg
Vitamin B6
13%
0.165 mg
Folate (B9)
5%
19 μg
Vitamin C
0%
0.4 mg
Vitamin E
0%
0.05 mg
Vitamin K
3%
2.7 μg
Minerals Quantity
%DV
Calcium
4%
39 mg
Iron
8%
1.02 mg
Magnesium
12%
43 mg
Manganese
12%
0.262 mg
Phosphorus
9%
62 mg
Potassium
14%
656 mg
Sodium
0%
2 mg
Zinc
3%
0.29 mg
Other constituents Quantity
Water 20.53 g (0.724 oz)

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Dates provide a wide range of essential nutrients, and are a very good source of dietary potassium. The sugar content of ripe dates is about 80%; the remainder consists of protein, fiber, and trace elements including boron, cobalt, copper, fluorine, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc.[29] The glycemic index for three different varieties of dates are 35.5 (khalas), 49.7 (barhi), and 30.5 (bo ma'an).[30]

The caffeic acid glycoside 3-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (also known as dactylifric acid) and its isomers, are enzymic browning substrates found in dates.[31]

Other partsEdit

Where craft traditions still thrive, such as in Oman, the palm tree is the most versatile of all indigenous plants, and virtually every part of the tree is utilized to make functional items ranging from rope and baskets to beehives, fishing boats, and traditional dwellings.[citation needed]

SeedsEdit

Date seeds are soaked and ground up for animal feed. Their oil is suitable for use in soap and cosmetics. Date palm seeds contain 0.56–5.4% lauric acid. They can also be processed chemically as a source of oxalic acid. The seeds are also burned to make charcoal for silversmiths,[citation needed] and can be strung in necklaces. Date seeds are also ground and used in the manner of coffee beans, or as an additive to coffee. Experimental studies have shown that feeding mice with the aqueous extract of date pits exhibit anti-genotoxic and reduce DNA damage induced by N-nitroso-N-methylurea.[32]

Fruit clustersEdit

Stripped fruit clusters are used as brooms. Recently the floral stalks have been found to be of ornamental value in households.[33]

SapEdit

 
Sweet sap tapped from date palm in West Bengal, India

The process of palm tapping involves the cutting of the unopened flower stalk and then fastening a bottle gourd, clay or plastic vessel on to it. The palm sap then collects in the vessel and is harvested in the early morning hours. If a few drops of lime juice are added to the palm sap, fermentation can be stopped and the sap can then be boiled to form palm syrup, palm sugar, jaggery and numerous other edible products derived from the syrup. If left for a sufficient period of time (typically hours, depending on the temperature) the sap easily ferments into palm wine.[citation needed]

Apart from P. dactylifera, wild date palms such as Phoenix sylvestris and Phoenix reclinata, depending on the region, can be also tapped for sap.

LeavesEdit

Date palm leaves are used for Palm Sunday in the Christian religion. In North Africa, they are commonly used for making huts. Mature leaves are also made into mats, screens, baskets and fans. Processed leaves can be used for insulating board. Dried leaf petioles are a source of cellulose pulp, used for walking sticks, brooms, fishing floats and fuel. Leaf sheaths are prized for their scent, and fibre from them is also used for rope, coarse cloth, and large hats. The leaves are also used as a lulav in the Jewish holiday of Sukkot.

Young date leaves are cooked and eaten as a vegetable, as is the terminal bud or heart, though its removal kills the palm. The finely ground seeds are mixed with flour to make bread in times of scarcity. The flowers of the date palm are also edible. Traditionally the female flowers are the most available for sale and weigh 300–400 grams (11–14 oz). The flower buds are used in salad or ground with dried fish to make a condiment for bread.

CultureEdit

 
Date Palm in the Coat of arms of Saudi Arabia

Dates are mentioned more than 50 times in the Bible and 20 times in the Qur'an. In Islamic culture, dates and yogurt or milk are traditionally the first foods consumed for Iftar after the sun has set during Ramadan.

The date palm represents the provincial tree of Balochistan (Pakistan) (unofficial).

SymbolismEdit

In the Quran, Allah instructs Maryām (the Virgin Mary) to eat dates when she gives birth to Isa (Jesus);[34] and, similarly, they are recommended to pregnant women.[35]

Phoenix dactylifera held great significance in early Judaism and subsequently in Christianity, in part because the tree was heavily cultivated as a food source in ancient Israel.[36] In the Bible palm trees are referenced as symbols of prosperity and triumph.[37] Palm branches occurred as iconography in sculpture ornamenting the Second Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, on Jewish coins, and in the sculpture of synagogues. They are also used as ornamentation in the Feast of the Tabernacles.[36]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ The Plant List, Phoenix dactylifera L.
  2. ^ "Phoenix dactylifera". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  3. ^ a b Krueger, Robert R. "Date Palm Genetic Resource Conservation, Breeding, Genetics, And Genomics In California" (PDF). The Conference Exchange. Retrieved 2018-03-26. 
  4. ^ Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Phoenix dactylifera
  5. ^ Biota of North America Project, Phoenix dactylifera
  6. ^ Flora of China, v 253 p 143, Phoenix dactylifera
  7. ^ a b Divya Bichu. "Arabian Desert Plants". Buzzle. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  8. ^ a b "FAOSTAT:Crops". Elements:Production Quantity / Items:Dates / Years:2016. Retrieved 2018-03-26. 
  9. ^ δάκτυλος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  10. ^ fĕro. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  11. ^ "Date Palm". 15 October 2008. HowStuffWorks.com.
  12. ^ a b "Medjool: A Date to Remember". NPR.org. 17 October 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  13. ^ Tengberg, M. (November 2012). "Beginnings and early history of date palm garden cultivation in the Middle East". Journal of Arid Environments. 86: 139–147. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.11.022. 
  14. ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark; Heuston, Kimberley Burton (2005). The Ancient South Asian World. The World in Ancient Times. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-522243-2. Retrieved 30 July 2013. 
  15. ^ Ernest Small (2009). Top 100 Food Plants. p. 231. 
  16. ^ Linda Farrar (1998). Ancient Roman Gardens. p. 141. 
  17. ^ Linda Farrar (1998). Ancient Roman Gardens. p. 141. 
  18. ^ Hanson, Wendy (2008-06-13). "Date palm seed from Masada is the oldest to germinate". Los Angeles Times. 
  19. ^ Bonner, Franklin T. (April 2008). "Chapter 4 Storage of Seeds" (PDF). Woody Plant Seed Manual, USDA FS Agriculture Handbook 727. National Seed Laboratory, 5675 Riggins Mill Rd, Dry Branch, GA 31020. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  20. ^ Date Palm Genome Drafted Science Daily, January 14, 2010, Retrieved August 30, 2010
  21. ^ Date Palm Draft Sequence Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, updated April 7, 2010, Retrieved August 30, 2010
  22. ^ "The Date, Phoenix dactylifera". Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  23. ^ http://www.unce.unr.edu/publications/files/ho/2002/sp0212.pdf
  24. ^ "Nakhil Dates - Iranian Dates Exporter". Archived from the original on 28 May 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  25. ^ "Date Fruits: Benefits, Palm, cultivation - Green Diamond Dates". 
  26. ^ Allen, Lee (25 April 2014). "How One Indian Couple Saved 'The Fruit of Kings'". Indian Country News. Retrieved 2016-02-27. 
  27. ^ Das, Bhagwan; Sarin, J. L. (1936). "Vinegar from Dates". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 28 (7): 814. doi:10.1021/ie50319a016. 
  28. ^ Forbes, Robert James (1971). "Studies in Ancient Technology". 
  29. ^ Walid Al-Shahib, Richard J. Marshall (2003). "The fruit of the date palm: its possible use as the best food for the future?". International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 54 (4): 247–259. doi:10.1080/09637480120091982. 
  30. ^ Miller, CJ; Dunn, EV; Hashim, IB (2002). "Glycemic index of 3 varieties of dates". Saudi medical journal. 23 (5): 536–8. PMID 12070575. 
  31. ^ Maier, VP; Metzler, DM; Huber, AF (1964). "3-O-Caffeoylshikimic acid (dactylifric acid) and its isomers, a new class of enzymic browning substrates". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 14: 124–8. doi:10.1016/0006-291x(64)90241-4. PMID 5836492. 
  32. ^ Diab, K.A; E. I. Aboul-Ela (2012). "In Vivo Comparative Studies on Antigenotoxicity of Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) Pits Extract Against DNA Damage Induced by N-Nitroso-N-methylurea in Mice". Toxicology International. 19 (3): 279–286. doi:10.4103/0971-6580.103669. PMC 3532774 . PMID 23293467. 
  33. ^ Kiran, S (2014). "Floral Stalk on Date Palm: A New Discovery". Int J Agril Res Innov Tech. 4 (2). doi:10.3329/ijarit.v4i2.22649. 
  34. ^ The Quran, Chapter 19 - verses 22-25, retrieved on Feb. 28 2015, So she [Virgin Mary] conceived him, and she retired with him to a remote place. And the pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a palm tree. she cried (in her anguish): 'Ah! would that I had died before this! would that I had been a thing forgotten and out of sight!' But (a voice) cried to her from beneath the (palm-tree): 'Grieve not! for thy Lord hath provided a rivulet beneath thee; And shake towards thyself the trunk of the palm-tree; it will let fall fresh ripe dates upon thee.'
  35. ^ Islam Q & A, question # 214222: Does Islam recommend any particular foods to maintain a woman’s good health during pregnancy?, retrieved on Feb. 28 2015
  36. ^ a b James Hastings (1909). Dictionary of the Bible. p. 675. 
  37. ^ Psalm 92.12

External linksEdit