Rose of Sharon is a biblical expression, though the identity of the plant referred to is unclear and is disputed among biblical scholars. It has become a common name for several different species of flowering plants that are valued in different parts of the world. In neither case does it refer to actual roses. The name's varied colloquial application has been used as an example of the lack of precision of common names, which can potentially cause confusion.[1] "Rose of Sharon" has become a frequently used catch phrase in poetry and lyrics.[citation needed]

One plant commonly called "rose of Sharon" in the US is Hibiscus syriacus, here seen in bloom.

Biblical origins Edit

The name "Rose of Sharon" first appears in Hebrew in the Tanakh. In the Shir Hashirim ('Song of Songs' or 'Song of Solomon') 2:1, the speaker (the beloved) says "I am the rose of Sharon, a rose of the valley". The Hebrew phrase חבצלת השרון (ḥăḇaṣṣeleṯ haššārōn) was translated by the editors of the King James version of the Bible as "rose of Sharon"; however, previous translations had rendered it simply as "the flower of the field" (Septuagint "ἐγὼ ἄνθος τοῦ πεδίου",[2] Vulgate "ego flos campi",[3] Wycliffe "a flower of the field"[4]). Contrariwise, the Hebrew word ḥăḇaṣṣeleṯ occurs two times in the scriptures: in the Song, and in Isaiah 35:1, which reads, "the desert shall bloom like the rose." The word is translated "rose" in the King James version, but is rendered variously as "lily" (Septuagint "κρίνον",[5] Vulgate "lilium",[6] Wycliffe "lily"[7]), "jonquil" (Jerusalem Bible) and "crocus" (RSV).

Varying scholars have suggested that the biblical "rose of Sharon" may be one of the following plants:

According to an annotation of Song of Solomon 2:1 by the translation committee of the New Revised Standard Version, "rose of Sharon" is a mistranslation of a more general Hebrew word for crocus.[citation needed]

Etymologists have tentatively linked the biblical חבצלת to the words בצל beṣel, meaning 'bulb', and חמץ ḥāmaṣ, which is understood as meaning either 'pungent' or 'splendid' (The Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon).

A possible interpretation for the biblical reference is Pancratium maritimum, which blooms in the late summer just above the high-tide mark. The modern Hebrew name for this flower is חבצלת or חבצלת החוף (ḥăḇaṣṣeleṯ or ḥăḇaṣṣeleṯ haḥōf, coastal lily). Some identify this flower with the "rose of Sharon" mentioned in the Song of Songs, but not all scholars accept this.[10]

Recently, some scholars have translated ḥăḇaṣṣeleṯ as "a budding bulb" in consideration of the genealogical research of multilingual versions and lexicons.[11]

Modern usage Edit

Hypericum calycinum
Hibiscus syriacus
Hibiscus syriacus double bloom
Rose of Sharon or althaea

The name "rose of Sharon" is also commonly applied to several horticultural plants,[12] all originating outside the Levant and not likely to have been the plant from the Bible:

References Edit

  1. ^ Botanic Gardens Trust, Sydney, Australia: Why use a scientific name? Archived 2015-09-05 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Song 2:1, Septuagint
  3. ^ Song 2:1 Archived 2020-07-12 at the Wayback Machine, Vulgate
  4. ^ Song 2:1, Wycliffe
  5. ^ Is 35:1, Septuagint
  6. ^ Is 35:1 Archived 2020-07-12 at the Wayback Machine, Vulgate
  7. ^ Is 35:1, Wycliffe
  8. ^ "Rose of Sharon". Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  9. ^ McClintock, John; Strong, James (1889). "Rose". Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature, Vol. IX RH-ST. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 128. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
  10. ^ Coastal Lily at (in Hebrew)
  11. ^ Satoshi Mizota. Origin of 'Rose of Sharon' : An Analysis of Various Translations Having a Bearing on The Authorized Version Text. Dissertation for MA: Aich University, 2008."Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2012-02-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ Rose of Sharon at
  13. ^ Kim Yoon (2020-04-25). "Korea's national flower".
  14. ^ "Hibiscus syriacus".

Sources Edit

  • Crawford, P. L. (1995). "Rose". In Paul J. Achtemeier (gen. ed.) (ed.). Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper. p. 884.
  • Davidson, Benjamin (1978) [1848]. The Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon (1st softcover ed.). Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. p. 246. ISBN 0-310-39891-6.
  • Lapp, N. L. (1985). "Sharon". In Paul J. Achtemeier (gen. ed.) (ed.). Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper. pp. 933–4.
  • Scott, R. B. Y. (1991). "Annotations to Song of Solomon". The New Oxford Annotated Bible. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 854 OT.
  • Yu, Myŏng-jong; Lee, Ji-Hye; Chŏn, Sŏng-yŏng (2008). 100 Cultural Symbols of Korea: 100 windows showcasing Korea (First ed.). 431, King’s Garden Office Hotel 3rd Complex, 72 Naesoo-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul, Korea: Discovery Media.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)