List of chancellors of Austria

The chancellor of Austria is the head of government of the Austrian Republic, appointed by the president and regarded as the country's de facto chief executive. The chancellor chairs and leads the Cabinet, which also includes the vice chancellor and the ministers.[1]

Portrait of Renner (1905)
Dollfuss pictured as Kaiserschütze (1933)
Kreisky at an elections campaign (1983)
Kurz with Russian President Putin in the Kremlin (2018)
Clockwise from top left:
  • Renner was the first Chancellor of German-Austria, the First Republic and the Second Republic
  • Dollfuss turned the First Republic into a dictatorship and is a key figure in fascism
  • Kurz is currently the youngest head of government in the world
  • Kreisky is known as one of the world's perhaps most successful socialist leaders

Following World War I, the office was originally established by the Provisional National Assembly on 30 October 1918 as state chancellor of the Republic of German-Austria, and its first holder, Karl Renner, was appointed by the State Council. After the Allies declined a union between Austria and Germany,[2] German-Austria established the First Austrian Republic and soon afterwards renamed the office from state chancellor to federal chancellor – the first federal chancellor was Michael Mayr. Ten chancellors served under the First Republic up until Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss established the authoritarian and dictatorial Federal State of Austria.[3] Following Dollfuss's Assassination by Austrian National Socialists,[4] Kurt Schuschnigg succeeded him as chancellor and upheld the dictatorship.[5] Schuschnigg in turn was replaced by Arthur Seyss-Inquart, a Nazi caretaker who held the office for two days, until Austria was annexed into Nazi Germany.[6]

Austria under National Socialism lost its original, republican system of government and was administered by Reichsstatthalter Arthur Seyss-Inquart (1938–1939), Reich Commissioner Josef Bürckel[7] (1939–1940) and Reichsstatthalter Baldur von Schirach[8] (1940–1945). In 1940, the country was renamed Ostmark, completely lost its autonomy and became an administrative division of Nazi Germany.[9][10] After the liberation of Vienna and the dissolution of Nazi Germany, Austria reinstated its republican form of government.[11] However, the country remained under allied occupation until 1955[12] and thus the country's ultimate sovereignty was still held by the Allied Control Council.

Since the establishment of the republic, the People's and the Social Democratic Party have largely dominated Austrian politics. The People's Party/Christian Social Party led nineteen cabinets and was the second largest party in eight coalition cabinets, the Social Democratic Party/Social Democratic Workers' Party led eleven cabinets and was the second largest party in five coalition cabinets. The following parties never held the chancellorship but participated in coalition cabinets: the Greater German People's Party in five, the Freedom Party and the Landbund in four, the Alliance for the Future and the Communist Party in one.

If the chancellor dies, resigns or is otherwise incapable of exercising the powers and duties of the office, the vice chancellor automatically becomes acting chancellor; that is if the president has not already found a permanent replacement. If the vice chancellor is unavailable, the other members of the government take over in order of seniority.[13] The unavailability of an elected chancellor does not automatically call for a new election. If the president in turn dies, resigns or is otherwise incapacitated, the chancellor assumes all the powers and duties of the presidency, but only for twenty days.[14]

Bruno Kreisky was the longest serving chancellor with 4778 days in office and Arthur Seyss-Inquart was the shortest serving chancellor with 2 days in office.

ChancellorsEdit

  Denotes acting chancellors
Party Portrait Name Tenure Election Governing party or coalition Appointer
SDAPÖ   Dr.
Karl Renner
1870–1950
[a][15][16][17]
30 October 1918

7 July 1920
1919 SDAPÖ CS GDVP  
State Council[b]
CS   Dr.
Michael Mayr
1864–1922
[c][18]
7 July 1920

21 June 1921
1920 CS SDAPÖ  
Michael Hainisch
IND   Iur. DDDr.
Johannes Schober
1874–1932
[19]
21 June 1921

26 January 1922
CS GDVP Experts
CS   Walter Breisky
1871–1944
[20]
26 January 1922

27 January 1922
CS GDVP
IND   Iur. DDDr.
Johannes Schober
1874–1932
[21]
27 January 1922

31 May 1922
CS GDVP Experts
CS   Dr.
Ignaz Seipel
1876–1932
[22]
31 May 1922

20 November 1924
1923 CS GDVP Experts
CS   Dr.
Rudolf Ramek
1881–1941
[23]
20 November 1924

20 October 1926
CS GDVP
CS   Dr.
Ignaz Seipel
1876–1932
20 October 1926

4 May 1929
1927 CS GDVP Landbund
CS   Ernst Streeruwitz
1874–1952
[24]
4 May 1929

26 September 1929
CS Landbund  
Wilhelm Miklas
IND   Iur. DDDr.
Johannes Schober
1874–1932
26 September 1929

30 September 1930
CS
CS   Carl Vaugoin
1873–1949
[25]
30 September 1930

4 December 1930
CS
CS   Dr.
Otto Ender
1875–1960
[26]
4 December 1930

20 June 1931
1930 CS
CS   Dr.
Karl Buresch
1878–1936
[27]
20 June 1931

20 May 1932
CS Landbund
CS   Dr.
Engelbert Dollfuss
1892–1934
[28]
20 May 1932

25 July 1934
CS Landbund Heimwehr
20 May 1932 – 1 May 1934

VF
1 May 1934 – 25 July 1934
VF
VF   Dr.
Kurt Schuschnigg
1897–1977
[29]
25 July 1934

29 July 1934
VF
29 July 1934

11 March 1938
NSDAP   Dr.
Arthur Seyss-Inquart
1892–1946
[30]
11 March 1938

13 March 1938
NSDAP

Austria was part of Nazi Germany from 12 March 1938 to 13 April 1945

SPÖ   Dr.
Karl Renner
1870–1950
[31][32][33]
27 April 1945

20 December 1945
SPÖ ÖVP KPÖ [d]
ÖVP   Dipl.-Ing. DDDr.
Leopold Figl
1902–1965
[34]
20 December 1945

2 April 1953
1945 ÖVP SPÖ  
Karl Renner
1949
ÖVP   Ing. DDDr.
Julius Raab
1891–1964
[35]
2 April 1953

11 April 1961
1953 ÖVP SPÖ  
Theodor Körner
1956
1959
ÖVP   Dr.
Alfons Gorbach
1898–1972
[36]
11 April 1961

2 April 1964
1962 ÖVP SPÖ  
Adolf Schärf
ÖVP   Dr.
Josef Klaus
1910–2001
[37]
2 April 1964

21 April 1970
ÖVP SPÖ
1966 ÖVP
SPÖ   Dr.
Bruno Kreisky
1911–1990
[38]
21 April 1970

24 May 1983
1970 SPÖ  
Franz Jonas
1971
1975
1979
SPÖ   Dr.
Fred Sinowatz
1929–2008
[39]
24 May 1983

16 June 1986
1983 SPÖ FPÖ  
Rudolf Kirchschläger
SPÖ   Dipl.-Kfm. Dr.
Franz Vranitzky
born 1937
[40]
16 June 1986

28 January 1997
1986 SPÖ FPÖ
1990 SPÖ ÖVP
1994
1995
SPÖ   Mag.
Viktor Klima
born 1947
[41]
28 January 1997

4 February 2000
SPÖ ÖVP
Thomas Klestil
ÖVP   Dr.
Wolfgang Schüssel
born 1945
[42]
4 February 2000

11 January 2007
1999 ÖVP FPÖ
4 February 2000 – 3 April 2005

ÖVP BZÖ
3 April 2005 – 11 January 2007
2002
SPÖ   Dr.
Alfred Gusenbauer
born 1960
[43]
11 January 2007

2 December 2008
2006 SPÖ ÖVP  
Heinz Fischer
SPÖ   Werner Faymann
born 1960
[44]
2 December 2008

9 May 2016
2008 SPÖ ÖVP
2013
ÖVP   Dr.
Reinhold Mitterlehner
born 1955
[45][46]
9 May 2016

17 May 2016
SPÖ ÖVP
SPÖ   Mag.
Christian Kern
born 1966
[47]
17 May 2016

18 December 2017
SPÖ ÖVP
ÖVP   Sebastian Kurz
born 1986
[48]
18 December 2017

28 May 2019
2017 ÖVP FPÖ
18 December 2017 – 22 May 2019

ÖVP
22 May 2019 – 28 May 2019
 
Alexander Van der Bellen
ÖVP   Hartwig Löger
born 1965
[49][50]
28 May 2019

3 June 2019
ÖVP
IND   Dr.
Brigitte Bierlein
born 1949
[51][52]
3 June 2019

7 January 2020
Independent
ÖVP   Sebastian Kurz
born 1986
[53]
7 January 2020

Present
2019 ÖVP Greens

StatisticsEdit

The median age at which a chancellor first takes office is 50 years and 134 days (the age at which Christian Kern became chancellor). The youngest person to ever assume the office is Sebastian Kurz, who took office at the age of 31 years, 113 days. The oldest person to become chancellor for the first time is Brigitte Bierlein at the age of 69 years, 343 days. Karl Renner served two nonconsecutive terms; at the beginning of his second term he was 74 years, 134 days old.

The oldest living former chancellor is Franz Vranitzky, born 4 October 1937, (aged 83 years, 299 days). The youngest living former chancellor is Christian Kern, born 4 January 1966, (aged 55 years, 207 days). The youngest living chancellor is the incumbent Sebastian Kurz, born 27 August 1986, (aged 34 years, 337 days).

The longest living chancellor was Josef Klaus, who died on 26 July 2001 at the age of 90 years, 345 days. Franz Vranitzky, the oldest living former chancellor, will surpass Klaus if he lives beyond 14 September 2028. The shortest living chancellor was Engelbert Dollfuss, who died in office on 25 July 1934 at the age of 41 years, 294 days.

The chancellor with the longest retirement is Kurt Schuschnigg. He left office on 11 March 1938, and died 39 years, and 252 days later on 18 November 1977.

No. Chancellor Date of birth Assumed office
(first term)
Age at ascension
(first term)
Time in office
(total)
Left office
(last term)
Age at retirement
(last term)
Length of
retirement
Date of death Lifespan
1 Karl Renner 14 December 1870 30 October 1918 (1918-10-30) 47 years, 320 days 2 years, 135 days 20 December 1945 (1945-12-20) 75 years, 6 days 5 years, 11 days 31 December 1950 80 years, 17 days
2 Michael Mayr 10 April 1864 7 July 1920 (1920-07-07) 56 years, 88 days 349 days 21 June 1921 (1921-06-21) 57 years, 72 days 334 days 21 May 1922 58 years, 41 days
3 Johann Schober 14 November 1874 21 June 1921 (1921-06-21) 46 years, 219 days 1 year,  347 days 30 September 1930 (1930-09-30) 55 years, 320 days 1 year, 324 days 19 August 1932 57 years, 279 days
4 Walter Breisky 8 July 1871 26 January 1922 (1922-01-26) 50 years, 202 days 1 day  27 January 1922 (1922-01-27) 50 years, 203 days 22 years, 242 days 25 September 1944 73 years, 79 days
5 Ignaz Seipel 19 July 1876 31 May 1922 (1922-05-31) 45 years, 316 days 5 years, 6 days 4 May 1929 (1929-05-04) 52 years, 289 days 3 years, 90 days 2 August 1932 56 years, 14 days
6 Rudolf Ramek 12 April 1881 20 November 1924 (1924-11-20) 43 years, 222 days 1 year, 334 days 20 October 1926 (1926-10-20) 45 years, 191 days 14 years, 277 days 24 July 1941 60 years, 103 days
7 Ernst Streeruwitz 23 September 1874 4 May 1929 (1929-05-04) 54 years, 223 days 145 days 26 September 1929 (1929-09-26) 55 years, 3 days 23 years, 23 days 19 October 1952 78 years, 26 days
8 Carl Vaugoin 8 July 1873 30 September 1930 (1930-09-30) 57 years, 84 days 65 days 4 December 1930 (1930-12-04) 57 years, 149 days 18 years, 188 days 10 June 1949 75 years, 337 days
9 Otto Ender 24 December 1875 4 December 1930 (1930-12-04) 54 years, 345 days 199 days 20 June 1931 (1931-06-20) 55 years, 178 days 29 years, 5 days 25 June 1960 84 years, 184 days
10 Karl Buresch 12 October 1878 20 June 1931 (1931-06-20) 52 years, 251 days 335 days 20 May 1932 (1932-05-20) 53 years, 221 days 4 years, 119 days 16 September 1936 57 years, 340 days
11 Engelbert Dollfuss 4 October 1892 20 May 1932 (1932-05-20) 39 years, 229 days 2 years, 65 days 25 July 1934 (1934-07-25)[54] 41 years, 294 days N/A 25 July 1934 41 years, 294 days
12 Kurt Schuschnigg 14 December 1897 25 July 1934 (25 July 1934) 36 years, 223 days 3 years, 225 days 11 March 1938 (1938-03-11) 40 years, 87 days 39 years, 252 days 18 November 1977 79 years, 339 days
13 Arthur Seyss-Inquart 22 July 1892 11 March 1938 (1938-03-11) 45 years, 232 days 2 days 13 March 1938 (1938-03-13) 45 years, 234 days 8 years, 217 days 16 October 1946 54 years, 86 days
15 Leopold Figl 2 October 1902 20 December 1945 (1945-12-20) 43 years, 79 days 7 years, 103 days 2 April 1953 (1953-04-02) 50 years, 182 days 12 years, 37 days 9 May 1965 62 years, 219 days
16 Julius Raab 29 November 1891 2 April 1953 (1953-04-02) 61 years, 124 days 8 years, 9 days 11 April 1961 (1961-04-11) 69 years, 133 days 2 years, 272 days 8 January 1964 72 years, 40 days
17 Alfons Gorbach 2 September 1898 11 April 1961 (1961-04-11) 62 years, 221 days 2 years, 357 days 2 April 1964 (1964-04-02) 65 years, 213 days 8 years, 120 days 31 July 1972 73 years, 333 days
18 Josef Klaus 15 August 1910 2 April 1964 (1964-04-02) 53 years, 231 days 6 years, 19 days 21 April 1970 (1970-04-21) 59 years, 249 days 31 years, 95 days 25 July 2001 90 years, 344 days
19 Bruno Kreisky 22 January 1911 21 April 1970 (1970-04-21) 59 years, 89 days 13 years, 33 days 24 May 1983 (1983-05-24) 72 years, 122 days 7 years, 66 days 29 July 1990 79 years, 188 days
20 Fred Sinowatz 5 February 1929 24 May 1983 (1983-05-24) 54 years, 108 days 3 year, 23 days 16 June 1986 (1986-06-16) 57 years, 131 days 22 years, 56 days 11 August 2008 79 years, 188 days
21 Franz Vranitzky 4 October 1937 16 June 1986 (1986-06-16) 48 years, 255 days 10 years, 226 days 28 January 1997 (1997-01-28) 59 years, 116 days 24 years, 183 days Living 83 years, 299 days (Living)
22 Viktor Klima 4 June 1947 28 January 1997 (1997-01-28) 49 years, 238 days 3 years, 7 days 4 February 2000 (2000-02-04) 52 years, 245 days 21 years, 176 days Living 74 years, 56 days (Living)
23 Wolfgang Schüssel 7 June 1945 4 February 2000 (2000-02-04) 54 years, 242 days 6 years, 341 days 11 January 2007 (2007-01-11) 61 years, 218 days 14 years, 200 days Living 76 years, 53 days (Living)
24 Alfred Gusenbauer 8 February 1960 11 January 2007 (2007-01-11) 46 years, 337 days 1 year,  326 days 2 December 2008 (2008-12-02) 48 years, 298 days 12 years, 240 days Living 61 years, 172 days (Living)
25 Werner Faymann 4 May 1960 2 December 2008 (2008-12-02) 48 years, 212 days 7 years, 159 days May 9, 2016 (2016-05-09) 56 years, 5 days 5 years, 82 days Living 61 years, 87 days (Living)
26 Christian Kern 4 January 1966 17 May 2016 (2016-05-17) 50 years, 134 days 1 year,  215 days 18 December 2017 (2017-12-18) 51 years, 348 days 3 years, 224 days Living 55 years, 207 days (Living)
27 Sebastian Kurz 27 August 1986 18 December 2017 (2017-12-18) 31 years, 113 days Ongoing Incumbent Incumbent Incumbent Living 34 years, 337 days (Living)
28 Brigitte Bierlein 25 June 1949 3 June 2019 (2019-06-03) 69 years, 343 days 218 days 7 January 2020 (2020-01-07) 70 years, 196 days 1 year, 204 days Living 72 years, 35 days (Living)

Living former chancellorsEdit

There are eight living former Austrian chancellors:

Oldest living chancellorsEdit

Not all chancellors live to become the oldest of their time. Of the 20 deceased chancellors, 8 eventually became the oldest of their time, while 12 did not. On one occasion the oldest living chancellor lost this distinction not by his death, but due to the appointment of a chancellor who was older. Karl Renner lost this distinction when Michael Mayr was appointed, but when Mayr died in 1922, Renner regained it again until his own death in 1950 for a record total period of 30 years and 110 days. Ernst Streeruwitz became the oldest living chancellor after the death of Karl Renner, but he survived Renner by only 1 year and 293 days.

Otto Ender was the oldest to acquire this distinction at the age of 76 years, and 300 days. Bruno Kreisky, who was 79 years, and 188 days old when he died, on 29 July 1990 was the oldest and most recent chancellor to die without ever acquiring this distinction.

Chancellor Period when oldest living chancellor Age Duration
Start date End date at start at end
Karl Renner 30 October 1918 7 July 1920 47 years, 320 days 49 years, 206 days 1 year, 251 days
Michael Mayr 7 July 1920 21 May 1922 56 years, 88 days 58 years, 41 days 1 year, 318 days
Karl Renner 21 May 1922 31 December 1950 51 years, 158 days 80 years, 17 days 28 years, 224 days
Ernst Streeruwitz 31 December 1950 19 October 1952 76 years, 99 days 78 years, 26 days 1 year, 293 days
Otto Ender 19 October 1952 25 June 1960 76 years, 300 days 84 years, 184 days 7 years, 250 days
Julius Raab 25 June 1960 8 January 1964 68 years, 209 days 72 years, 40 days 2 years, 19 days
Kurt Schuschnigg 8 January 1964 18 November 1977 66 years, 25 days 79 years, 339 days 13 years, 314 days
Josef Klaus 18 November 1977 25 July 2001 67 years, 95 days 90 years, 344 days 23 years, 249 days
Fred Sinowatz 25 July 2001 11 August 2008 72 years, 170 days 79 years, 188 days 7 years, 17 days
Franz Vranitzky 11 August 2008 70 years, 312 days 12 years, 353 days
Chancellor Start date End date Age at start Age at end Duration

[55]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Karl Renner initially served as State Chancellor of the Republic of German-Austria until 21 October 1919, when the country renamed itself to the First Austrian Republic. The office of the chancellor and Renner's term however, remained fully untouched during the renaming process.
  2. ^ The chancellor is appointed by the president of Austria. However, since the office of the president was only established in the year 1920, Karl Renner had been an exception. He was instead appointed by the provisional State Council.
  3. ^ Office renamed from "State Chancellor" to "Federal Chancellor" on 10 November 1920.
  4. ^ After the Red Army freed Vienna from the Nazi Regime, Renner formed a cabinet under Soviet rule. The cabinet was accepted by the Soviets on 27 April 1945 and recognized by all states of Austria as well as the Allied Control Council in September 1945.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Bundeskanzler Sebastian Kurz". www.bundeskanzleramt.gv.at (in German). Archived from the original on 2017-12-22. Retrieved 2019-03-03.
  2. ^ "Treaty of Saint-Germain". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2019-03-11.
  3. ^ "First Republic and the Anschluss". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  4. ^ "The Assassination of Engelbert Dollfuss, July 25, 1934". www.eclecticatbest.com. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  5. ^ "Kurt von Schuschnigg". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  6. ^ "Arthur Seyss-Inquart". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  7. ^ "Josef Bürckel". www.geschichtewiki.wien.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  8. ^ "Baldur von Schirach". www.geschichtewiki.wien.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  9. ^ "Gesetz über Gebietsveränderungen in Österreich". alex.onb.ac.a (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  10. ^ "Anschluss". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  11. ^ "The years of the Allied Forces in Vienna". www.wien.gv.at. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  12. ^ "Full text of the Austrian State Treaty" (PDF). treaties.un.org. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  13. ^ "Art. 69 B-VG". www.jusline.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-04.
  14. ^ "Art. 64 B-VG". www.jusline.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-04.
  15. ^ "Dr. Karl Renner". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  16. ^ "Bundesregierung (Österreich)". austria-forum.org (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  17. ^ "Staatsregierung Renner I". anno.onb.ac.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  18. ^ "Dr. Michael Mayr". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  19. ^ "abs. iur. DDDr. h.c Johannes Schober". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  20. ^ "abs. iur. DDDr. h.c Johannes Schober". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  21. ^ "abs. iur. DDDr. h.c Johannes Schober". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  22. ^ "Dr. Ignaz Seipel". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  23. ^ "Dr. Rudolf Ramek". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  24. ^ "Ernst Streeruwitz". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  25. ^ "Carl Vaugoin". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  26. ^ "Dr. Otto Ender". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  27. ^ "Dr. Karl Buresch". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  28. ^ "Dr. Karl Buresch". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  29. ^ "Dr. Kurt Schuschnigg". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  30. ^ "Arthur Seyss-Inquart". www.geschichtewiki.wien.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  31. ^ "Bundeskanzler seit 1945". www.bundeskanzleramt.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-03.
  32. ^ "Kanzler und Regierungen seit 1945". www.bundeskanzleramt.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  33. ^ "Karl Renner (Politiker)". www.geschichtewiki.wien.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  34. ^ "Dipl.-Ing. DDDr. h.c. Leopold Figl". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  35. ^ "Ing. DDDr. Julius Raab". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  36. ^ "Dr. Alfons Gorbach". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  37. ^ "Dr. Josef Klaus". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  38. ^ "Dr. Bruno Kreisky". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  39. ^ "Dr. Fred Sinowatz". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  40. ^ "Dipl.-Kfm. Dr. Franz Vranitzky". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  41. ^ "Mag. Viktor Klima". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  42. ^ "Dr. Wolfgang Schüssel". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  43. ^ "Dr. Alfred Gusenbauer". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  44. ^ "Werner Faymann". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  45. ^ "Dr. Reinhold Mitterlehner". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  46. ^ "ÖVP-Chef "überrascht"". orf.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  47. ^ "Mag. Christian Kern". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  48. ^ "Sebastian Kurz". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  49. ^ "Bundespräsident Van der Bellen enthebt Regierung ihres Amtes" (in German). APA. 28 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  50. ^ "Hartwig Löger". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  51. ^ "Kabinett Bierlein angelobt". orf.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-03.
  52. ^ "Dr. Brigitte Bierlein". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  53. ^ "Sebastian Kurz". www.parlament.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-05.
  54. ^ Died in office on this date.
  55. ^ Updated daily according to UTC.

External linksEdit