This article is missing information about LGBT demographics in the U.S. territories.(September 2019)
The demographics of sexual orientation and gender identity in the United States have been studied in the social sciences in recent decades. A 2022 Gallup poll concluded that 7.1% of adult Americans identified as LGBT. A different survey in 2016, from the Williams Institute, estimated that 0.6% of U.S. adults identify as transgender. As of 2022, estimates for the total percentage of U.S. adults that are transgender or nonbinary range from 0.5% to 1.6%. Additionally, a Pew Research survey from 2022 found that approximately 5% of young adults in the U.S. say their gender is different from their sex assigned at birth.
Studies from several nations, including the U.S., conducted at varying time periods, have produced a statistical range of 1.2 to 6.8 percent of the adult population identifying as LGBT. Online surveys tend to yield higher figures than other methods, a likely result of the higher degree of anonymity of Internet surveys, and demographic of those utilizing online platforms which elicit reduced levels of socially desirable responding. As of 2010[update] the U.S. Census Bureau did not ask singles about sexual orientation in the United States Census. In the 2020 United States census, same-sex married couples accounted for 0.5% of all U.S. households and unmarried same-sex couples accounted for 0.4% of all U.S. households.
State-by-state summary edit
|State or territory||2015–2016 LGBT
|2000 to 2010
|2016 transgender adult percentage estimate|
|38||1||District of Columbia||8.6%||632,323||63,232||3,678||4,822||31.10%||2.77%|
|—||—||Total||3.8%||Total population: 313,914,039
Adult population: 238,574,670
By locality edit
Parts of this article (those related to documentation) need to be updated.(September 2015)
The American cities with the highest gay populations are New York City with 272,493, Los Angeles with 154,270, Chicago with 114,449, and San Francisco with 94,234, as estimated by the Williams Institute in 2006. However, gay residents are much more likely to be encountered in San Francisco, Seattle, Atlanta, Minneapolis, and Boston because a higher percentage of those cities' residents are gay or lesbian.
The U.S. metropolitan areas with the most gay residents are the New York, New York–Northern New Jersey–Long Island, New York metro with 568,903; followed by Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana, California with 442,211; and the Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, Illinois-Indiana-Wisconsin metro with 288,748.
The charts list the top U.S. cities (in alphabetical order), metropolitan areas, and states with the highest population of gay residents and the highest percentage of gay residents (GLB population as a percentage of total residents based on available census data). The numbers given are estimates based on American Community Survey data for the year 2006.
By city edit
|11||Salt Lake City||7.6%||10,726|
|34||New York City||4.5%||272,493|
By metropolitan area edit
% LGB Est.
LGB Pop. Est.
% LGBT Est.
% LGBT Est.
LGBT Pop. Est.
LGBT Pop. Est.
|San Francisco-Oakland-Berkeley, CA MSA||8.2%||256,313||6.2%||6.7%||247,000||-9,313|
|Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA MSA||6.1%||94,027||5.4%||6.0%||112,000||17,973|
|Austin-Round Rock-Georgetown, TX MSA||5.9%||61,732||5.3%||5.9%||90,000||28,268|
|Seattle-Tacoma, WA CSA||6.5%||154,835||4.8%||5.2%||152,000||-2,835|
|Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA MSA||4.8%||442,211||4.6%||5.1%||523,000||80,789|
|Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV MSA||3.9%||48,532||4.3%||5.1%||82,000||33,468|
|Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL MSA||5.7%||81,272||4.1%||5.0%||93,000||11,728|
|Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH MSA||6.2%||201,344||4.8%||4.9%||186,000||-15,344|
|Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO MSA||5.8%||99,027||4.6%||4.8%||103,000||3,973|
|Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL MSA||5.9%||119,044||4.1%||4.8%||113,000||-6,044|
|Tucson, AZ MSA||4.7%||37,000||N/A|
|New Orleans-Metairie, LA MSA||3.7%||35,230||5.1%||4.7%||46,000||10,770|
|Salt Lake City, UT MSA||3.7%||26,761||4.7%||4.7%||39,000||12,239|
|Hartford-East Hartford-Middletown, CT MSA||5.6%||49,000||4.6%||4.6%||44,000||-5,000|
|Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Alpharetta, GA MSA||5.1%||180,168||4.2%||4.6%||194,000||13,832|
|Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson, IN MSA||4.5%||52,963||4.2%||4.5%||68,000||15,037|
|San Diego-Chula Vista-Carlsbad, CA MSA||4.9%||102,016||3.9%||4.5%||115,000||12,984|
|Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV MSA||5.0%||191,959||4.0%||4.5%||209,000||17,041|
|Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL MSA||4.5%||183,346||4.2%||4.5%||214,000||30,654|
|Worcester, MA-CT MSA||4.5%||33,000||N/A|
|New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA MSA||4.1%||568,903||4.0%||4.5%||706,000||137,097|
|Providence-Warwick, RI-MA MSA||3.6%||43,417||4.4%||4.5%||58,000||14,583|
|Sacramento-Roseville-Folsom, CA MSA||5.5%||81,759||3.9%||4.4%||77,000||-4,759|
|Albuquerque, NM MSA||4.4%||31,000||N/A|
|Columbus, OH MSA||5.5%||68,300||4.3%||4.4%||67,000||-1,300|
|San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX MSA||3.5%||46,188||4.0%||4.4%||78,000||31,812|
|Phoenix-Mesa-Chandler, AZ MSA||4.8%||132,960||4.1%||4.3%||146,000||13,040|
|Rochester, NY MSA||4.3%||37,000||N/A|
|Jacksonville, FL MSA||4.0%||36,422||4.3%||4.2%||47,000||10,578|
|Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN MSA||4.2%||17,102||4.5%||4.2%||42,000||24,898|
|Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI MSA||5.7%||130,472||3.6%||4.2%||112,000||-18,472|
|Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD MSA||4.2%||179,459||3.9%||4.2%||198,000||18,541|
|Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI MSA||4.3%||288,748||3.8%||4.1%||298,000||9,252|
|Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD MSA||5.2%||100,032||3.9%||4.1%||89,000||-11,032|
|Buffalo-Cheektowaga, NY MSA||3.3%||28,193||3.9%||4.1%||37,000||8,807|
|Tulsa, OK MSA||4.1%||30,000||N/A|
|Richmond, VA MSA||3.4%||28,750||3.5%||4.1%||40,000||11,250|
|Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA||3.9%||44,689||4.4%||4.1%||55,000||10,311|
|Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA MSA||4.9%||131,555||4.0%||4.0%||133,000||1,445|
|Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY MSA||4.0%||28,000||N/A|
|Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC MSA||3.3%||36,464||3.8%||4.0%||74,000||37,536|
|Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX MSA||4.5%||183,718||3.8%||4.0%||211,000||27,282|
|Detroit–Warren–Dearborn, MI MSA||3.0%||98,402||3.9%||3.8%||131,000||32,598|
|San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA MSA||5.0%||63,941||3.2%||3.8%||58,000||-5,941|
|Kansas City, MO-KS MSA||5.1%||72,080||3.6%||3.8%||60,000||-12,080|
|Cleveland-Elyria, OH MSA||4.3%||66,943||3.7%||3.8%||62,000||-4,943|
|Oklahoma City, OK MSA||3.3%||28,288||3.5%||3.8%||39,000||10,712|
|St. Louis, MO-IL MSA||4.1%||83,769||3.6%||3.7%||79,000||-4,769|
|Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Franklin, TN MSA||3.8%||57,027||3.5%||3.7%||52,000||-5,027|
|Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN MSA||3.8%||57,027||3.2%||3.6%||60,000||2,973|
|Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX MSA||4.1%||152,288||3.3%||3.5%||169,000||16,712|
|Milwaukee-Waukesha, WI MSA||3.7%||40,407||3.5%||3.5%||42,000||1,593|
|Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA MSA||3.4%||23,000||N/A|
|Raleigh-Cary, NC MSA||3.2%||3.3%||32,000||N/A|
|Pittsburgh, PA MSA||2.8%||50,994||3.0%||3.3%||63,000||12,006|
Statistics by year edit
"Homosexuality/Heterosexuality: Concepts of Sexual Orientation" published findings of 13.95% of males and 4.25% of females having had either "extensive" or "more than incidental" homosexual experience.
An extensive study on sexuality in general was conducted in the United States. A significant portion of the study was geared towards homosexuality. The results found that 8.6% of women and 10.1% of men had at one point in their life experienced some form of homosexuality. Of this group, 87% of women and 76% of men reported current same-sex attractions, 41% of women and 52% of men had sex with someone of the same gender, and 16% of women and 27% of men identified as LGBT.
The American National Health Interview Survey conducts household interviews of the civilian non-institutionalized population. The results of three of these surveys, done in 1990–91 and based on over 9,000 responses each time, found between 2% and 3% of the people responding said yes to a set of statements which included "You are a man who has had sex with another man at some time since 1977, even one time."
The National Health and Social Life Survey asked 3,432 respondents whether they had any homosexual experience. The findings were 1.3% for women within the past year, and 4.1% since 18 years; for men, 2.7% within the past year, and 4.9% since 18 years.
The Alan Guttmacher Institute of sexually active men aged 20–39 found that 2.3% had experienced same-sex sexual activity in the last ten years, and 1.1% reported exclusive homosexual contact during that time.
Researchers Samuel and Cynthia Janus surveyed American adults aged 18 and over by distributing 4,550 questionnaires; 3,260 were returned and 2,765 were usable. The results of the cross-sectional (not random) nationwide survey stated 9% of men and 5% of women reported having had homosexual experiences "frequently" or "ongoing". In another measure, 4% of men and 2% of women self-identified as homosexual.
Laumann et al. analyzed the National Health and Social Life Survey of 1992 which had surveyed 3,432 men and women in the United States between the ages of 18 and 59 and reported that the incidence rate of homosexual desire was 7.7% for men and 7.5% for women.
A random survey of 1672 males (number used for analysis) aged 15 to 19. Subjects were asked a number of questions, including questions relating to same-sex activity. This was done using two methods—a pencil and paper method, and via computer, supplemented by a verbal rendition of the questionnaire heard through headphones—which obtained vastly different results. There was a 400% increase in males reporting same-sex sexual activity when the computer-audio system was used: from a 1.5% to 5.5% positive response rate; the homosexual behavior with the greatest reporting difference (800%, adjusted) was to the question "Ever had receptive anal sex with another male": 0.1% to 0.8%.
During the 2000 US presidential election campaign, market research firm Harris Interactive studied the prevalence of a gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender identity employing three distinct methods. In phone interviews, 2% of the population self-identified as LGBT. Using in-person surveys with a blind envelope, that grew to 4%, and using online polls 6%. The group concluded that the difference between methods was due to the greater level of anonymity and privacy to online surveys, which provides more comfort to respondents to share their experiences.
Smith's 2003 analysis of National Opinion Research Center data states that 4.9% of sexually active American males have had a male sexual partner since age 18, but that "since age 18 less than 1% are [exclusively] gay and 4+% bisexual". In the top twelve urban areas however, the rates are double the national average. Smith adds, "It is generally believed that including adolescent behavior would further increase these rates." The NORC data has been criticised because the original design sampling techniques were not followed, and depended upon direct self-report regarding masturbation and same sex behaviors. (For example, the original data in the early 1990s reported that approximately 40% of adult males had never masturbated—a finding inconsistent with some other studies.)
In a telephone survey of 4,193 male residents of New York City, 91.3% of men identified as straight, 3.7% as gay, and 1.2% as bisexual. 1.7% said they were in doubt or were not sure and 2.1% declined to answer. 12.4% of men who responded to the sexual orientation question, reported sex exclusively with men in the 12 months prior to the survey. Most of them (c. 70%) identified as heterosexual.
The American Community Survey from the U.S. Census estimated 776,943 same-sex couples in the country as a whole, representing about 0.5% of the population.
Fried's 2008 analysis of General Social Survey data shows the percentage of United States males reporting homosexual activity for three time periods: 1988–1992, 1993–1998, and 2000–2006. These results are broken out by political party self-identification, and indicate increasing percentages, particularly among Democrats (perhaps reflecting, in the authors' view, either a shift of political allegiance among gay Americans, or increasing likelihood of acknowledging a homosexual orientation).
Cornell University, carrying out research into sexuality amongst a representative sample of more than 20,000 young Americans, published that 14.4% of young women were not strictly heterosexual in behavior, a group that included lesbian and bisexual women; 5.6% of young men self-identified as being gay or bisexual.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys interviewed a nationally representative sample of 11,744 adults aged 20 to 59 between 2003 and 2010. One hundred and eighty (1.5%) self-reported a homosexual orientation and 273 (2.3%) a bisexual one.
The National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior surveyed nearly 6,000 people nationwide between the ages of 14 and 94 through an online methodology and found that 7% of women and 8% of men identify as gay, lesbian or bisexual.
Using a phone methodology, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey found, in a sample of about 10,000 women and 8,000 men, that 1.3% of women and 2% of men identify as gay or lesbian, and 1.2% of men and 2.2% of women identify as bisexual.
A 2011 UCLA School of Law Williams Institute survey found that 3.5% of Americans, estimated, identified themselves as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. The same survey found that an estimated .3% of adult Americans identified themselves as transgender.
A Gallup report published in October 2012 by the Williams Institute reported that 3.4% of US adults identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender. Minorities were more likely to identify as non-heterosexual; 4.6% of blacks, 4.0% of Hispanics and 3.2% of whites. Younger people, aged 18–29, were three times more likely to identify as LGBT than seniors over the age of 65, the numbers being 6.4% and 1.9%, respectively.
In the first large-scale government survey measuring Americans' sexual orientation, the NHIS reported in July 2014 that 1.6% of Americans identify as gay or lesbian, and 0.7% identify as bisexual. 1.5% of women self-identify as lesbian and 0.9% consider themselves bisexual, while 1.8% of men consider themselves gay and 0.4% identify as bisexual.
2002–2013 National Survey of Family Growth edit
The National Survey of Family Growth is a nationally representative, multi-year survey of teenagers and adults aged 15–44. The sexual orientation items are presented only to interviewees over age 18. Results are presented separately for women and men.
|Gay/lesbian||Bisexual||Something else||Heterosexual||Did not report|
|Gay/lesbian||Bisexual||Something else||Heterosexual||Did not report|
In an experiment, the National Bureau of Economic Research concluded that the share of the population that is non-heterosexual has been significantly underestimated in surveys using traditional questioning methods, even if anonymous. In this study, it was found that, in all three facets of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior), the percentage of individuals who recognized themselves as non-heterosexual was larger when the survey method in use was the item randomized response, known to reduce socially desirable responding, in lieu of questions with direct responses. However, because the study was based on online volunteer samples and was therefore not nationally representative, researchers make no suggestion as to the real size of the LGBT population.
Writing in the opinion section of The New York Times in 2013, Seth Stephens-Davidowitz estimated that roughly 5% of American men are "primarily attracted to men". First, using Facebook data and Gallup poll results, he correlated the percentage of men who are openly gay with their state of birth and residence. Second, he measured what percentage of Google pornographic searches were for gay porn. The first method gave between 1% and 3%. The second showed that roughly 5% of men search for gay porn in every state. The figure was slightly higher in states considered gay-tolerant than in others.
According to the 2014 General Social Survey behavior study, the percentage of Americans that have had a same-sex sexual partner has steadily increased since the early 1990s. In the 1989-1994 period, 4.53% of men and 3.61% of women self-reported sex with women ever, which grew to 8.18% of men and 8.74% of women in the 2010-2014 period. The augmentation is mainly due to those who self-report sex with both genders; among those who have only had sex with the same gender, no clear pattern of increase emerged throughout the periods analyzed.
In a nationally representative telephone survey of 35,071 Americans, Pew Research found that 1,604, or 4.6%, of the sample identified as gay, lesbian or bisexual, and 32,439 (or 92.4%) as heterosexual, with the remainder refusing or being unable to provide an answer, or identifying as something else.
In a nationally representative survey of 2,021 Americans carried out by Indiana University, it was found that 89.8% of men and 92.2% of women identify as heterosexual, 1.9% of men and 3.6% of women as bisexual, 5.8% of men and 1.5% of women consider themselves gay or lesbian, 0.5% of men and 1.3% of women identify as asexual, and 0.7% of men and 0.9% of women as other.
The Public Religion Research Institute (PRRI) survey of 2,314 millennials found that 88% identified as heterosexual, 4% as bisexual, 2% as gay, and 1% as lesbian. In a separate question, 1% identified as transgender. In total, 7% of millennials identified as LGBT. Three percent refused to identify their sexual orientation. The unaffiliated were more likely to identify as LGBT than the religious, as were Democratic-leaning millennials compared to the Republican-leaning. No differences were found along racial lines.
In a YouGov survey of 1,000 adults, 2% of the sample identified as gay male, 2% as gay female, 4% as bisexual (of either sex), and 89% as heterosexual.
2008–2016 General Social Survey identity polling edit
In National Election Pool's exit poll of over 24,500 Election Day voters, 5% identified as LGBT.
Gallup's daily tracking phone survey found that the proportion of Americans who identify as LGBT in 2016 was 4.1% – which represents growth over the 3.6% registered when the question started being asked in 2012. Growth was highest among women, millennials, the non-religious, Hispanics, and Asians, and happened across income and educational categories. Among the religious, and older generations than millennials, the share of those self-identifying as LGBT remained stable or varied negatively.
A female-only survey found that 7% of American women identify as gay or bisexual.
According to a national survey organized by the Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation and Harris Poll, 12% of the US adult population is either a sexual minority (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual, asexual or pansexual) or identifies as something other than cisgender. This proportion was highest among millennials (20%) and decreased with age, reaching 5% among those who were aged 72 or more.
The Public Religion Research Institute (PRRI) conducted a survey of over 100,000 U.S. residents from January 2016 to January 2017 asking, among a variety of attitude and demographic questions, whether or not they consider themselves LGBT. 4.4% of respondents answered affirmatively to that question, and 90.4% responded negatively. The remainder 5.3% did not know or refused to answer.
The 2019 American Values Atlas by the Public Religion Research Institute found that of all Americans that identify as LGBT, 51% where White Americans while 21% were Hispanic Americans and 13% were African Americans. The same study found that 23% of LGBT Americans identify as Protestant while 13% identify as Catholic.
A February 2021 Gallup poll reported that 5.6% of US adults identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. 86.7% said that they were heterosexual or straight, and 7.6% refused to answer. More than half of all LGBT adults identify as bisexual (54.6%), while around a quarter (24.5%) identify as gay, 11.7% as lesbian, and 11.3% as transgender. Additionally, 3.3% of respondents chose another term to describe their orientation (e.g. queer). As a percentage of all US adults, 3.1% identify as bisexual, 1.4% as gay, 0.7% as lesbian, and 0.6% as transgender.
According to a 2021 report from the Human Rights Campaign (HRC), "at least 20 million adults in the United States could be lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender people." and "Millions more could be another identity that is more expansive than these four terms." Others have estimated that there may be up to 30 million Americans who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. A study found that 16 to 20 percent of Americans have experienced same sex attraction and some scholars have claimed that the population of Americans who have experienced same sex attraction reached fifty million.
In 2021, 8% of respondents to the United States Census Bureau's Household Pulse Survey identified as LGBTQ, with an additional 2% of respondents having identified as neither gay, lesbian, bisexual, or straight. The Household Pulse Survey also indicated that more than 1% of adults in the United States could identify as transgender, with an additional 2% of respondents having identified as neither cisgender or transgender. This was the first time the U.S. Census Bureau asked about sexual identity and gender identity in a survey.
A 2021 global pride survey by Ipsos, a multinational market research company, found that the percentage of those who identify as transgender, nonbinary, nonconforming, genderfluid, or as something other than male or female, was statistically significantly higher in the Generation Z (those born since 1997) population, at 4%, compared to the 1% of all other adults. The statistic is estimated to be the same in the United States as it is globally. The Census Bureau found that there were 1.2 million same sex couple households in the United States.
In February 2022 a Gallup poll reported that 7.1% of US adults identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. 34.6% of LGBT respondents were lesbian or gay, 56.8% were bisexual, 10.0% were transgender, and 4.3% identified as something else. LGBTQ+ identity was significantly higher among younger generations (20.8% of Generation Z and 10.5% of Millennials) than older generations (4.2% of Generation X, 2.6% of Baby Boomers, and 0.8% of those born before 1946).
In June 2022, Pew Research published a survey finding that 1.6% of U.S. adults are transgender or nonbinary, and approximately 5% of young adults in the U.S. say their gender is different from their sex assigned at birth.
In June 2022, the Williams Institute published a report with the following findings:
- Over 1.6 million adults (ages 18 and older) and youth (ages 13 to 17) identify as transgender in the United States, or 0.6% of those ages 13 and older.
- Among U.S. adults, 0.5% (about 1.3 million adults) identify as transgender. Among youth ages 13 to 17 in the U.S., 1.4% (about 300,000 youth) identify as transgender.
- Of the 1.3 million adults who identify as transgender, 38.5% (515,200) are transgender women, 35.9% (480,000) are transgender men, and 25.6% (341,800) reported they are gender nonconforming.
A February 2023 Gallup poll reported that 7.2% of US adults identify as LGBT, 86% identified as straight or heterosexual, while 7% chose not to answer. 13.4% of LGBT respondents were lesbian, 20.2% gay, 58.2% bisexual, 8.8% transgender, and 6% as another LGBT identity (e.g., pansexual). LGBT identification was higher in younger generations (19.7% of Gen Z and 11.2% of Millennials) than in older generations (3.3% of Generation X, 2.7% of Baby Boomers, and 1.6% of the Silent Generation).
- "LGBT Identification in U.S. Ticks Up to 7.1%". Gallup. 17 Feb 2022.
- Institute UCLA School of Law. "How Many Adults Identify as Transgender in the United States" (PDF).
- "How Many Adults and Youth Identify as Transgender in the United States?" (PDF). June 2022.
- Mitchell, Travis (2022-06-07). "The Experiences, Challenges and Hopes of Transgender and Nonbinary U.S. Adults". Pew Research Center’s Social & Demographic Trends Project. Retrieved 2023-03-08.
- Brown, Anna. "About 5% of young adults in the U.S. say their gender is different from their sex assigned at birth". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 2023-03-08.
- Gates, Gary J. (April 2011). "How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender?". Williams Institute, University of California School of Law.
- Charlotte J. Patterson (Editor); Anthony R. D'Augelli (Editor) (2012). Handbook of Psychology and Sexual Orientation. Oxford University Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-0199765218.
|author1=has generic name (help)
- Peter J Aspinall (2009). Estimating the size and composition of the lesbian, gay, and bisexual population in Britain (PDF) (Report). p. 13.
The Ellison and Gunstone online survey (2009) for the Commission of over 5,000 people indicates that all methods involving interviewing in a person's home, whether face-to-face or by telephone, may incur misreporting, especially when another person is present. Respondents report that they would be least likely to conceal their sexual orientation (by switching to another sexual orientation category) when self-completion online surveys are used.
- "'Queering the census' movement aims to get single gays counted". NY Daily News. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- Overberg, Paul; DeBarros, Anthony (May 25, 2023). "Same-Sex Couples Accounted for 1% of Households in 2020, Census Shows". The Wall Street Journal. News Corp. Retrieved September 5, 2023.
- Gary J. Gates (February 15, 2017). "Vermont Leads States in LGBT Identification". State of the States. Gallup Politics. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
- Numbers are from List of U.S. states and territories by population.
- "Decennial Census Data on Same Sex Couples". Same Sex Couples. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 5, 2013. Retrieved June 30, 2013.
- "Williams Inst. Census Snapshot". Archived from the original on 2017-10-14. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
- Gary J. Gates "Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-01-15. Retrieved 2012-03-15. (2.07 MiB). The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation Law and Public Policy, UCLA School of Law October, 2006. Retrieved April 20, 2007.
- Note: the study cited is unclear as to the exact metro NY area that is included; on table 5, page 8, "New York–Northern New Jersey–Long Island" is included, but in Appendix 2, page 15, Pennsylvania also seems to be included as it states "New York–Northern New Jersey–Long Island, New York–NJ–PA"
- "American Community Survey 2000". Archived from the original on 2011-05-12. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- Gary J. Gates (October 2006). "Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey" (PDF). The Williams Institute. Retrieved January 26, 2020.
- "San Francisco Metro Area Ranks Highest in LGBT Percentage". Gallup.com. 20 March 2015. Retrieved 2015-10-22.
- "LGBT ADULTS IN LARGE US METROPOLITAN AREAS" (PDF). March 2021. Retrieved 2023-06-12.
- McWhirter, David P., Sanders, Stephanie A., & Reinisch, June Machover (eds.). (1990). Homosexuality/Heterosexuality: Concepts of Sexual Orientation. The Kinsey Institute Series. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Laumann, Edward O. (1994). The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States. University of Chicago Press. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-226-47020-7.
- Dawson, D. & Hardy, A.M. (1990–1992). National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control, Advance Data, 204, 1990–1992.
- Summary of The National Health and Social Life Survey ("The Sex Survey")
- Billy, John O. G.; Tanfer, Koray; Grady, William R.; Klepinger, Daniel H. (1993). "The Sexual Behavior of Men in the United States". Family Planning Perspectives. 25 (2): 52–60. doi:10.2307/2136206. JSTOR 2136206. PMID 8491287.
- Janus, Samuel S. & Janus, Cynthia L. (1993). The Janus Report on Sexual Behavior. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
- "Diversity of sexual orientation".
- Laumann, Edward O., Gagnon, John H., Michael, Robert T., and Michaels, Stuart (1994). The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 297.
- Turner CF, Ku L, Rogers SM, Lindberg LD, Pleck JH, Sonenstein FL (May 1998). "Adolescent sexual behavior, drug use, and violence: increased reporting with computer survey technology". Science. 280 (5365): 867–73. Bibcode:1998Sci...280..867T. doi:10.1126/science.280.5365.867. PMID 9572724.
- The GLBT Market Research Leaders - Hands Down (PDF) (Report). 2013.
- American Sexual Behavior: Trends, Socio-Demographic Differences, and Risk Behavior
- Preeti Pathela; Anjum Hajat; Julia Schillinger; Susan Blank; Randall Sell; Farzad Mostashari (2006). "Discordance between Sexual Behavior and Self-Reported Sexual Identity: A Population-Based Survey of New York City Men" (PDF). Annals of Internal Medicine. 145 (6): 416–425. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-145-6-200609190-00005. PMID 16983129. S2CID 32986730. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-28. Retrieved 2015-06-06.
- Fried, Joseph, Democrats and Republicans – Rhetoric and Reality (New York: Algora Publishing, 2008), 10.
- "Sax on Sex: The emerging science of sex differences". Psychology Today. 3 April 2010. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
- CNN.com. Retrieved on 2011-02-10.
- Susan D. Cochran; Frank C. Bandiera; Vickie M. Mays (2013). "Sexual Orientation–Related Differences in Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among US Adults Aged 20 to 59 Years: 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys". American Journal of Public Health. 103 (10): 1837–1844. doi:10.2105/ajph.2013.301423. PMC 3780743. PMID 23948019.
- National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior. Nationalsexstudy.indiana.edu. Retrieved on 2010-10-26.
- Walters, Mikel L.; Chen, Jieru; Breiding, Matthew J. (January 2013). "The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey 2010: Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Atlanta, Georgia, United States: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Retrieved 17 November 2022.
- thisisloyal.com, Loyal |. "How Many People are Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender?". Williams Institute. Retrieved 2022-03-06.
- Gates, Gary J.; Newport, Frank (October 18, 2012). "Special Report: 3.4% of U.S. Adults Identify as LGBT". Gallup.
- A Survey of LGBT Americans (PDF) (Report). Pew Research. 13 June 2013. p. 24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- "Presidential Race - 2012 Election Center - Elections & Politics from CNN.com".
- "Health survey gives government its first large-scale data on gay, bisexual population". The Washington Post. 2014-07-15. Retrieved 2022-06-11.
- Anjani Chandra; et al. (2011). "Sexual Behavior, Sexual Attraction, and Sexual Identity in the United States: Data From the 2006–2008 National Survey of Family Growth". Natl Health Stat Report. Mar 3 (36): 1–36.
- Anjani Chandra; Casey E. Copen; William D. Mosher (2013). "Sexual Behavior, Sexual Attraction, and Sexual Identity in the United States: Data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth". In Amanda K. Baumle (ed.). International Handbook on the Demography of Sexuality. Vol. 5. Texas A&M University. ISBN 978-94-007-5512-3.
- Copen CE; et al. (2016). "Sexual Behavior, Sexual Attraction, and Sexual Orientation Among Adults Aged 18–44 in the United States: Data From the 2011–2013 National Survey of Family Growth". Natl Health Stat Report. 2016 Jan 7 (88): 1–14.
- Coffman, Katherine B.; Coffman, Lucas C.; Ericson, Keith M. Marzilli (2013). "The Size of the LGBT Population and the Magnitude of Anti-Gay Sentiment are Substantially Underestimated" (PDF). Management Science. 63 (10): 3168–3186. doi:10.1287/mnsc.2016.2503. S2CID 35207796.
- Rose Eveleth (October 24, 2013). "What Percent of the Population is Gay? More Than You Think". Smithsonian.com.
- Stephens-Davidowitz, Seth (7 December 2013). "How Many American Men Are Gay". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- Twenge, Jean M.; Sherman, Ryne A.; Wells, Brooke E. (October 2016). "Changes in American Adults' Reported Same-Sex Sexual Experiences and Attitudes, 1973–2014" (PDF). Archives of Sexual Behavior. 45 (7): 1713–1730. doi:10.1007/s10508-016-0769-4. PMID 27251639. S2CID 28030946. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 June 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2022.
- America's Changing Religious Landscape (PDF) (Report). Pew Research. May 12, 2015. p. 87. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 18, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
- Herbenick, Debby; Bowling, Jessamyn; Fu, Tsung-Chieh (Jane); Dodge, Brian; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Sanders, Stephanie; Xu, Junjie (2017). "Sexual diversity in the United States: Results from a nationally representative probability sample of adult women and men". PLOS ONE. 12 (7): e0181198. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1281198H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0181198. PMC 5519052. PMID 28727762.
- Robert P. Jones; Daniel Cox (2015). How race and religion shape Millennial attitudes on sexuality and reproductive health (PDF) (Report).
- Yougov report (PDF) (Report). Yougov. 21 August 2015.
- "GSS 1972-2014 Cumulative Datafile".
- "GSS 1972-2016 Cumulative Datafile".
- "exit polls". CNN. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- In US, More Adults Identifying as LGBT. Gallup (Report). 11 January 2017.
- To bi or not to bi ? Enquête sur l'attirance sexuelle entre femmes (PDF). IFOP (Report). 25 January 2017.
- Accelerating Acceptance 2017. GLAAD (Report). 2017.
- "PRRI – American Values Atlas".
- THE MAN BOX: A Study on Being a Young Man in the US, UK, and Mexico (Report). 2017.
- "Broad Support for LGBT Rights Across all 50 States: Findings from the 2019 American Values Atlas".
- Inc, Gallup (2021-02-24). "LGBT Identification Rises to 5.6% in Latest U.S. Estimate". Gallup.com. Retrieved 2021-02-27.
|last=has generic name (help)
- "WE ARE HERE: UNDERSTANDING THE SIZE OF THE LGBTQ+ COMMUNITY" (PDF). Human Rights Campaign. 2021. Retrieved 2021-12-31.
- Sprayregen, Molly (2021-12-13). "Over 20 million Americans identify as LGBTQ people". LGBTQ Nation. Retrieved 2021-12-31.
- Multiple sources:
- Negotiating the Good Life. Taylor & Francis. 5 July 2017. ISBN 9781351915441. Retrieved 2022-01-28.
- Ideas and Movements that Shaped America. ABC-CLIO. 28 July 2015. ISBN 9781610692526. Retrieved 2022-01-28.
- Berman, Larry; Murphy, Bruce Allen (2001). Approaching Democracy. ISBN 9780130871114. Retrieved 2022-01-28.
- British Journal of Venereal Diseases. British Medical Association. 1981. Retrieved 2022-01-28.
- "New Generation Digital Banks". NBC News. Retrieved 2022-01-28.
- Carroll, Janell L. (January 2018). Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity. ISBN 9781337672061.
- Agadzi, V. K. (1989). AIDS: The African Perspective of the Killer Disease. ISBN 9789964301712.
- Ipsos, LGBT+ Pride 2021 Global Survey points to a generation gap around gender identity and sexual attraction, 2021. Accessed 2022.
- Bureau, US Census (2022-11-22). "Number of Same-Sex Couple Households Exceeded 1 Million in 2021". Census.gov. Retrieved 2023-07-25.
- Inc, Gallup (2023-02-22). "U.S. LGBT Identification Steady at 7.2%". Gallup.com. Retrieved 2023-03-25.
|last=has generic name (help)