Karaj (Persian: کرج‎, pronounced [kæˈɾædʒ] (About this soundlisten)) is the capital of Alborz Province, Iran, and effectively a suburb of Tehran. Although the county hosts a population around 1.97 million, as recorded in the 2016 census, most of the 1,419 km2 (548 sq mi) county is rugged mountain, the urban area is the fourth-largest in Iran, after Tehran, Mashhad, and Isfahan.[3] Eshtehard County and Fardis County were split off from Karaj county since the previous census.

Karaj

کرج
City
1karajکرج panorama.jpg
امامزاده طاهر - panoramio.jpg
Amir kabir Dam.jpg
Banafshé Park - panoramio (1).jpg
Beheshti Ave. ^ Taleghani Blvd. intersection - panoramio.jpg
Azimiye karaj.jpg
Dizin Ski resort Tehran2.jpg
Images from Karaj
Official seal of Karaj
Seal
Karaj is located in Iran
Karaj
Karaj
Coordinates: 35°50′08″N 51°00′37″E / 35.83556°N 51.01028°E / 35.83556; 51.01028Coordinates: 35°50′08″N 51°00′37″E / 35.83556°N 51.01028°E / 35.83556; 51.01028
Country Iran
ProvinceAlborz
CountyKaraj
BakhshCentral
Government
 • MayorAli Asghar Kamalizadeh
 • City Council ChairmanAbbas Zare
Area
 • City162 km2 (63 sq mi)
Elevation
1,312 m (4,304 ft)
Population
 (2016 Census)
 • Urban
1,592,492 [2]
 • Metro
2,512,737 [1]
 • Population Rank in Iran
4th
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+4:30 (IRDT)
Area code(s)026
ClimateBSk
Websitekaraj.ir

The earliest records of Karaj date back to 30th century BC. The city was developed under the rule of the Safavid and Qajar dynasties, and is home to historical buildings and memorials from those eras. Until the second half of the 20th century, it used to be known mainly as a summer resort. Today, it is a major industrial city, with factories producing sugar, textiles and wire.

HistoryEdit

 
Shah-Abbasi Caravansary

Karaj has been hosting communities since 3000 years BC.[4][5] The Khurvin region of Karaj has been inhabited since the Bronze Age, and the Kelak region on the left bank of Karaj River since the Iron Age.

The stone built Takht-e Rostam, located on a mount in the west of Shahriar County, was built in the Parthian era as a Zoroastrian fire temple.

Until the late 20th century, the city was mainly crossed into by a stone bridge built in the Safavid era. The stone built Shah-Abbasi Caravansary, located at the southeast of Towhid Square, was built in the same era, under the rule of Šāh Esmāil.[5]

In the 1810s, the Palace of Soleymaniye, which included four towers surrounded by gardens and walls, was built as a summer resort by the order of Shahzaden Soleyman (Soleyman Mirza), an old prince governor of Kermānšāh.[5] Granted in the Pahlavi era by Rezā Šāh Pahlavi, it is now housing the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Tehran.

The Morvārid Palace was constructed in nearby Mehršahr district, during the Pahlavi era. It was designed by the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation (Taliesin Associated Architects) on instructions from Shams Pahlavi, elder sister of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Majority of the structure is now controlled by the Basij Organization, and some sections of it are open to public under the operation of Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran.

Other historical sites of the city include the Mausoleum of Šāhzāde Soleymān, Emāmzāde Rahmān, Emāmzāde Zeyd, and Palang Ābād e Eštehārd.[6]

GeographyEdit

 
Mehršahr, Karaj

Karaj is situated 20 kilometres (12 mi) west of Tehran, at the foothills of the Alborz mountains.

Built on a wide plain with some gentle hills, the city is located north of the agricultural plain of Šahriār and east of the plains of Sāvoj Bolāq and Haštgerd.

RegionsEdit

 
A view of Taleghani boulevard towers

The downtown of Karaj is usually referred to Karaj Square, located hundred of meters to the west of Karaj River and the old Karaj Bridge. The villages Hesārak, Gowhar Dašt, and Šahrak e Azimie are located in the northern Greater Karaj. Mehršahr, an abortive residential luxury resort, and Šahrak e Fardis, a popular modern quarter close to the industrial facilities,[7] were designed by the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation in the late 1960s.

Meškin Dašt, a large agricultural area between Mehršahr and Fardis, lies outside the municipal limits of Karaj.

The following table includes the major districts of the city:

Gouhar Daŝt Mehrŝahr Kiānmehr Karaj e Now Hesārak Deraxti Azimie Ouj Ŝāhin Villā Bonyād Bāqestān Doulat Ābād
Garm Darre Ŝahrake Jahānŝahr Mesbāh Mehr Villā Dehqān Villā Māhdaŝt Ŝahrake Banafŝe Fardis Vahdat Kalāk o Hesār Estām Ābād Golŝahr
Golŝahr Villā Zibā Daŝt Zoube Āhan Sāsāni Homāyun Villā Mehrānŝahr Mehdi Ābād Ŝahrake Xātam Miān Jādde Heydar Ābād Sāwoj Bolāq Bahārestān

Open space recreational areas of Karaj include Irānzamin Park, Pārk e Xānvāde, Tennis Park, Pārk e Mādar, Tāleqān Gardens, Kordān Gardens, Jahānšahr Gardens, Pardis e Golhā, and the Tulip Garden of Gačsār.

ClimateEdit

The climate of Karaj is a bit cooler than Tehran's, and it receives 260 mm of rain annually (and like Tehran, the precipitation pattern is similar to those of Mediterranean climates). The Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies the city's climate as cold semi-arid (BSk).[8]

Climate data for Karaj (1985–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.2
(64.8)
19.8
(67.6)
27.4
(81.3)
33.0
(91.4)
34.6
(94.3)
39.2
(102.6)
42.0
(107.6)
40.2
(104.4)
37.2
(99.0)
31.8
(89.2)
25.0
(77.0)
20.0
(68.0)
42.0
(107.6)
Average high °C (°F) 6.1
(43.0)
9.0
(48.2)
14.2
(57.6)
20.7
(69.3)
26.2
(79.2)
32.6
(90.7)
35.2
(95.4)
34.5
(94.1)
30.4
(86.7)
23.5
(74.3)
15.1
(59.2)
8.9
(48.0)
21.4
(70.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
4.1
(39.4)
8.7
(47.7)
14.5
(58.1)
19.2
(66.6)
24.6
(76.3)
27.1
(80.8)
26.8
(80.2)
22.9
(73.2)
17.1
(62.8)
9.9
(49.8)
4.6
(40.3)
15.1
(59.2)
Average low °C (°F) −2.5
(27.5)
−0.7
(30.7)
3.2
(37.8)
8.4
(47.1)
12.2
(54.0)
16.5
(61.7)
19.0
(66.2)
19.1
(66.4)
15.3
(59.5)
10.8
(51.4)
4.8
(40.6)
0.3
(32.5)
8.9
(48.0)
Record low °C (°F) −17.0
(1.4)
−15.6
(3.9)
−10.5
(13.1)
−3.5
(25.7)
−0.4
(31.3)
7.2
(45.0)
10.6
(51.1)
12.0
(53.6)
7.0
(44.6)
−0.5
(31.1)
−6.0
(21.2)
−14.6
(5.7)
−17.0
(1.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 30.8
(1.21)
32.1
(1.26)
45.4
(1.79)
39.1
(1.54)
19.5
(0.77)
2.7
(0.11)
3.0
(0.12)
1.2
(0.05)
1.6
(0.06)
15.1
(0.59)
27.7
(1.09)
33.5
(1.32)
251.7
(9.91)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.3 5.7 6.7 5.8 3.7 1.0 0.7 0.3 0.3 3.2 4.8 5.8 44.3
Average snowy days 5.4 3.7 1.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 2.7 14.3
Average relative humidity (%) 67 60 53 48 43 34 35 34 36 44 56 66 48
Mean monthly sunshine hours 166.3 169.7 197.4 218.1 280.7 335.2 341.5 340.1 304.2 250.1 187.2 156.8 2,947.3
Source: Iran Meteorological Organization (records),[9] (temperatures),[10] (precipitation),[11] (humidity),[12] (days with precipitation and snow),[13] (sunshine)[14]

Amir Kabir Dam and some other small lakes are based in Karaj. The city is a starting point for a drive along road forced north through the Alborz mountain to the Caspian Sea.[15]

DemographicsEdit

Ethnic groups of Karaj (Pars advanced research scholars)[16]
Ethnic groups Percent
Persians
53%
Azerbaijanis
30%
Kurds
7.2%
Gilak and Tabari
5%
Lurs
4.1%

The majority of the residents of Karaj are Persian-speaking people, with Azerbaijanis making up the second major ethno-linguistic group of the city. Kurds, Gilak, Tabari and Lurs include the other ethnicities among the population of Karaj.

Gender segregation population in 2016
Male Female Total Ref.
890,824 886,570 1,759,394 [17]
Population by age group in 2016 (%)
age (0–14 years) age (15–29 years) age (30–64 years) age (65 and more years)
20.3% 23.6% 50.2% 6.0%

TransportEdit

RailwayEdit

Karaj is connected by railway and highways to Tehran 40 km east and Qazvin 100 km northwest, and by commuter rail to the subway system of Tehran.

The city is served by an urban railway organization established on 21 December 2001.[18][19] It is also served by the Karaj Metro Station which was established on 7 March 1999, and is located in the south-eastern Karaj, near Tehran–Qazvin Freeway.

 
Karaj Metro operational and under construction lines
Karaj 6 lines information
Line Line Route Length Stations
1 Germdar - Mehrshahr 17 km (10.5 mi) 4
2 Kamalshahr – Mallard 27 km (16 mi) 23
3 Karaj - Karaj Garden 14 km (9 mi) 12
4 Karaj Garden - Karaj Airport 18 km (11.1 mi) 19
5 Shahid Moazen Boulevard – محمد شهر 12 km (7.5 mi) 10
6 Instructor Training Boulevard - Shahid Soltan Square 9 km(6 mi) 8
Total: 97 km (60 mi) 76

RoadEdit

The highway system of Karaj includes Tehran–Karaj Highway, Karaj Special Road, and the old road of Karaj (Fath Highway). Bākeri Expressway is one of the main north-to-south routes in west Tehran, which is connected to the Tehran–Karaj Highway.[20] Tehran–Karaj Highway is one of the busiest sections in Iran with AADT of 217084.[21] Karaj–Qazvin has an AADT of 79606.

The aerial transport of Karaj is served by the Payam International Airport, which was established in 1990, and was officially opened in 1997.

A view of the Karaj-Chalous Road (Road 59) and the Karaj River

BusEdit

Currently, the total number of buses in Karaj and the suburbs are 1,600 units. More than 80 lines serve citizens.[22]

Preparing Alborz Card[23] can reduce the cost of travel tickets.

MetroEdit

Karaj Metro is an efficient way to travel inside the city. One line connects west and east of the city (from Karaj Station to Golshahr Station). It continues eastward until Tehran. On its way to Tehran, it stops at Chitgar park and Azadi stadium. The second line of Karaj metro (north to south) is under construction.

AirEdit

Payam International Airport, is an international airport located in Karaj, 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Tehran, in the Alborz Province of Iran. The airport was established in 1990, but was not opened officially until 1997. Payam Aviation Services Co. operates the airport as part of Payam Special Economic Zone. Payam Air previously operated an air mail hub at the airport.

EconomyEdit

 
Mahestan Shopping Center

The economic base of Karaj is its proximity to Tehran. It is due to the transportation of products between Tehran and the Caspian Sea. Chemicals, fertilizers and processed agricultural goods are also produced in the city.

Karaj is a major industrial city, with factories producing sugar, textiles, wire, and alcohol. It has become a major area for middle class migrants from Tehran. This is due to the better environmental and cheaper housing conditions.

Zowb Āhan, the avenue leading to an industrial plant, is located at the south of Ostandar Square. Zowb e Āhan or Zowb Āhan, literally "steel mill", was a contract between the Pahlavi government and a consortium from Nazi Germany. The establishment of the factory Zowb Āhan e Karaj was halted by the beginning of the Second World War, and it was never launched.

Šahrak-e Jahānšahr was the first modern private industrial and housing complex of Karaj, built in the 1960s. The factories Jahān Čit (textile factory), Rowqan Nabāti e Jahān (oil factory), and Čāy e Jahān (tea factory), were established at the complex. It is one of the largest industrial zones of the nation, with a 20% share of the national GDP [citation?].

The special economic zone of Payam, with an area about 3,600 ha (36 km2; 8,900 acres) within the territory of Payam International Airport, was established in Karaj for development of air cargo and postal transportation, cold store, and packing services, as well as perishable and time sensitive exports. It is the only SEZ in the region with the privilege of its own airline.

Tourist attractionsEdit

HistoricalEdit

 
Suleymanieh Palace
Place name Longevity
Gachsar Iron Road and Stone Bridge Islamic era
Imamzadeh Ahmad and Mahmoud Islamic era
Heljerd Mosque Qajar
Karaj Central Mosque Qajar
Kandovan Caravanserai Qajar
Shah Abbasi Caravanserai Safavids
Old Cemetery Safavids
Plane trees Hesar 800 years
Cypress 1300 years
Agh Tapeh Ancient
Mahdasht historical hill 3rd millennium BC
Yakh Morad Cave Ancient
Heydar Abad Bath Safavids
Suleymanieh Palace Qajar
Mesbah Historical Bath Qajar
Pearl Palace Pahlavi

RecreationalEdit

 
Dizin Ski Resort

EducationEdit

Educational and research centers of the city include:

SportsEdit

Karaj was formerly home of the Persian Gulf Pro League club, Saipa, for several years and this club won its first league championship in this city, however in 2014 the team relocated to Tehran. Currently the only professional football team in city is Oxin Alborz that play in the Azadegan League. The Home stadium of Oxin Alborz F.C. is Enghelab Stadium that located in Karaj Enghelab sport complex and has a capacity of 15,000 people. Saipa volleyball team lost to Kalleh team in this stadium in 2011–12 and became the runner-up in the final match of the country's volleyball premier league.

Karaj also has an international tennis complex which is used to training and tournaments.

One of the international ski resorts of Iran The, Dizin ski resort, is located a few kilometers north-east of the city, in the Alborz. In Dizin, along with skiing facilities, there are tennis courtyards, a slope for skiing on turf, some altitudes for mountain climbing and walking as well as riding and some routes for cycling.[24]

Notable peopleEdit

 
Ali Karimi
 
Shadi Amin
 
Mehran Rajabi
 
Kimia Alizadeh

Academia and scholarsEdit

  • Saied Reza Ameli (b. 1961), a scholar of communication
  • Seyed Mahdi Alavi (b. 2003), The youngest genius of mathematics He has won gold, silver and bronze medals in about 30 competitions and Olympiads

ActorsEdit

Politicians and political activistsEdit

WritersEdit

AthletesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ https://www.amar.org.ir/english
  3. ^ City Population: IRAN: Major Cities
  4. ^ L. van den Berghe, La nécropole de Khūrvīn, Istanbul, Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut in het Nabije Oosten, 1964.
  5. ^ a b c Karaj i. Modern City
  6. ^ Itto: Karaj
  7. ^ Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation's deteriorating masterpiece in Iran, Nima Kasraie - June 4, 2004
  8. ^ "Climate: Karaj - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ Iran. Ediz. Inglese by Andrew Burke, Mark Elliott, and Kamin Mohammadi, 2004
  16. ^ "Pars". Pars. Archived from the original on 2016-02-17. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
  17. ^ "درگاه ملی آمار". www.amar.org.ir. Archived from the original on 2019-09-06. Retrieved 2019-06-26.
  18. ^ "Karaj Urban Railway History". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-05-27.
  19. ^ Iran Railways Map
  20. ^ Main Bridges on Tehran-Karaj Highway Commissioned
  21. ^ تردد بیش از یک میلیون خودرو از آزادراه تهران -کرج Archived 2013-08-12 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ "کرج - ویکی‌سفر". fa.wikivoyage.org (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-06-26.
  23. ^ "Alborz Card - E-pay for transportation".
  24. ^ "ITTO: Dizin Ski Slope". Archived from the original on 2012-03-07. Retrieved 2010-12-14.

External linksEdit