Environmental issues in Iran

Environmental issues in Iran include, especially in urban areas, vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents which contribute to poor air quality. A report by the United Nations Environment Programme ranked Iran at 117th place among 133 countries in terms of environmental indexes.[1][2] Water scarcity is a serious issue, and the country is also threatened by climate change.

80% of air pollution in Tehran is due to cars; the remaining 20% is due to factories and industry emissions.

Air pollution edit

Car vs public transport in Tehran

The World Bank estimates losses inflicted on Iran's economy as a result of deaths caused by air pollution at $640 million, which is equal to 5.1 trillion rials or 0.57 percent of GDP.[3][needs update] Diseases resulting from air pollution are inflicting losses estimated at $260 million per year or 2.1 trillion rials or 0.23 percent of the GDP on Iran's economy.

Most cars use leaded gasoline and lack emissions control equipment.[4] Tehran is rated as one of the world's most polluted cities. However, buses and cars running on natural gas are planned to replace the existing public transportation fleet in the future. Also, energy prices are kept artificially low in Iran through heavy state subsidies, resulting in highly inefficient and polluting consumption patterns.[5][6] Traffic management, vehicle inspection, general use of electric bicycles and electronic government are also part of the solution.[7]

A rising incidence of respiratory illnesses prompted the city governments of Tehran and Arak, southwest of the capital, to institute air pollution control programs. These programs aim to reduce gradually the amount of harmful chemicals released into the atmosphere.[8]

Climate change edit

Iran is party to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change but not its Doha Amendment.[9] It has signed but not ratified the Paris Agreement on climate change.[10]

Ecosystems edit

Much of Iran’s territory suffers from overgrazing, desertification and or deforestation.

Wetlands and bodies of fresh water increasingly are being destroyed as industry and agriculture expand, and oil and chemical spills have harmed aquatic life in the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea.[11] Iran contends that the international rush to develop oil and gas reserves in the Caspian Sea presents that region with a new set of environmental threats.[12] Although a Department of Environment has existed since 1971, Iran has not yet developed a policy of sustainable development because short term economic goals have taken precedence.[13]

Signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation.[14]

Deforestation edit

Iran had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 7.67/10, ranking it 34th globally out of 172 countries.[15]

Natural disasters edit

Iran experiences periodic droughts, floods, dust storms, sandstorms and earthquakes along western border and in the northeast.[14]

Soil erosion edit

Iran ranked worst in the world for soil erosion in 2011.[16]

Waste edit

An estimated 50,000 tons of trash is produced in the country every day of which something between 70 and 80 percent is disposed of hygienically but the rest is not.[17] Iran produces over 8 million tons of hazardous waste annually (2016).[18]

Water edit

Industrial and urban wastewater runoff has contaminated rivers, coastal and underground waters.[citation needed][14]

Water scarcity edit

Water scarcity in Iran is caused by high climatic variability, uneven distribution of water, over exploitation of available water resources,and prioritization of economic development.[19][20] Water scarcity in Iran is further exacerbated by climate change.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Iran Daily – Front Page – 03/06/07
  2. ^ "Iran Environment in Grave Danger". www.payvand.com. Archived from the original on 2020-01-15. Retrieved 2009-10-28.
  3. ^ "Iran Daily - Front Page - 03/06/07". Archived from the original on 2007-11-15. Retrieved 2015-11-22.
  4. ^ Iran Daily – Domestic Economy – 07/01/07 Archived 2008-05-06 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "Atieh Bahar". 28 September 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28.
  6. ^ "Iran Daily - Domestic Economy - 01/11/09". Archived from the original on 2009-03-18. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
  7. ^ "YouTube". www.youtube.com. Archived from the original on 2010-06-07.
  8. ^ "Iran Pharmaceuticals and Healthcare Report Q2". www.payvand.com. Archived from the original on 2011-11-29. Retrieved 2009-07-04.
  9. ^ "United Nations Treaty Collection". treaties.un.org. Retrieved 2020-11-10.
  10. ^ "United Nations Treaty Collection". treaties.un.org. Retrieved 2020-11-10.
  11. ^ "Iran – Country Brief". web.worldbank.org.
  12. ^ "Iran environment in grave danger". www.payvand.com. Archived from the original on 2020-01-15. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
  13. ^ "Green Party of Iran – News". www.iran-e-sabz.org.
  14. ^ a b c "Archived copy". Retrieved 2012-12-04.
  15. ^ Grantham, H. S.; Duncan, A.; Evans, T. D.; Jones, K. R.; Beyer, H. L.; Schuster, R.; Walston, J.; Ray, J. C.; Robinson, J. G.; Callow, M.; Clements, T.; Costa, H. M.; DeGemmis, A.; Elsen, P. R.; Ervin, J.; Franco, P.; Goldman, E.; Goetz, S.; Hansen, A.; Hofsvang, E.; Jantz, P.; Jupiter, S.; Kang, A.; Langhammer, P.; Laurance, W. F.; Lieberman, S.; Linkie, M.; Malhi, Y.; Maxwell, S.; Mendez, M.; Mittermeier, R.; Murray, N. J.; Possingham, H.; Radachowsky, J.; Saatchi, S.; Samper, C.; Silverman, J.; Shapiro, A.; Strassburg, B.; Stevens, T.; Stokes, E.; Taylor, R.; Tear, T.; Tizard, R.; Venter, O.; Visconti, P.; Wang, S.; Watson, J. E. M. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity - Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507.
  16. ^ "Iran ranked worst in the world for soil erosion: expert". www.payvand.com. Archived from the original on 2020-01-13. Retrieved 2012-04-25.
  17. ^ "Every Iranian produces 700 grams of garbage per day". www.payvand.com. Archived from the original on 2020-01-13. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
  18. ^ "Hazardous Waste Production Alarming". 23 October 2016.
  19. ^ Madani, Kaveh (2014-12-01). "Water management in Iran: what is causing the looming crisis?". Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences. 4 (4): 315–328. doi:10.1007/s13412-014-0182-z. ISSN 2190-6491.
  20. ^ Madani, Kaveh. "Water management in Iran: what is causing the looming crisis?." Journal of environmental studies and sciences 4.4 (2014): 315-328.

External links edit

  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Country Studies. Federal Research Division.