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Kadapa (alternatively spelled Cuddapah) is a city in the Rayalseema region of the south-central part of Andhra Pradesh, India . It is the district headquarters of Kadapa district. As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 344,893. It is located 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the Penna River. The city is surrounded on three sides by the Nallamala and Palkonda Hills lying on the tectonic landscape between the Eastern and Western ghats. Black and Red ferrous soils occupy the region. The city is nicknamed "Gadapa" ('threshold') since it is the gateway from the west to the sacred hills of Tirumala.

Kadapa

Cuddapah
YSR Dist
Kadapa is located in Andhra Pradesh
Kadapa
Kadapa
Coordinates: 14°28′N 78°49′E / 14.47°N 78.82°E / 14.47; 78.82Coordinates: 14°28′N 78°49′E / 14.47°N 78.82°E / 14.47; 78.82
CountryIndia
StateAndhra Pradesh
RegionRayalaseema
DistrictKadapa
Founded1808 AD
Government
 • TypeMayor–Council
 • BodyKadapa Municipal Corporation, AUDA
 • MPY. S. Avinash Reddy
 • MLAAmzath Basha S.B
Area
 • City Corporation164.08 km2 (63.35 sq mi)
Area rank4th (in AP)
Elevation
138 m (453 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • City Corporation344,893
 • Rank130th (India)
6th (Andhra Pradesh)
 • Density2,100/km2 (5,400/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Kadapa bidda
Languages
 • OfficialTelugu
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
516001,002,003,004
Telephone code08562
Vehicle registrationAP-04
Websitekadapa.cdma.ap.gov.in

Kadapa has been under different rulers in its history, including the Nizams and Cholas, the Vijayanagara Empire and Kingdom of Mysore.

EtymologyEdit

The city's name originated from the Telugu word "Gadapa" meaning threshold or gate. It acquired this name with its relation to the Tirumala Hills; one had to pass through Cuddapah in olden days to reach Tirumala Hills. In old Telugu the word Gadapa meant a threshold which in modern standard Telugu evolved to Kadapa, the city's name retains the new flavour. It was spelled "Cuddapah" but was changed to "Kadapa" on 19 August 2005 to reflect the local pronunciation of the name.[2] Some of the inscriptions found recently have mentioned about this place as Hiranyanagaram.

HistoryEdit

Post classical era (200–800 AD)Edit

The history of Kadapa dates back to the 2nd century BC. The evidences of Archaeological Survey of India suggest that it started with Mourya and Satavahana dynasty. And since then it has been under the rule of numerous dynasties including Chalukya, Cholas and Pallava. Among all of these dynasties, first one to rule over Kadapa was Pallava dynasty. Pallava kings ruled over the city during the 5th century after penetrating into North of Kadapa. After that Cholas ruled till the 8th century after defeating Pallavas. Later Banas ruled over Kadapa.[3]

Era (8th to 18th centuries AD)Edit

 
Palkonda Hills near Kadapa
 
Ancient Kadapa (Kurpa)Town ruled by Hyder Ali in 1780

After Banas, Rashtrakutas ruled Kadapa region Among the popular rulers of Kadapa was King Indra III, who served during the period of 915 AD. In his period, Kadapa gained a lot of power and influence, which declined with his death later. Telugu Cholas, were the next one to rule Kadapa. Ambadeva ruled Kadapa in the latter half of the 13th century when he established the capital at Vallur, which is located at a distance of about 15 km from Kadapa.

After the death of Ambadeva, the Kakatiya king Prataparudra II ruled until early 14th century. Prataparudra was defeated by Muslims in the reign of Khalji emperor Alla Uddin. Later in the mid-14th century, Hindus of Vijayanagar dynasty drove the Muslims out of Warangal and subsequently Kadapa and ruled for around two centuries till they were defeated by the Nawab of Golkonda. The most illustrious ruler during this time was Pemmasani Thimma Nayudu (1422 CE) who developed the region and constructed many tanks and temples here. Muslims of Golkonda conquered the region in 1594 when Mir Jumla II raided Gandikota fort and defeated Chinna Thimma Nayudu by treachery. Marathas took over the city in 1740 after defeating the Nawab of Kurnool and Cuddapah.

Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan also ruled the city before it fell in the hands of Nizam by the Treaty of Seringapatam[4] in 1792.

Later the British took control of Kadapa District in 1800 CE. Although the town is an ancient one, it was probably extended by Neknam Khan, the Qutb Shahi commander, who called the extension as "Neknamabad". The name "Neknamabad" was used for the town for some time but slowly fell into disuse and the records of the 18th century refer to the rulers not as "Nawab of Kadapa". Except for some years in the beginning, Kadapa District was the seat of the Mayana Nawabs in the 18th century. With the British occupation of the tract in 1800 CE, it became the headquarters of one of the four subordinate collectorates under the principal collector Sir Thomas Munro. In 2004, Kadapa was recognised as a municipal corporation.[5]

GeographyEdit

TopographyEdit

Kadapa is located at 14°28′N 78°49′E / 14.47°N 78.82°E / 14.47; 78.82 about 412 km from Hyderabad and about 280 km from Bangalore, in the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh.[6] The city is situated in the Bugga vanka or Ralla Vanka rivers bordered by the Palakondas to the south and to the east by a patch of hills casting north for the Lankamalas on Penna's other side.[7] It has an average elevation of 138 metres (452 ft).[8] Veligonda hills separates the districts of Nellore and Kadapa.[9] The hills of western and eastern ghats stand on either sides, shielding it from the extreme winds of summer and winter.

ClimateEdit

Kadapa has a tropical wet and dry climate characterised by year round high temperatures. It has a record of reaching more than 50 degree Celsius.[citation needed] Summers are especially uncomfortable with hot and humid climate. During this time temperatures range from a minimum of 34 °C and can rise up to a maximum of 40 °C. Temperatures are range in the mid thirties during the day. Humidity is around 75% during the summer months. Monsoon season brings substantial rain to the area. Kadapa gets rainfall from both the South west monsoon as well as the North East Monsoon. June to October is usually the monsoon. Winters are comparatively milder and the temperatures are lower after the onset of the monsoons. During this time the temperatures range from a maximum of 25 °C and can rise up to a maximum of 35 °C. Humidity is much lower during the winter season. Winter season is the best time to visit the place.[10]

Climate data for Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.8
(87.4)
34.2
(93.6)
37.6
(99.7)
39.7
(103.5)
40.1
(104.2)
36.9
(98.4)
35.0
(95.0)
34.0
(93.2)
33.4
(92.1)
32.4
(90.3)
30.3
(86.5)
29.3
(84.7)
34.5
(94.1)
Average low °C (°F) 19.1
(66.4)
20.9
(69.6)
23.8
(74.8)
27.3
(81.1)
28.6
(83.5)
26.8
(80.2)
25.7
(78.3)
25.4
(77.7)
25.0
(77.0)
23.8
(74.8)
21.2
(70.2)
19.0
(66.2)
23.9
(75.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0
(0)
1
(0.0)
5
(0.2)
17
(0.7)
48
(1.9)
76
(3.0)
121
(4.8)
114
(4.5)
133
(5.2)
148
(5.8)
67
(2.6)
23
(0.9)
753
(29.6)
Source: Climate-Data.org[11]

DemographicsEdit

Others include Sikhs & Parsis
Religion in Kadapa[12]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
65.00%
Islam
32.00%
Christianity
3.00%
Others
0%
Kadapa population 
CensusPop.
187116,307
189118,307
190116,432−10.2%
191117,8078.4%
196149,027
197166,19535.0%
1981103,12555.8%
1991121,46317.8%
2001287,093136.4%
2011344,89320.1%
Kadapa Municipal Corporation

The population of Kadapa was first counted in 1871 during the first census of India, which was held until 1911[13] (pg 176). However, after no historical records are available until 1961. Kadapa is one of the largest and fastest developing cities in Andhra Pradesh. As per the 1991 census the population of the town was 1,21,463. It didn't increase much as per the 2001 census which recorded 1,26,505 lakhs for 20 wards population with an average decadal growth rate of 0.36 per cent.[14] Later it was converted to a Municipal Corporation in 2005. As per provisional data of 2011 census, Kadapa urban agglomeration has a population of 344,078, out of which males are 172,969 and females are 171,109. The literacy rate is 79.34 per cent. The urban population has 50% Hindus, 47% Muslims and 3% Christians.-[15][16]

LanguagesEdit

Telugu and Urdu are the official languages in the city. Hindi is also spoken in many areas of the city among North Indian traders. English is gaining popularity day by day in the city due to the development. Urdu is also spoken throughout the city especially by its large Muslim population and Tamil speaking people live in a large number.

AdministrationEdit

Local governmentEdit

 
A 4 Lane Service road, NGO Colony Kadapa

The Kadapa Municipal Corporation oversees the civic needs of the city and was constituted in the year 2005. It has 50 municipal wards represented by a corporator through direct election, who in turn elects the Mayor.[17] The District court is located in the city itself.

CultureEdit

The city has rich culture and heritage with the influence of different dynasties. There are different rituals, customs and traditions with the existence of different religions such as, Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism and Jainism. The city is known for its historic Devuni Kadapa and Ameen Peer Dargah.

Arts and craftsEdit

Shilparamam is a crafts village situated in the outskirts of Kadapa.[18]

CuisineEdit

Kadapa is well known for its spicy and culinary food which is very similar to the South Indian food. Karam dosa is one of the most favourite item of kadapa citizens. People have Dosa, idly, sambar and chutney in their breakfast. Rice, daal and curry is usually served as lunch. Most of the restaurants serve South Indian thali including these dishes in their lunch and dinner menu. Although it has a South Indian touch in its dishes it also has a diverse variety of its own which include Ragi Sangati or Ragi Mudda, Boti Curry, Natukodi Chicken, Paya Curry etc. Ragi sangati with chicken curry is the staple food in Kadapa and is also one of the most famous dishes in the city. Many other varieties of dishes can also be found in the local restaurants. Like many other cities of India fast food is also increasing its reach in the city.[19]

EconomyEdit

The economy of city is largely based on Agriculture crops like ground nut, cotton, red gram, Bengal gram are grown here and Mining. Being a district headquarters all types of Government departments are situated within the city. For most of the families the source of income is through the Government jobs and Private sector jobs in various departments including Bussuiness Shops, Hospitality industry, Marketing . Apart from these Tourism also forms a part of economy to the city. Kadapa is one of the 49 metropolitan clusters selected by McKinsey & Company as growth hotspots in India.[20]

EducationEdit

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.[21][22]

InstitutionsEdit

 
RIMS Medical College Entrance

TransportEdit

Kadapa City is well connected by Road, Rail and Air.

RoadwaysEdit

 
Pulivendula-Kadapa 4 lane road near Pulivendula

Kadapa has good road connectivity to the other major places like Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai and Vijayawada. APSRTC provides bus services to various destinations of the Kadapa district and other cities across South India. The city has a total road length of 803.84 km.[23]

RailwaysEdit

 
Long View of Station Building
 
Kadapa Airport Terminal

Kadapa has its own railway station in the city. It is one of the Earliest Railway station in the state opened around 1866. The Mumbai-Chennai line which happens to be one of the busiest lines in the south coast region passes through Kadapa railway station. It is one of the A category railway station in South Coast Railway zone under Guntakal railway division. A new railway line Kadapa-Bangalore section is under construction stage.

AirwaysEdit

Kadapa Airport was opened for air traffic on 7 June 2015. Its located at a distance of 12 km north west of the City.

Airlines and Destinations - Kadapa Airport
Airlines Destinations
TruJet Hyderabad, Chennai, Vijayawada

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "New Commissioners for Guntur, Kadapa". The Hindu. Hyderabad. 13 August 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  2. ^ "It will be `Kadapa' henceforth". The Hindu. 18 August 2005. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
  3. ^ "Kadapa Municipal Corporation About Kadapa". Kadapa Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  4. ^ "History of Kadapa". kadapaonline.in.
  5. ^ "Brief about Kadapa Municipal Corporation". Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  6. ^ "redirect to /world/IN/02/Cuddapah.html". fallingrain.com.
  7. ^ "Geography of Cuddapah, Climate of Cuddapah, Rivers in Kadapa". kadapaonline.in.
  8. ^ Hussain. "Kadapa City". kadapacityrayalseema.blogspot.com.
  9. ^ Prasad, P. V. (14 June 2018). "Railways building South India's longest tunnel". www.thehansindia.com. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  10. ^ "KADAPA Weather, Temperature, Best Season, Kadapa Weather Forecast, Climate". mustseeindia.com.
  11. ^ "Climate: kadapa". Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  12. ^ "Census of India – Socio-cultural aspects". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  13. ^ Brackenbury, C. F. (10 May 1915). "Madras Districts Gazetteers: Cuddapah District". Superintendent Government Printing, Madras – via dspace.gipe.ac.in.
  14. ^ "PIJR - Paripex - Indian Journal Of Research - Urban Demographic Structure of Kadapa City, Kadapa District in Andhra Pradesh" (PDF). www.worldwidejournals.com.
  15. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  16. ^ "Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  17. ^ ":: KADAPA MUNICIPAL CORPORATION". ap.gov.in.
  18. ^ "Y.S.R.-District Panchayat". appr.gov.in.
  19. ^ "Cuisine of Kadapa". kadapaonline.in.
  20. ^ "McKinsey identifies 49 metropolitan clusters that could be growth hotspots". 30 October 2014.
  21. ^ "School Education Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  22. ^ "The Department of School Education – Official AP State Government Portal | AP State Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  23. ^ "DETAILS OF ROADS IN EACH ULB OF ANDHRA PRADESH". Archived from the original on 1 August 2016.

External linksEdit