Isle of Bute
The Isle of Bute (Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Bhòid or An t-Eilean Bòdach), known as Bute (//), is an island in the Firth of Clyde in Scotland, United Kingdom. It is divided into highland and lowland areas by the Highland Boundary Fault. Formerly a constituent island of the larger County of Bute, it is now part of the council area of Argyll and Bute. Bute's resident population was 6,498 in 2011, a decline of just over 10% from the figure of 7,228 recorded in 2001 against a background of Scottish island populations as a whole growing by 4% to 103,702 for the same period.
|Gaelic name||Eilean Bhòid or An t-Eilean Bòdach|
|Meaning of name||Uncertain|
Bute shown within Argyll and Bute
|OS grid reference|
|Island group||Firth of Clyde|
|Area||12,217 hectares (47.2 sq mi)|
|Area rank||13 |
|Highest elevation||Windy Hill 278 metres (912 ft)|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Council area||Argyll and Bute|
|Population rank||5 |
|Population density||53.19 people/km2|
The name "Bute" is of uncertain origin. Watson and Mac an Tàilleir support a derivation from Old Irish bót ("fire"), perhaps in reference to signal fires. This reference to beacon fires may date from the Viking period, when the island was probably known to the Norse as Bót. Other possible derivations include Brythonic budh ("corn"), "victory", St Brendan, or both, his monastic cell. There is no likely derivation from Ptolemy's Ebudae.
The island was also known during the Viking era as Rothesay, possibly referring to the personal name Roth or Roderick and the Old Norse suffix ey ("island"). This name was eventually taken by the main town on the island, whose Gaelic name is Baile Bhòid ("town of Bute").
Bute lies in the Firth of Clyde. The only town on the island, Rothesay, ( ) is linked by ferry to the mainland. To its north is the coastal village of Port Bannatyne; hamlets on the island include Ascog, Kilchattan Bay, Kerrycroy and Kingarth.
The interior of the island is hilly, though not mountainous, with conifer plantations and some uncultivated land, particularly in the north. The highest point is Windy Hill at 278 metres (912 ft). The centre of the island contains most of the cultivated land, while the island's most rugged terrain is found in the far south around Glen Callum. Loch Fad is Bute's largest body of freshwater and runs along the fault line.
The western side of Bute is known for its beaches, many of which enjoy fine views over the Sound of Bute towards Arran and Bute's smaller satellite island Inchmarnock. Hamlets on the western side of the island include Straad, around St. Ninian's Bay, and Kildavanan on Ettrick Bay.
In the north, Bute is separated from the Cowal peninsula by the Kyles of Bute. The northern part of the island is more sparsely populated, and the ferry terminal at Rhubodach connects the island to the mainland at Colintraive by the smaller of the island's two ferries. The crossing is one of the shortest, less than 300 metres (330 yd), and takes only a few minutes but is busy because many tourists prefer the scenic route to the island.
Bute straddles the divide between highland and lowland Scotland with the Highland Boundary Fault cutting NNE-SSW through the island between Rothesay Bay and Scalpsie Bay. To the north of this line are metamorphosed sandstones and mudstones (i.e. psammites and pelites) which constitute the Southern Highland Group of the Dalradian. To its south are the conglomerates, sandstones, mudstones and siltstones of the Devonian age Stratheden Group (a division of the Old Red Sandstone) and of the Carboniferous age Inverclyde Group. Associated with the latter are Carboniferous extrusive igneous rocks, mainly lavas and tuffs of the Clyde Plateau Volcanic Formation. These occur north of Ascog, northeast of Scalpsie and south of Kilchattan Bay.
The metamorphic rocks of the Dalradian sequence is divided locally into a couple of groups, themselves subdivided into formations, each of which contains ‘members’. The youngest strata are at the top of the list:
- Trossachs Group
- Ardscalpsie Formation
- Quien Hill Grit Member
- Loch Dhu Slate Member (includes ‘Rothesay Limestone’)
- Ardscalpsie Formation
- Southern Highlands Group
- St Ninian Formation
- Toward Quay Grit Member
- Bullrock Greywacke Member
- Dunoon Phyllite Formation
- St Ninian Formation
The Palaeozoic sedimentary and extrusive igneous sequence in stratigraphic order (i.e. youngest at top) is as follows. All are of Carboniferous age except the Bute Conglomerate, which is late Devonian and separated from the overlying Kinnesswood sandstones and mudstones by an unconformity.
- Strathclyde Group
- Clyde Plateau Volcanic Formation
- Birgidale Mudstone Formation
- Inverclyde Group
- Clyde Sandstone Formation
- Ballagan Formation
- Kinnesswood Formation
- Stratheden Group
- Bute Conglomerate Formation
A couple of thin coal seams are recorded within the volcanic sequence inland of Ascog.
The centre of the island is cut by a couple of east-west trending late Carboniferous dykes of quartz-microgabbro and the whole island by a much more numerous swarm of Palaeogene age microgabbro dykes aligned NNW-SSE in the north but also WSW-ESE and NNE-SSW in the south. sills and other intrusive bodies are present in the extreme south.
Raised beaches are present around most of Bute’s coastline, lying around 8m above current sea levels. Higher marine platforms with partial cover of sand and gravel are recognised further inland, dating from earlier parts of the Devensian ice age. Till derived from the ice age is widespread inland while isolated peat deposits particularly in the north. Alluvium floors numerous stream valleys. Small areas of blown sand are to be found landward of some sandy bays.
Bute was absorbed into the Cenél Comgaill of Dál Riata and colonised by Gaelic peoples. The island subsequently fell under Norse control and formed part of the Kingdom of the Isles, ruled by the Crovan dynasty. The Irish Text Martyrology of Tallaght makes a reference to Blane, the Bishop of Kingarth on Bute, "in Gall-Ghàidheil". However, in the 12th century, the island fell under the control of Somerled, Lord of Argyll, and possibly his Clann Somhairle descendants. At about the turn of the 13th century, Bute appears to have come into possession of the family of the Steward of Scotland, during a time of internal strife amongst Somerled's descendants.
During the 13th century, Bute was the target of two Norwegian attempts to reassert authority in the Isles. For instance, Rothesay Castle fell to a Norwegian-backed King of the Isles in 1230, and fell again to the Norwegians in 1263. In 1266, the Norwegian king, Magnus VI, ceded the Kingdom of the Isles to the Scottish king, Alexander III, in return for a very large sum of money, by the Treaty of Perth. 
Under Scottish ruleEdit
In 1549, Dean Monro wrote of "Buitt" that it was:
very fertyle ground, namelie for aitts, with twa strenthes; the ane is the round castle of Buitt, callit Rosay of the auld, and Borrowstone about it callit Buitt. Before the town and castle is ane bay of sea, quhilk is a gude heavin for ships to ly upon ankers. That uther castle is callit the castle of Kames, quhilk Kames in Erishe is alsmeikle as to say in English the bay Castle. In this ile ther is twa paroche kirks, that ane southe callit the kirk of Bride, the uther northe in the Borrowstone of Buitt, with twa chappells, ane of them above the towne of Buitt, the uther under the forsaid castle of Kames.[Note 1]
Under Scottish Rule, Bute and Arran were governed as a unit, the shrievalty aligning with the comital jurisdiction. The latter merged into the crown, as a result of the Alexander Stewart's great-grandson, Robert, inheriting the throne via his mother. A corresponding title, Duke of Rothesay was created by Robert's son for the heir apparent, without landlordship of the land. Robert had already granted the sheriffdom to his bastard son, heritably; consequently, in the early 18th century, the latter's senior descendant acquired the (non-comital) title Earl of Bute.
During the seventeenth century there were cases of witchcraft: in 1630 an unknown number of women confessed to the crime and were confined in the dungeon at Rothesay Castle, left without food or water and died from starvation. Other instances are recorded but the most fervent activity occurred during the Great Scottish Witch Hunt of 1661–62 when at least four Bute witches were executed; one woman who was convicted at that time escaped but the sentence was enacted when she returned to the island in 1673.
When the comital powers were abolished by the Heritable Jurisdictions Act, and counties formally created, on shrieval boundaries, by the 1889 Local Government Act, Bute and Arran became the County of Bute. Later reforms merged Bute, without Arran, into the wider region of Argyll and Bute.
Bute played a major role during World War II, and its naval involvements were especially significant. HMS Cyclops was the depot ship for the 7th Submarine Flotilla and was home-based in Rothesay Bay. A few miles further north at Port Bannatyne the luxury 88-bedroomed Kyles Hydro Hotel, overlooking the Port, was requisitioned by the Admiralty to serve as the HQ for midget submarine (x-craft) operations. In particular, it was from here (hotel renamed HMS Varbel) that the top secret and audacious attack on the Tirpitz was masterminded. Much of the training of X-Craft submariners was undertaken in the waters around Bute, and especially in the secluded waters of Loch Striven to the north of Port Bannatyne. Bute at War. Bute accommodated many officers and NCOs of the Polish Armed Forces in the West. Officially a military camp, it was unofficially thought of as a prison for Władysław Sikorski's political enemies, gays and Jews.
Several major wildfires started on 18–19 April 2019 in the north of the island, involving a substantial area of moorland and conifer plantation.
Bute is connected with the Scottish mainland by two Caledonian MacBrayne ferries:
There is a regular bus service along the eastern coast road, and a daily service connecting the island with Argyll and the western Highlands and Islands. Many independent holidaymakers use the island as a stepping stone from Glasgow and Ayrshire to western Scotland using this route. In summer an open-top bus tours the island leaving from Guildford Square by the ferry at 1030, 1200, 1430 and 1600.
The main ferry to the island leaves from Wemyss Bay, a village on the A78, the coast road between Glasgow and Ayr. Wemyss Bay is connected by rail to Paisley (for Glasgow International Airport) and Glasgow Central station. Prestwick Airport (used by Ryanair and several other airlines) is connected directly to Wemyss Bay by FASTBUS 585, which runs twice an hour.
There is an ad hoc link between Glasgow Pacific Quay and Port Bannatyne Marina by Loch Lomond Seaplanes, journey time 17 minutes.
The island has one secondary school, Rothesay Academy, which moved to a new modern joint campus with Rothesay Primary in 2007. The largest of the island's three primary schools is Rothesay Primary, the smallest school (with roughly 50 pupils) is North Bute Primary in Port Bannatyne. The third primary school, St Andrews Primary, is a Catholic School aligned with St Andrew's Church, the only Catholic Church on the predominantly Protestant island.
Bute has many sports clubs and activities available. There are three golf courses: Rothesay Golf Club, Kingarth Golf Club and Port Bannatyne Golf Club. The most successful sporting club on the island is Bute Shinty Club who play at the highest level of shinty (the Marine Harvest Premier League). In 2006 Bute won promotion to the Premier League by winning the South Division One. Bute also won the Ballimore Cup and were runners up in the Glasgow Celtic Society Cup in 2006. The local amateur football team are known as the Brandanes, and the junior team are the Brandane Rovers. Bute also has facilities for fishing, rugby, tennis, bowls, and cricket. Pétanque is played at Port Bannatyne; boules may be hired from the Post Office there.
The centre for sailing on Bute is at Port Bannatyne with two boatyards and the new marina, and a club which organises private moorings in these particularly protected waters of Kames Bay. There is Bute Sailing School with its own yacht.
The Mount Stuart Trust owns 28,000 acres (11,331 ha) on the island and is wholly controlled by five members of the Marquess of Bute's family, plus an accountant and lawyer, none of whom lives on Bute.
Farming and tourism are the main industries on the island, along with fishing and forestry. Privately owned businesses include Telecom Service Centres (TSC), Port Bannatyne Marina and Boat Yard, the Ardmaleish Boatbuilding Company, Bute Fabrics Ltd, (an international weaver of contemporary woollen fabrics for upholstery and vertical applications), and the Scottish Mead Company.
The island has a ruined 12th century chapel called St Blane's Chapel which stands on a site associated with Saint Catan and Saint Blane, who was born on Bute. Another ruined chapel, dating from the 6th century, lies at St Ninian's Point.
The eccentric Mount Stuart House is often cited as one of the world's most impressive neo-Gothic mansions, bringing many architectural students from Glasgow on day trips. The third Marquess had a passion for art, astrology, mysticism and religion and the house reflects this in the architecture, furnishings and art collection. There is a marble chapel, much stained glass and walls of paintings. The house is open at Easter and from May to October. There are gardens with plants imported from many parts of the world, and a visitor centre. The gardens host a number of events throughout the year starting with an Easter Parade. In 2003 the fashion designer Stella McCartney married in the chapel, generating intense media interest. Activities and workshops are often held there in the summer by a local organisation that provides after school clubs and activities in the school holidays; there is also a farmers' market and a Christmas market held in the house and in the visitor centre. In 2016, a previously uncatalogued copy of Shakespeare's First Folio was authenticated in the Mount Stuart House library. The Pavilion is a 1930s edifice housing a concert hall, workshops and café, and is noted for its architecture. The Pavilion is little changed from when it was built.
The Old Post Office, now used only for sorting mail, is an historic working post office (open mornings only) which houses artefacts of the early post, some from before the advent of the postage stamp.
Loch Fad is a deep freshwater loch stocked with pike and brown trout, and is available to visiting tourist fishermen. Boats are available to hire.
Scalpsie Bay has a colony of over 200 seals on its beach, which can only be reached on foot across the fields. The island also has many herds of deer, rich bird life and some large hares. Wild goats with large curled horns may be seen in the north of the island.
Port Bannatyne, a village towards the north of the island, is the centre for sailing and sea-fishing on the island. It has two boatyards and a marina for 200 vessels. Langoustines are fished with creels anchored in the bay. X-Class midget submarines were stationed in Kames Bay during World War II and there is a memorial to World War II dead. Port Bannatyne Golf Club is known for scenic views from the course.
The road from Port Bannatyne goes seven miles (11 kilometres) along the shore of the Kyles of Bute to the small ferry to Colintraive on the Argyll mainland.
The 1920s Winter Gardens (now the "Discovery Centre") close to the Rothesay Pier houses a small cinema and tourist information office. Nearby are the Victorian toilets.
There are a variety of music, folk and poetry festivals, and walking trails and new cycling routes.
There are some remote Bronze Age stone circles, an Iron Age fortified village, and early Christian remains (including St. Blane's Chapel). The Bute Museum of the island's history is situated behind Rothesay Castle.
The West Island Way is a waymarked long distance footpath that opened in September 2000 as part of Bute's millennium celebrations, and was the first waymarked long distance route on a Scottish island. It is 48 kilometres (30 mi) in length, running between Kilchattan Bay in the south of the island and Port Bannatyne in the north, with Rothesay as a central point.
Notable residents and visitorsEdit
Well known Bute people include:
- Nina Allan, writer
- Richard Attenborough, film director; owned the Rhubodach estate on the island at one time
- Andrew Bannatyne, politician, lawyer and businessman
- Lieutenant Henry Robertson (Birdie) Bowers (1883–1912), polar explorer, who died with Scott in the Antarctic
- Adam Crozier, former chief executive of the Royal Mail
- The current Marquess of Bute is former Formula One racing driver Johnny Dumfries.
- Thomas Bannatyne Gillies, New Zealand Supreme Court Judge
- Angela Haggerty Journalist, author and broadcaster
- George Leslie Hunter, colourist painter
- Ian Jack, writer, journalist
- Edmund Kean, Shakespearean actor
- Ashley Lilley, actress, played the role of Ali in the 2008 film adaptation of Mamma Mia
- Sir William Macewen FRS (1848–1924), surgeon
- John William Mackail, writer and scholar
- Christopher Priest, writer
- Jane Ross, international footballer
- John Sterling, critic, journalist and poet
- Hector Whitelaw, shinty player and Scotland Vice-captain
- Bob Winter, Glasgow's Lord Provost (2007–2012)
- Lena Zavaroni (1963-1999),singer was born and grew up in Rothesay
- Translation from Scots: "very fertile ground, namely for oats, with two strongholds; one is the round castle of Bute, called Rothesay of old, by Borrowstone. Before the town and castle is a bay of the sea, which is a good haven for ships to lie upon their anchors. That other castle is called the castle of Kames, which translated from Gaelic means 'the bay castle'. In this isle there are two parish churches, that to the south called the kirk of Bride, the other north in the Borrowstone of Bute, with two chapels, one of them above the town of Rothesay, the other under the aforesaid castle of Kames." (The phrase "and Borrowstone about it callit Buitt" does not have a clear meaning. The second use of "Borrowstone" suggests it was a district in north Bute of which Rothesay was a part.)
- Anderson, Joseph, ed. (1893), Orkneyinga Saga, translated by Hjaltalin, Jón A.; Goudie, Gilbert, translated for James Thin, Edinburgh: Mercat Press (published 1990), ISBN 978-0-901824-25-7
- Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 23.
- Area and population ranks: there are c. 300 islands over 20 ha in extent and 93 permanently inhabited islands were listed in the 2011 census.
- National Records of Scotland (15 August 2013) (pdf) Statistical Bulletin: 2011 Census: First Results on Population and Household Estimates for Scotland - Release 1C (Part Two). "Appendix 2: Population and households on Scotland’s inhabited islands". Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- Haswell-Smith (2004) pp. 23–28
- General Register Office for Scotland (28 November 2003) Scotland's Census 2001 – Occasional Paper No 10: Statistics for Inhabited Islands. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
- "Scotland's 2011 census: Island living on the rise". BBC News. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- Watson (1926) pp 95–6
- Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 24
- Hewison (1893) p. 13
- EB (1878), p. 581.
- "Bute in a Nutshell", Bute Gateway, retrieved 18 September 2011
- Transactions of the Glasgow Archaeological Society, Glasgow Archaeological Society, 1893
- Chronicle of the Scots (15th century).
- Haswell-Smith (2004), p. 23.
- Mac an Tàilleir (2003) p. 102
- "National Scenic Areas" Archived 11 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine. SNH. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
- British Geological Survey 2008. Dunoon and Millport, Scotland sheet 29E with part of 21E. Bedrock and superficial deposits. 1:50,000. (Keyworth, Nottingham: BGS)
- British Geological Survey 2000. Kilfinan, Scotland sheet 29W and part of sheet 21W. Solid and drift geology. 1:50,000 Provisional series. (Keyworth, Nottingham: BGS)
- "The Queen of the Inch Necklace and Facial reconstruction" Archived 19 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Bute Museum. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
- Jennings and Kruse (2009) p. 133
- Forte, Angelo; Oram, Richard D.; Pedersen, Frederik (2005), Viking empires, Cambridge University Press, pp. 241–248, ISBN 978-0-521-82992-2
- Monro (1549) "Buitt" no. 6
- Henderson, Lizanne (2012), "The witches of Bute", in Ritchie, Anna (ed.), Historic Bute, land and people, The Scottish Society for Northern Studies, pp. 151–161, ISBN 978-0-9535226-4-4
- Dariusz Baliszewski (2008). "Obozy Sikorskiego". Wprost (in Polish). 12/2008 (1317). Retrieved 22 June 2010.
- Adam Węgłowski (2 May 2010). "W obozach Sikorskiego". Tygodnik Powszechny (in Polish). 18 (3173). Retrieved 22 June 2010.
- "Were 'secret' concentration camps run in Scotland during WWII?".
- "Series of wildfires burning on the Isle of Bute". BBC. 19 April 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
- "Loch LomondSeaplanes". Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- "Port Bannatyne Marina". Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- "Absentee Highland lairds urged to give more power to communities". The Scotsman.
- Coughlan, Sean (7 April 2016). "Shakespeare First Folio discovered on Scottish island". BBC News Online.
- "The West Island Way". Bute Conservation Trust. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
- "West Island Way". Scotland's Great Trails. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
- Priest, Christopher (24 January 2017). "Hello to All That". christopher-priest.co.uk. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
- "Prominent personalities with a Bute connection". Bute Gateway. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
- Gazetteer for Scotland. "Andrew Bannatyne". Retrieved 7 April 2007.
- Glasgow Digital Archive. "Andrew Bannatyne". Retrieved 7 April 2007.
- "The Cyclopedia of New Zealand: Mr Thomas Bannatyne Gillies". New Zealand Electronic Text Centre. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
- Answers.com. "Edmund Kean". Retrieved 7 April 2007.
- "Ashley Lilley". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- "Obitutary: Sir William Macewen, C.B., M.D., F.R.C.S., F.R.S." British Medical Journal. 1 (3300): 603–608. 29 March 1904. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.802.603. PMC 2304086.
- "John William Mackail FBA OM". W. H. Auden – 'Family Ghosts' (Stanford University). Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- "New shinty trio for Ireland clash". BBC Sport. 28 September 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- "Council car drove Provost to island breaks". The Herald. 19 June 2010. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- Hedderwick, Robert (1878), , in Baynes, T.S. (ed.), Encyclopædia Britannica, 4 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 579–581
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), , Encyclopædia Britannica, 4 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 878–879
- Haswell-Smith, Hamish (2004). The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh: Canongate. ISBN 978-1-84195-454-7.
- Hewison, James King (1893) The Isle of Bute in the Olden Time. Edinburgh. William Blackwood and Sons. Retrieved 18 Sep 2011.
- Jennings, Andrew and Kruse, Arne (2009) "From Dál Riata to the Gall-Ghàidheil". Viking and Medieval Scandinavia. 5. Brepols.
- Iain Mac an Tàilleir (2003). "Placenames" (PDF). Pàrlamaid na h-Alba. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2010.
- Monro, Sir Donald (1549) Description of the Western Isles of Scotland. William Auld. Edinburgh - 1774 edition.
- Watson, W. J. (1994) The Celtic Place-Names of Scotland. Edinburgh; Birlinn. ISBN 1-84158-323-5. First published 1926.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Isle of Bute.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Isle of Bute.|
- Bute's historic sites at Canmore
- Port Bannatyne Marina and Boatyard
- Port Bannatyne to Glasgow Airlink
- Bute Sons & Daughters project
- Bute at War (Website detailing Bute's unique role during WWII)
- The Buteman (local newspaper)
- Visit Bute website for events, news, accommodation etc
- Bute FM (Community Radio Station)
- Port Bannatyne Petanque Club
- Sailing reviews and news
- Bute in Pictures, BBC News
- Bute on BBC Island Blogging