Caledonian MacBrayne (Scottish Gaelic: Caledonian Mac a' Bhriuthainn), usually shortened to CalMac, is the major operator of passenger and vehicle ferries, and ferry services, between the mainland of Scotland and 22 of the major islands on Scotland's west coast. Since 2006, the company's official name has been CalMac Ferries Ltd, although it still operates as Caledonian MacBrayne. In 2006, it became a subsidiary of holding company David MacBrayne, which is owned by the Scottish Government.[6]

CalMac Ferries Ltd
Caledonian MacBrayne
Company typeGovernment-owned service
HeadquartersGourock, Scotland[1]
Number of locations
50 ports and harbours across Scotland
Area served
Firth of Clyde,
Outer Hebrides,
Inner Hebrides
Key people
Robbie Drummond (Managing Director)
ServicesFerry operations between mainland Scotland and islands
Revenue£227 million[2]
£28 million[3]
-£3.7 million[3]
Total assetsCaledonian MacBrayne fleet
All land-based assets (harbours, ports)[4]
OwnerScottish Government
Number of employees
ParentDavid MacBrayne
DivisionsArgyll Ferries
The funnel of MV Juno

The company operates 33 Caledonian MacBrayne fleet vessels to over 50 ports and harbours on the west coast of Scotland. Caledonian MacBrayne operate on average over 162,700 sailings annually. 2018 was the company's busiest in terms of passenger numbers, carrying an estimated 5,309,771 passengers.[5]

History edit

Previous logo
The Caledonian MacBrayne headquarters building at Gourock pierhead and a visit from MV Caledonian Isles and MV Isle of Mull

David MacBrayne edit

MacBrayne's, initially known as David Hutcheson & Co., began in 1851 as a private steamship operator when G. and J. Burns, operators of the largest of the Clyde fleets, decided to concentrate on coastal and transatlantic services and handed control of their river and Highland steamers to a new company in which Hutcheson, their manager of these services, became senior partner. One of the other partners was David MacBrayne (1817-1907), nephew of Messrs. Burns. In 1878, the company passed to David MacBrayne.[7]

Their main route went from Glasgow down the Firth of Clyde through the Crinan Canal to Oban and Fort William, and on through the Caledonian Canal to Inverness. Services were later added to Islay and the Outer Hebrides. In 1928, the company ran into financial difficulties, and the business was acquired by Coast Lines and the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS Railway).[6] In 1948, the shares in the company owned by the LMS Railway passed to the British Transport Commission, thus partially nationalising it. In July 1969, Coast Line's 50% shareholding passed into state ownership, so that the company became wholly nationalised, and all the shares were transferred to the state-owned Scottish Transport Group.

Caledonian Steam Packet Company edit

The Caledonian Railway at first used the services of various early private operators of Clyde steamers, then began operating steamers on its own account on 1 January 1889 to compete better with the North British Railway and the Glasgow and South Western Railway. It extended its line to bypass the G&SW's Prince's Pier at Greenock and continue on to the fishing village of Gourock, where they had purchased the harbour.

After years of fierce competition between all the fleets, the Caledonian and G&SW were merged in 1923 into the LMS Railway and their fleets were amalgamated into the Caledonian Steam Packet Company. Their funnels were painted yellow with a black top. At the same time, the North British Railway fleet became part of the London and North Eastern Railway (which built the PS Waverley in 1947). With nationalisation in 1948, the LMS and LNER fleets were amalgamated under British Railways with the name Clyde Shipping Services. In 1957, a reorganisation restored the CSP name, and in 1965 a red lion was added to each side of the black-topped yellow funnels. The headquarters remained at Gourock pierhead.

At the end of December 1968, management of the CSP passed to the Scottish Transport Group, which gained control of MacBrayne's the following June. The MacBrayne service from Gourock to Ardrishaig ended on 30 September 1969, leaving the Clyde entirely to the CSP.

Caledonian MacBrayne edit

MV Jupiter leaving Dunoon
MV Caledonian Isles at Gourock

On 1 January 1973, the Caledonian Steam Packet Co. acquired most of the ships and routes of MacBrayne's and commenced joint Clyde and West Highland operations under the new name of Caledonian MacBrayne, with a combined headquarters at Gourock. Funnels were now painted red with a black top, and a yellow circle at the side of the funnel featuring the red Caledonian lion. In 1974, a new car ferry service from Gourock to Dunoon was introduced with the ferries MV Jupiter and MV Juno.

In 1990, the ferry business was spun off as a separate company, keeping the Caledonian MacBrayne brand, and shares were issued in the company. All shares were owned by the state, first in the person of the Secretary of State for Scotland, and (after devolution) by the Scottish Government.

A joint venture between Caledonian MacBrayne and the Royal Bank of Scotland named NorthLink Orkney and Shetland Ferries won the tender for the subsidised Northern Isles services, previously run by P&O Scottish Ferries, commencing in 2002. The ambitious programme ran into financial difficulties, and the service was again put out to tender. Caledonian MacBrayne won this tender, and formed a separate company called NorthLink Ferries Limited which began operating the Northern Isles ferry service on 6 July 2006.[8] On 29 May 2012, NorthLink Ferries Ltd lost the contract for provision of the Northern Isles ferry services to Serco.[9]

Restructuring edit

To meet the requirements of a European Union guideline on state aid to maritime transport, the company's routes were put out to open tender. To enable competitive bidding on an equal basis, Caledonian MacBrayne was split into two separate companies on 1 October 2006. Caledonian Maritime Assets Limited (CMAL) retained ownership of CalMac vessels and infrastructure, including harbours, while CalMac Ferries Ltd submitted tenders to be the ferry operator. Their bid for the main bundle, Clyde and Hebrides Ferry Services, succeeded and on 1 October 2007 CalMac Ferries Ltd began operating these services on a six-year contract. The Gourock to Dunoon service was the subject of a separate tender, but no formal bids were made. In an interim arrangement, CalMac Ferries Ltd continued to provide a subsidised service on this route,[8][10] until 29 June 2011, when Argyll Ferries took over the service.

Business edit

The company enjoys a de facto monopoly on the shipment of freight and vehicles to the islands, and competes for passenger traffic with a number of aircraft services of varying quality and reliability. Nonetheless, few if any of the routes currently operated by CalMac are profitable, and the company receives significant government subsidies due to its vital role in supplying the islands: these routes are classified as "lifeline" services. In 1996, CalMac opened its first route outside Scotland, winning a ten-year contract to provide a lifeline service to Rathlin Island in Northern Ireland. This service continued until 2008, when CalMac lost the tender.[11]

Various versions of a local poem (based loosely on Psalm 24) refer to MacBrayne's long dominance of Hebridean sailings:

The Earth belongs unto the Lord
And all that it contains
Except the Kyles and the Western Isles
And they are all MacBrayne's

Several groups have proposed privatising the service, and there has been a long commercial and political struggle with a privately owned company, Western Ferries, which has run a rival unsubsidised service from Gourock to Hunters Quay (near Dunoon) since 1973. In 2005, the Scottish Executive put the collective Hebrides routes out to competitive tender, with the Dunoon route being a separate tender.[12] Some island and union groups opposed the tendering process, fearing it would lead to cuts in services and could be a prelude to full privatisation.

During the tendering period, the company of David MacBrayne Ltd, which had been legally dormant for many years, was re-activated on 4 July 2006. David MacBrayne Group Ltd acquired the full share capital of NorthLink Ferries Ltd, and took over operations of the NorthLink routes on 6 July 2006. Three operators submitted bids for the block of routes,[13] but CalMac retained all its existing routes. During September 2006, David MacBrayne Group Ltd acquired the entire share capital of CalMac Ferries Ltd. Thus, from leaving the hands of David MacBrayne 78 years earlier in 1928, the west coast ferry service returned to the fold in 2006, vastly enlarged.

At the time, no bids were made for the separate Gourock–Dunoon route and the service continued as before. In August 2006, David MacBrayne Group Ltd directed two of its subsidiary companies, Cowal Ferries Ltd and Rathlin Ferries Ltd, to take over operation of the Gourock to Dunoon, and Rathlin to Ballycastle services. Following a European Commission decision not to subsidise a passenger and vehicle service, the route was again put out to tender. In May 2011, Argyll Ferries Ltd, a newly formed subsidiary of David MacBrayne, was named as the preferred bidder for a passenger-only Dunoon-Gourock service. The timetable was extended into the early hours at weekends, with additional sailings integrated with rail services. Two passenger-only ferries, MV Ali Cat and MV Argyll Flyer (formerly MV Banrion Chonomara), were arranged for the run.[14] When the service began on 30 June 2011, preparation of the Argyll Flyer was incomplete, and as an interim measure the cruise boat MV Clyde Clipper was leased from Clyde Cruises.[15]

Argyll Ferries was incorporated into Caledonian MacBrayne on 21 January 2019.[16]

On 14 July 2009, it was announced that CalMac would begin Sunday sailings to Stornoway on Lewis from Sunday 19 July. These had historically faced strong opposition from Sabbatarian elements in the Lewis community, particularly the Lord's Day Observance Society and the Free Church of Scotland. However, CalMac stated that EU equality legislation made it unlawful to refuse a service to the whole community because of the religious beliefs of a part of it.[17]

Routes edit

Map of ferry services in Scotland, CalMac services shown in red
Loch Shira departing Largs
MV Hebridean Isles at Scrabster
MV Isle of Mull leaving Oban harbour with Kerrera in the background
Loch Seaforth departing Stornoway
Mainland or inner port Island or outer port Crossing Voyage time Regular vessel(s)
Portavadie, Cowal Tarbert, Kintyre Peninsula Loch Fyne 25 minutes MV Isle of Cumbrae (summer)
MV Catriona (Winter)
Gourock, Inverclyde Dunoon, Cowal Firth of Clyde 25 minutes MVs Argyll Flyer & Ali Cat
Gourock, Inverclyde Kilcreggan Firth of Clyde 13 minutes MV Chieftain
Wemyss Bay, Inverclyde Rothesay, Bute Firth of Clyde 35 minutes MVs Argyle & Bute
Colintraive, Cowal Rhubodach, Bute Kyles of Bute 5 minutes MV Loch Dunvegan
Largs, North Ayrshire Cumbrae Slip, Cumbrae Firth of Clyde 10 minutes MV Loch Shira
MV Loch Riddon (summer)
Ardrossan, North Ayrshire Brodick, Arran Firth of Clyde 55 minutes MV Caledonian Isles
MV Isle of Arran (summer)
(summer only service)
Campbeltown, Kintyre Firth of Clyde 2 hours 40 minutes MV Isle of Arran
Claonaig, Eastern Kintyre Peninsula
(summer only service)
Lochranza, Arran Kilbrannan Sound 30 minutes MV Catriona
Tarbert, Kintyre Peninsula
(winter only service)
Lochranza, Arran Loch Fyne / Kilbrannan Sound 1 hour 25 minutes MV Catriona
Tayinloan, Western Kintyre Ardminish, Gigha Sound of Gigha 20 minutes MV Loch Ranza
Kennacraig, Western Kintyre Port Ellen, Islay via West Loch Tarbert, Argyll 2 hours 10 - 20 minutes MVs Finlaggan &
Hebridean Isles
Kennacraig Port Askaig, Islay Sound of Islay 1 hour 55 minutes - 2 hours 5 minutes
Port Askaig Scalasaig, Colonsay 1 hour 10 minutes
Oban Scalasaig, Colonsay 2 hours 15 - 35 minutes MV Clansman
MV Hebridean Isles
MV Isle of Mull (winter only)
Oban Craignure, Mull Firth of Lorne 50 minutes - 1 hour MV Coruisk (Emergency/Winter)
MV Isle of Mull
MV Loch Frisa
Oban Achnacroish, Lismore Lynn of Lorne 55 minutes MV Loch Striven
Oban Arinagour, Coll Firth of Lorne / Sound of Mull 2 hours 40 minutes MV Clansman
Arinagour, Coll Scarinish, Tiree Little Minch 55 minutes
Oban Scarinish, Tiree Sound of Mull / Little Minch 3 hours 20 minutes
Oban Castlebay, Barra Sound of Mull / Little Minch 4 hours 45 minutes MV Isle of Lewis
Oban (winter only service) Lochboisdale, South Uist Little Minch / Sound of Mull 5 hours 30 minutes MV Lord of the Isles
Gallanach Balliemore, Kerrera Sound of Kerrera 5 minutes MV Carvoria
Lochaline, Morvern Peninsula Fishnish, Mull Sound of Mull 18 minutes MV Lochinvar
Kilchoan, Ardnamurchan Peninsula Tobermory, Mull Sound of Mull 35 minutes MV Loch Tarbert
Fionnphort, Ross of Mull Iona Sound of Iona 10 minutes MV Loch Buie
Mallaig Armadale, Sleat Peninsula, Skye Sound of Sleat 30–45 minutes
varies dependent on which vessel
MV Coruisk (summer)
MV Loch Fyne (summer)
MV Lochnevis (winter)
Mallaig Small Isles (Eigg, Muck, Rùm & Canna) Small Isles Varies MV Lochnevis
Mallaig Lochboisdale, South Uist Little Minch 3 hours 30 minutes MV Lord of the Isles
Sconser, Skye Raasay Narrows of Raasay 25 minutes MV Hallaig
Ardmhor (Barra) Eriskay
(connected to South Uist by causeway)
Sound of Barra 40 minutes MV Loch Alainn
Uig, Skye Lochmaddy, North Uist Little Minch 1 hour 45 minutes MV Hebrides
Uig, Skye Tarbert, Harris Little Minch 1 hour 40 minutes or 4 hours via Lochmaddy
Leverburgh, Harris Berneray
(connected to North Uist by causeway)
Sound of Harris 40 minutes MV Loch Portain
Ullapool, Wester Ross Stornoway, Lewis The Minch 2 hours 40 minutes MV Loch Seaforth

Other vessels edit

Emergency lifeline timetable edit

During the COVID-19 pandemic, CalMac operated a much reduced timetable. From 22 March 2020, they provided a turn up and go service to ensure essential goods and services were delivered to the islands. There were no reservations and no onboard retail facilities. Timetables were modified to meet local needs, with occasional additional crossings and extended layovers.[32]

The Portavadie, Campbeltown and Armadale services were cancelled. Crossing frequencies were reduced on other routes, with single vessels at Rothesay, Largs and Kennacraig.[33] On the smaller vessels, vehicle occupants were required to remain in their vehicle.[34]

Until Hebrides returned from dry dock in Liverpool, Clansman remained on the Uig triangle, with Lord of the Isles and Isle of Arran providing services to Lochboisdale, Coll/Tiree and Colonsay from Oban. Hebridean Isles operated to Arran (22 April – 2 May) and Islay (27 May – 2 June) while Caledonian Isles and Finlaggan were out of service.[35]

Unused vessels were laid up: Hebridean Isles in Campbeltown; Coruisk at Craignure; Loch Riddon, Loch Linnhe and Loch Fyne at Sandbank; Loch Bhrusda in Mallaig (covered Sound of Barra service while Loch Alainn in Troon); Argyle and Isle of Cumbrae in Rothesay and Isle of Arran in Troon.[35]

Passenger numbers edit

Passenger numbers on the 10 busiest CalMac routes (2017)[36]
Route 2017 2016 Change
% change 2014 2006
Ardrossan–Brodick 844,198 828,262  15,936  1.92% 715,048 735,928
Largs–Cumbrae 745,619 738,549  7,070  0.96% 706,172 722,561
Wemyss Bay/Gourock–Rothesay 713,906 675,714  38,192  5.65% 674,088 759,680
Oban–Craignure 670,248 644,827  25,421  3.94% 572,084 640,426
Mallaig–Armadale 285,483 250,764  34,719  13.85% 239,453 188,929
Ullapool–Stornoway 275,699 264,055  11,644  4.41% 226,061 181,160
Fionnphort–Iona 250,311 243,211  7,100  2.92% 223,978 255,501
Colintraive–Rhubodach 216,204 232,015  15,811  6.81% 214,550 264,644
Kennacraig–Islay 214,334 203,219  11,115  5.47% 189,822 152,526
Uig–Tarbert/Lochmaddy 195,752 188,138  7,614  4.05% 194,416 148,587

Current Fleet edit

Vessels are owned by Caledonian Maritime Assets Ltd (CMAL) and operated by CalMac Ferries Ltd. There are 34 vessels in current service, with ten "major units" – ships of 80 m (262 ft) or more in length. The largest is MV Loch Seaforth at 116 m (381 ft) in length. MV Finlaggan is almost 90 m (295 ft) long and able to carry 550 passengers with 88 cars.[37] She was built in Poland at a cost of £24.5 million and operates the Islay service.[38] The others are MV Isle of Lewis, MV Clansman, MV Hebrides, MV Caledonian Isles, MV Isle of Mull, MV Hebridean Isles, MV Isle of Arran and MV Lord of the Isles.[37]

There are 13 "Loch Class" vessels in different shapes and sizes. These double-ended ferries are mostly symmetrical when viewed from the side, with no operational bow or stern (although in official documents the designation of such is given). MV Loch Portain is able to handle Force 7 gales and carry 36 cars and 149 passengers, with a crew of five.[citation needed] The smallest vessel in the fleet is MV Carvoria, built in Shetland for the Kerrera route.[39] Since June 2020 CalMac leases MV Chieftain from Clyde Marine Services for the Gourock to Kilcreggan service.[40]

The company is adapting to the demands of the 21st century. MV Lochnevis (2000) was designed for the Small Isles service. MV Bute (2005) and MV Argyle (2007), both built in Gdańsk, are on the Wemyss BayRothesay route. A new "super loch", MV Loch Shira, entered service in 2007 on the LargsCumbrae route. MV Hallaig (2013; for Raasay), MV Lochinvar (2013; for Tarbert) and MV Catriona (2015; for Lochranza), built by Ferguson Marine Engineering are pioneering seagoing roll-on roll-off vehicle and passenger diesel-electric hybrid ferries.[41] In 2022, a Norwegian ferry was purchased for the Mull service; after modification it entered service as MV Loch Frisa.

Future Fleet edit

Two dual fuel ferries are under construction by Ferguson Marine Engineering. The first, Glen Sannox (for the Arran service[42]) was launched on 21 November 2017,[43] and is expected to enter service in early 2024.[44][45] Repeated delays saw the delivery date of the second, MV Glen Rosa (the second Arran ferry)[46] slip to between late summer and the end of 2024.[47]

A £91 million contract to build two ferries for the Islay service was awarded to Cemre Shipyard in Turkey in March 2022.[48][49] The first steel for two ferries was cut at a ceremony in Turkey in October 2022,[50] with the second vessel's being done in January 2023, in the same week as the first vessel's keel was laid. In May 2023, the same week as the second vessel's keel was laid, it was announced that these ferries would be named MV Isle of Islay and MV Loch Indaal.[29][51] Isle of Islay is expected to be delivered by October 2024, with the second vessel following in February 2025.[52][53][54]

In October 2022 it was announced that two further vessels would be built to a very similar specification as the ferries under construction for Islay. CMAL signed a contract in January 2023 for Cemre Shipyard to also build the two ferries, which would allow a dedicated, peak season services to Tarbert and Lochmaddy from Uig and provide additional resilience in the fleet.[30][55] The two vessels, MV Claymore and MV Lochmor are expected to be delivered by the end of 2025.[56][57]

See also edit

References edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ "CalMac Ferries Limited". Companies House. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  2. ^ "CalMac Ferries: Socio-Economic Impact Report".
  3. ^ a b "CalMac's achievements outlined in latest annual report".
  4. ^ "About Us".
  5. ^ a b "About Us".
  6. ^ a b "Company History". CalMac. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  7. ^ "History". David MacBrayne. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  8. ^ a b Alan Rehfisch (2007). "Ferry Services in Scotland" (PDF). SPICe Briefing. Scottish Parliament Information Centre. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  9. ^ "Serco confirmed as Northern Isles ferry operator". BBC News. 29 May 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  10. ^ "UK | Scotland | Highlands and Islands | CalMac ferry contract confirmed". BBC News. 20 September 2007. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
  11. ^ "Probe into tendering contract of ferry run". News Letter. 17 June 2008.
  12. ^ "Proposals for Gourock-Dunoon ferry route". Scottish Executive. 21 September 2005. Retrieved 29 August 2007.
  13. ^ "UK | Scotland | Contest narrows for CalMac routes". BBC News. 23 December 2005. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
  14. ^ "Argyll News: Argyll Ferries Wins Dunoon-Gourock Ferry Tender". For Argyll. 26 May 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
  15. ^ Goodwin, David (1 July 2011). "Ferry Launch is hit by first-day breakdown". Greenock Telegraph. pp. 1–2.
  16. ^ "CalMac takes over the tiller at Argyll Ferries". Argyll Ferries. 21 January 2019. Archived from the original on 27 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  17. ^ "UK | Scotland | Highlands and Islands | Green light for Sunday sailings". BBC News. 14 July 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
  18. ^ "Delayed CalMac catamaran begins sailings on Arran route". BBC News. 12 May 2023. Retrieved 12 May 2023.
  19. ^ "Caledonian Maritime Assets Limited announces Scottish shipbuilder as preferred tenderer for two large ferries contract". CMAL. 31 August 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  20. ^ Dalton, Alastair (23 March 2022). "Ferguson Marine ferries for CalMac delayed by another eight months to 2023". The Scotsman.
  21. ^ a b "Costs double on delayed CalMac ferry contract". BBC News. 18 December 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  22. ^ a b "Ferguson Marine update". Scottish Government. 18 December 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  23. ^ "CMAL announces name of first LNG ferry". CMAL. 1 June 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  24. ^ a b Ferguson Marine: report on cost and programme for vessels 801 and 802, Scottish Goverenment, 9 December 2019, retrieved 23 December 2019
  25. ^ Douglas Fraser (1 September 2021). "Shipyard turnaround is 'most challenging in UK'". BBC. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  26. ^ Tydeman, David (16 March 2023). "Fergusons Marine CEO Update" (PDF). Retrieved 15 May 2023.
  27. ^ "Public invited to help name CMAL's first LNG ferry". CMAL. 2 May 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  28. ^ "Contract signed for new Islay vessels". CMAL. 29 March 2022. Retrieved 12 November 2022.
  29. ^ a b "Names announced for new Islay and Jura ferries". BBC News. 18 May 2023. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  30. ^ a b "New ferries for the Clyde & Hebrides". Transport Scotland. 26 October 2022. Retrieved 12 November 2022.
  31. ^ "Vote names new Little Minch ferries". The Oban Times. 19 December 2023. Retrieved 19 December 2023.
  32. ^ "Statement from Transport Scotland on restrictions on non-essential ferry travel". CalMac. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  33. ^ "CalMac introduces Essential Lifeline Timetable in light of Covid-19 outbreak". CalMac. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  34. ^ "Travel Advice" (PDF). CalMac. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  35. ^ a b "Live Map". Marine Traffic.
  36. ^ "Carrying Statistics". Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  37. ^ a b "Ships of the Fleet". Ships of CalMac. Archived from the original on 25 November 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
  38. ^ "Remontowa wins newbuilding order for another ferry to be operated by CalMac Ferries Ltd". 2 November 2007. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
  39. ^ "New Kerrera Ferry Launches in Lerwick". CMAL. 15 August 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  40. ^ Craig Borland (8 May 2020). "CalMac to take over Gourock-Kilcreggan ferry next month". Helensburgh Advertiser. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  41. ^ "'Hybrid' CalMac ferry launched from Port Glasgow". BBC News. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
  42. ^ "CMAL Shares Project Update on Dual Fuel Ferries". CMAL. 9 March 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  43. ^ "First Minister Launches UK's First LNG Ferry". CMAL. 21 November 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  44. ^ "Further delays to CalMac ferries due to lockdown period". BBC News. 25 August 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  45. ^ "Overdue ferry Glen Sannox enters new construction phase". BBC News. 15 July 2022. Retrieved 27 October 2022.
  46. ^ "Dual Fuel Presentation". CMAL. 12 February 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2022.
  47. ^ "Scottish ferries contract hit by fresh delay". BBC News. 28 September 2022. Retrieved 27 October 2022.
  48. ^ "First Major Build Milestone for Islay Ferries". CMAL. 4 October 2022. Retrieved 27 October 2022.
  49. ^ "TBN NB1093". Cemre Shipyard. Retrieved 27 October 2022.
  50. ^ Alex Smith (7 October 2022). "Steel cut at Cemre Marin Endustri shipyard for new Islay ferries". Cruise and Ferry Review. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  51. ^ "Key Construction Milestones met for MV Loch Indaal and the First of Two Little Minch Ferries". CMAL. 25 May 2023. Retrieved 22 August 2023.
  52. ^ "Two New Ferries For Islay Reach Next Construction Milestone". CMAL. 13 January 2023. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  53. ^ "Turkish Yard Starts Construction of Two Ferries for Scotland". Marine Link. 13 January 2023. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  54. ^ "New vessels for Islay". CMAL Caledonian Maritime Assets Ltd. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  55. ^ "Two New Vessels for the Little Minch". CMAL. 13 January 2023. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  56. ^ "Little Minch ferries reach major construction milestones". Caledonian Martime Assets Limited. 20 September 2023. Retrieved 4 December 2023.
  57. ^ "Names chosen for new Western Isles ferries". BBC News. 19 December 2023. Retrieved 19 December 2023.

Bibliography edit

  • Clark, Andrew (2022). The making of MacBrayne: a Scottish transport monopoly spanning three centuries. Catrine, Ayrshire: Stenlake Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-8403-3897-3.
  • McCrorie, Ian (1987). Clyde Pleasure Steamers: an illustrated history. Greenock: Orr, Pollock & Co. ISBN 978-1-869850-00-5.
  • McCrorie, Ian (1987). Steamers of the Highlands and Islands: an illustrated history. Greenock: Orr, Pollock & Co. ISBN 978-1-869850-01-2.
  • McCrorie, Ian (1989). To the Coast: one hundred years of the Caledonian Steam Packet Company. Fairlie: Fairlie Press. ISBN 978-1-871209-01-3.
  • Meek, Donald E.; Peter, Bruce (2011). From Comet to Cal Mac: Two Centuries of Hebridean and Clyde Shipping. Ramsey, Isle of Man: Ferry Publications. ISBN 9781906608361.
  • Preston, Robert (1994). Days at the Coast. Ochiltree: Stenlake Publishing. ISBN 978-1-872074-42-9.
  • Robins, Nick S.; Meek, Donald E. (2006). The Kingdom of MacBrayne: from steamships to car-ferries in the West Highlands and Hebrides, 1820-2005. Edinburgh: Birlinn. ISBN 978-1-84158-500-0.
  • Smith, Colin; Cowsill, Miles (2016). Caledonian MacBrayne Hebridean and Clyde Ferries: the fleet. Ramsey, Isle of Man: Ferry Publications. ISBN 9781911268055.

External links edit