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The large Haast's eagle and moa from New Zealand (both extinct)

Island gigantism or insular gigantism is a biological phenomenon in which the size of an animal isolated on an island increases dramatically in comparison to its mainland relatives. Island gigantism is one aspect of the more general "island effect" or "Foster's rule", which posits that when mainland animals colonize islands, small species tend to evolve larger bodies, and large species tend to evolve smaller bodies (insular dwarfism). Following the arrival of humans and associated introduced predators (dogs, cats, rats, pigs), many giant as well as other island endemics have become extinct. A similar size increase, as well as increased woodiness, has been observed in some insular plants.

Possible causesEdit

Diagram displaying the change in size of weta species in two ecosystems. The size and population of wetas are affected by predation. Rats introduced on the mainland began to prey on wetas, reducing their population; wetas shrank in response. On an island isolated from predation, such as Little Barrier Island, wetas have a dense population and have grown to a massive size. Insular species of giant wetas are the only ones not facing extinction. As wetas grow over time, bird predation declines.[citation needed]

Large mammalian carnivores are often absent on islands because of insufficient range or difficulties in over-water dispersal. In their absence, the ecological niches for large predators may be occupied by birds, reptiles or smaller carnivorans, which can then grow to larger-than-normal size. For example, on prehistoric Gargano Island in the Miocene-Pliocene Mediterranean, on islands in the Caribbean like Cuba, and on Madagascar and New Zealand, some or all apex predators were birds like eagles, falcons and owls, including some of the largest known examples of these groups. However, birds and reptiles generally make less efficient large predators than advanced carnivorans.

Since small size usually makes it easier for herbivores to escape or hide from predators, the decreased predation pressure on islands can allow them to grow larger.[1][a] Small herbivores may also benefit from the absence of competition from missing types of large herbivores.

Benefits of large size that have been suggested for island tortoises include decreased vulnerability to scarcity of food and/or water, through ability to survive for longer intervals without them, or ability to travel longer distances to obtain them. Periods of such scarcity may be a greater threat on oceanic islands than on the mainland.[4]

Thus, island gigantism is usually an evolutionary trend resulting from the removal of constraints on the size of small animals related to predation and/or competition.[5] Such constraints can operate differently depending on the size of the animal, however; for example, while small herbivores may escape predation by hiding, large herbivores may deter predators by intimidation. As a result, the complementary phenomenon of island dwarfism can also result from the removal of constraints related to predation and/or competition on the size of large herbivores.[6] In contrast, insular dwarfism among predators more commonly results from the imposition of constraints associated with the limited prey resources available on islands.[6] As opposed to island dwarfism, island gigantism is found in most major vertebrate groups and in invertebrates.

Territorialism may favor the evolution of island gigantism. A study on Anaho Island in Nevada determined that reptile species that were territorial tended to be larger on the island compared to the mainland, particularly in the smaller species. In territorial species, larger size makes individuals better able to compete to defend their territory. This gives additional impetus to evolution toward larger size in an insular population.[7]

A further means of establishing island gigantism may be a founder effect operative when larger members of a mainland population are superior in their ability to colonize islands.[8]

Island size plays a role in determining the extent of gigantism. Smaller islands generally accelerate the rate of evolution of changes in organism size, and organisms there evolve greater extremes in size.[9]


Examples of island gigantism include:


Many rodents grow larger on islands, whereas carnivores, proboscideans and artiodactyls usually become smaller.


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Corsican giant shrew Asoriculus corsicanus Corsica Extinct (before 500 BC)  
Red-toothed shrews
Balearic giant shrew Asoriculus hidalgo Majorca and Menorca Extinct
Sardinian giant shrew Asoriculus similis Sardinia Extinct
Deinogalerix spp. Gargano Island Extinct (Late Miocene)  
Moon rats


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Blunt-toothed giant hutia Amblyrhiza inundata Anguilla and Saint Martin Extinct (Pleistocene)  
Neotropical spiny rats
Larger Jamaican giant hutia Clidomys osborni Jamaica Extinct (Late Pleistocene)
Plate-toothed giant hutia Elasmodontomys obliquus Puerto Rico Extinct (c. 1 AD)
Twisted-toothed mouse Quemisia gravis Hispaniola Extinct
Arboreal giant hutia[10] Tainotherium valei Puerto Rico Extinct
Lesser Jamaica giant hutia Xaymaca fulvopulvis Jamaica Extinct
Majorcan giant hamsters Apocricetus darderi

Tragomys macpheei
Majorca Extinct Apocricetus alberti[11]

Cricetus kormosi[12]
Gargano giant hamster
Hattomys gargantua Gargano Island Extinct
St Kilda field mouse
Apodemus sylvaticus hirtensis St Kilda Least Concern  
Wood mouse
Tenerife giant rat
Canariomys bravoi Tenerife Extinct (Late Pleistocene) African rufous-nosed rats
Gran Canaria giant rat
Canariomys tamarani Gran Canaria Extinct (before AD 1500)
Formentera black-tailed garden dormouse Eliomys quercinus ophiusae Formentera Rare[13]  
Garden dormouse and
other Leithiinae dormice
Minorcan giant dormouse Hypnomys mahonensis Menorca Extinct
Majorcan giant dormouse
Hypnomys morpheus Majorca Extinct
Sicilian giant dormouse Leithia cartei Sicily Extinct
Maltese giant dormouse Leithia melitensis Malta Extinct
Orkney vole
Microtus arvalis orcadensis Orkney Islands Vulnerable  
Common vole and
other meadow voles
Gargano giant voles
Mikrotia magna

M. maiuscula

M. parva
Gargano Island Extinct (Early Pliocene)
St Kilda house mouse
Mus musculus muralis St Kilda Extinct (c. AD 1930)  
House mouse
Flores giant rat
Papagomys armandvillei Flores Near Threatened  
North African black rat
and other true rats
Sulawesi giant rat Paruromys dominator Sulawesi Least Concern
Admiralty giant rat Rattus detentus Manus Island Unknown / Likely threatened[14]
Congreso black rat population[15] Rattus rattus Isla del Congreso Least Concern
Channel Islands deer mice Peromyscus anyapahensis

P. nesodytes
Northern Channel Islands of California Extinct  
North American deer mouse
Gargano giant dormouse
Stertomys laticrestatus[16] Gargano Island Extinct  
Glirinae dormice


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Minorcan giant lagomorph
Nuralagus rex Menorca Extinct (Middle Pliocene) Alilepus (?)

Trischizolagus (?)
Prolagus imperialis Gargano Island Extinct  
Sardinian pika
Prolagus sardus Corsica, Sardinia and Tavolara Extinct (c. AD 1800)


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Hispaniola monkey Antillothrix bernensis Hispaniola Extinct (before AD 1600)  
Haitian monkey Insulacebus toussaintiana Southwestern Haiti Extinct
Cuban monkeys
Paralouatta marianae[17]

P. varonai[17]
Cuba Extinct (Pleistocene)
Jamaican monkey Xenothrix mcgregori Jamaica Extinct
Gorilla lemur
Archaeoindris fontoynontii Central Madagascar Extinct (c. 350 BC)  
Baboon lemurs
Archaeolemur spp.

Hadropithecus spp.
Madagascar Extinct (before AD 1280)
Sloth lemurs
Babakotia spp.

Palaeopropithecus spp.
Western and Central Madagascar Extinct (c. AD 1500)
Koala lemurs
Megaladapis edwardsi

M. grandidieri

M. madagascariensis
Madagascar Extinct (AD 1280-1420)


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Sardinian giant otter
Megalenhydris barbaricina Sardinia Extinct (Late Pleistocene)  
Cryptoprocta ferox Madagascar Vulnerable  
Giant fossa
Cryptoprocta spelaea Madagascar Extinct (before AD 1400)


Stem birdsEdit

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
B. bondoc Hateg Island Extinct (Late Cretaceous)  
G. philohinos Ibero-Armorican Island Extinct (Late Cretaceous)  
Patagopteryx (?)


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Apteryx spp. New Zealand Variable Proapteryx[b]
Larger elephant birds
Aepyornis hildebrandti

A. maximus

Vorombe titan
Madagascar Extinct (c. AD 1000)
Lesser elephant birds
Mullerornis spp. Madagascar Extinct (c. AD 1260)
Anomalopteryx didiformis

Dinornis spp.

Emeus crassus

Euryapteryx spp.

Megalapteryx didinus

Pachyornis spp.
New Zealand Extinct (before AD 1445)  


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
New Zealand musk duck Biziura delautouri New Zealand Extinct (after AD 1500)  
Australian musk duck
New Zealand geese
Cnemiornis calcitrans

C. gracilis
New Zealand Extinct  
Cape Barren goose
G. ballmanni Gargano and Scontrone islands Extinct (Late Miocene)  
Turtle-jawed moa-nalo
Chelychelynechen quassus Kauai Extinct (c. AD 1000)  
Dabbling ducks
Small-billed moa-nalo
Ptaiochen pau Maui Extinct (c. AD 1000)
Large-billed moa-nalo
Thambetochen chauliodous Maui Nui Extinct (c. AD 1000)
O'ahu moa-nalo
Thambetochen xanion O'ahu Extinct (c. AD 1000)
Giant swan
Cygnus falconeri Sicily and Malta Extinct (Middle Pleistocene)  
Mute swan
Scarlett's duck Malacorhynchus scarletti New Zealand Extinct (after AD 1500)  
Pink-eared duck


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Pile-builder megapode Megapodius molistructor New Caledonia and Tonga Extinct (c. 1500 BC)  
Noble megapode Megavitiornis altirostris Fiji Extinct  
New Caledonian giant megapode
Sylviornis neocaledoniae New Caledonia and Isle of Pines Extinct


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Red rail
Aphanapteryx bonasia Mauritius Extinct (c. AD 1700)  
Hawkins's rail
Diaphanapteryx hawkinsi Chatham Islands Extinct (c. AD 1900)
Antillean cave rail
Nesotrochis debooyi Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands Extinct
Cuban cave rail Nesotrochis picapicensis Cuba Extinct
Haitian cave rail Nesotrochis steganinos Hispaniola Extinct
South Island takahē
Porphyrio hochstetteri South Island, New Zealand Endangered
North Island takahē
Porphyrio mantelli North Island, New Zealand Extinct (before AD 1900)
Aptornis defossor

A. otidiformis
New Zealand Extinct  
Chatham coot
Fulica chathamensis Chatham Islands Extinct (after AD 1500)  
Red-knobbed coot
and other coots
Mascarene coot
Fulica newtonii Mauritius and Réunion Extinct (c. AD 1700)
New Zealand coot Fulica prisca New Zealand Extinct (after AD 1280)
Réunion swamphen
Porphyrio coerulescens Plaine des Cafres, Réunion Extinct (c. AD 1730)  
Purple swamphens


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Spectacled cormorant
Phalacrocorax perspicillatus Komandorski Islands Extinct (c. AD 1850)  
Double-crested cormorant


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Viti Levu giant pigeon
Natunaornis gigoura Viti Levu, Fiji Extinct  
Crowned pigeons
Rodrigues solitaire
Pezophaps solitaria Rodrigues Extinct (before AD 1778)  
Nicobar pigeon
Raphus cucullatus Mauritius Extinct (c. AD 1662)

Birds of preyEdit

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Liko Cave golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos simurgh Crete Extinct (Late Pleistocene)  
Golden eagle
Giant crab-hawk[21] Buteogallus borrasi Cuba Extinct  
Great black hawk
and other hawks
Giant hawk Gigantohierax sp. Cuba Extinct
Titan-hawk Titanohierax gloveralleni Cuba, Hispaniola and the Bahamas Extinct
Jamaican caracara Caracara tellustris Jamaica Extinct Caracaras
Eyles's harrier Circus eylesi New Zealand Extinct (c. AD 1000)  
Swamp harrier
Gargano Island eagles Garganoaetus freudenthali

G. murivorus
Gargano Island Extinct (Late Miocene) Aquila delphinensis
Haast's eagle
Hieraaetus moorei New Zealand Extinct (c. AD 1400)  
Little eagle


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Anakena Beach parrots Two unnamed species Easter Island Extinct  
Other parrots
Hercules parrot Heracles inexpectatus New Zealand Extinct (Miocene)
Strigops habroptilus New Zealand Critically Endangered
Broad-billed parrot
Lophopsittacus mauritianus Mauritius Extinct (c. AD 1680)  
Psittaculine parrots


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Cretan owl
Athene cretensis Crete Extinct (Pleistocene)  
Little owl
Cuban giant owls
Ornimegalonyx spp. Cuba Extinct (Pleistocene)  
Wood owls
Larger Gargano giant owl
Tyto gigantea Gargano Island Extinct (Late Miocene)  
Barn owls
Andros Island barn owl
Tyto pollens Andros Island, Bahamas Extinct (before AD 1600)
Rivero's barn owl
Tyto riveroi Cuba Extinct
Lesser Gargano giant owl
Tyto robusta Gargano Island Extinct (Early Pliocene)


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Flores flightless stork[22]
Leptostilos robustus Flores Extinct (Late Pleistocene)  
Greater adjutant


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
New Zealand owlet-nightjar Aegotheles novazelandiae New Zealand Extinct (c. AD 1200)  
Australian owlet-nightjar
New Caledonian owlet-nightjar
Aegotheles savesi New Caledonia Critically endangered


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Chatham raven
Corvus moriorum Chatham Islands Extinct New Zealand raven
Long-legged bunting
Emberiza alcoveri Tenerife Extinct (after AD 1) Cabanis's bunting

Giant nukupu'u Hemignathus vorpalis Hawaii Extinct (after AD 1000) Finches
Tasmanian superb fairywren Malurus cyaneus cyaneus Tasmania Least Concern Superb fairywren
Kangaroo Island superb fairywren Malurus cyaneus ashbyi Kangaroo Island Least Concern
Stout-legged wren Pachyplichas yaldwyni South Island of New Zealand Extinct Passeriforms
Capricorn silvereye
Zosterops lateralis chlorocephalus Capricorn and Bunker Group of the Australian Great Barrier Reef Unknown Silvereye



Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
H. thambema Hateg Island Extinct (Late Cretaceous) Quetzalcoatlus


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Tongan giant iguana[23]
Brachylophus gibbonsi Tonga Extinct (c. 800 BC) South American iguanids
Fijian giant iguana [24]
Lapitiguana impensa Fiji Extinct (c. 1000 BC)
Angel Island chuckwalla
Sauromalus hispidus Isla Ángel de la Guarda, Baja California Near Threatened Peninsular chuckwalla
San Esteban chuckwalla
Sauromalus varius San Esteban Island, Baja California Endangered


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Delcourt's giant gekko
Hoplodactylus delcourti New Zealand Extinct (c. AD 1870) Diplodactylid geckos
Rodrigues giant day gecko
Phelsuma gigas Rodrigues Extinct (c. AD 1850) Day geckos
New Caledonian giant gecko
Rhacodactylus leachianus New Caledonia Least Concern Diplodactylid geckos


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Vaillant's mabuya Chioninia vaillanti Cape Verde Endangered Mabuyas
Mauritius giant skink
Leiolopisma mauritiana Mauritius Extinct (after AD 1600) New Zealand Leiolopisma skinks
Cape Verde giant skink
Macroscincus coctei Cape Verde Extinct (after AD 1900) Mabuyas
Terror skink Phoboscincus bocourti Île des Pins off New Caledonia Endangered Skinks
Kishinoue's giant skink Plestiodon kishinouyei Miyako Islands and Yaeyama Islands, Japan Vulnerable Asian Plestiodon skinks

Wall lizardsEdit

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
La Palma giant lizard Gallotia auaritae La Palma Critically endangered Mediterranean sandrunner lizards
La Gomera giant lizard
Gallotia bravoana Gomera Critically endangered
Tenerife giant lizard[25]
Gallotia goliath Tenerife Extinct (c. AD 1500)
El Hierro giant lizard
Gallotia simonyi El Hierro Critically endangered
Gran Canaria giant lizard
Gallotia stehlini Gran Canaria Least Concern


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Angel de la Guarda Island speckled rattlesnake Crotalus mitchellii angelensis Isla Ángel de la Guarda off Baja California Least Concern Speckled rattlesnake
Tadanae-jima striped snake population[26] Elaphe quadrivirgata Tadanae-jima island off Tokyo Unknown Japanese striped snake
Island tiger snake populations
Notechis scutatus Mount Chappell Island (Tasmania) and Williams Island, Hopkins Island and the Nuyts Archipelago (South Australia)[27] Least Concern[28] Tiger snake
Isla Cerralvo long-nosed snake Rhinocheilus lecontei etheridgei Jacques Cousteau Island off Baja California Sur Unknown Long-nosed snake

Dubious examplesEdit

  • The Komodo dragon of Flores and nearby islands, the largest extant lizard, and a similar (extinct) giant monitor lizard from Timor have been regarded as examples of giant insular carnivores. Since islands tend to offer limited food and territory, their mammalian carnivores (if present) are usually smaller than continental ones. These cases involve ectothermic carnivores on islands too small to support much mammalian competition. However, these lizards are not as large as their extinct Australian relative Megalania, and it has been proposed based on fossil evidence that the ancestors of these varanids first evolved their large size in Australia and then dispersed to Indonesia.[29] If this is true, rather than being insular giants they would be viewed as examples of phyletic gigantism. Nevertheless, given that Australia is sometimes viewed as the world's largest island, the former view may still have some validity.
  • Giant tortoises in the Galápagos Islands and the Seychelles, the largest extant tortoises, as well as extinct tortoises of the Mascarenes and Canary Islands, are often considered examples of island gigantism. However, during the Pleistocene, comparably sized or larger tortoises were present in Australia (Meiolania), southern Asia (Megalochelys), Madagascar (Dipsochelys), North America[30] (Hesperotestudo) and South America[31] (Chelonoidis, the same genus now found in the Galápagos[32]), and on a number of other, more accessible islands.[30] In the late Pliocene they were also present in Africa[33] ("Geochelone" laetoliensis[33]). The present situation of large tortoises being found only on remote islands appears to reflect that these islands were discovered by humans recently and have not been heavily populated, making their tortoises less subject to overexploitation.


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Coconut crab
Birgus latro Indian Ocean islands and Polynesia[34] Unknown Coenobita hermit crabs
Giant wetas
Deinacrida spp. New Zealand Variable South African king crickets
Lord Howe Island stick insect[35][36]
Dryococelus australis Lord Howe Island Critically endangered Phasmatid stick insects
Giant pseudoscorpion[37] Garypus titanius Boatswain Bird Island of Ascension Island Unknown Garypoid pseudoscorpions
Madagascar hissing cockroaches
Gromphadorhina spp. Madagascar Least Concern Blaberid cockroaches
Saint Helena earwig
Labidura herculeana Saint Helena Extinct (c. AD 1967) Labidura riparia
Wallace's giant bee
Megachile pluto North Moluccas Vulnerable Continental bees of subgenus Callomegachile
Megalara garuda SW Sulawesi Unknown Continental bees of subfamily Crabroninae
Giant pill-millipedes of Madagascar
Microsphaerotherium spp.

Sphaeromimus spp.

Zoosphaerium spp.
Madagascar Unknown Giant pill-millipedes of India (Arthrosphaera)
Orsonwelles spp. Hawaii Unknown Money spiders
Conant's giant Nihoa tree cricket
Thaumatogryllus conanti Nihoa Unknown Tree crickets
Giant Fijian long-horned beetle[38]
Xixuthrus heros Viti Levu, Fiji Vulnerable Australasian Xixuthrus species
Taveuni beetle Xixuthrus terribilis Taveuni, Fiji Unknown


Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Kauri land snails
Paryphanta spp.

Powelliphanta spp.
New Zealand Near Threatened Other rhytidids


In addition to size increase, island grass plants may also exhibit "insular woodiness". The most notable examples are the megaherbs of New Zealand's subantarctic islands.[39]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relative
Campbell Island carrot
Anisotome latifolia Campbell and Auckland Islands Unknown Apiaceae
Ross lily
Bulbinella rossii Campbell and Auckland Islands Unknown New Zealand Maori Lily

South African Yellow Cat-tail
Black-eyed daisy Damnamenia vernicosa Auckland and Campbell Islands Unknown Astereae
Coco de mer[40]
Lodoicea maldivica Seychelles Endangered Borassoid palms
  Pleurophyllum criniferum Antipodes, Auckland and Campbell Islands Unknown Cineraria
Silver-leaf daisy
Pleurophyllum hookeri Macquarie Island, Auckland and Campbell Islands Unknown
Campbell Island daisy
Pleurophyllum speciosum Campbell and Auckland Islands Unknown
Macquarie Island cabbage
Stilbocarpa polaris Macquarie Island and New Zealand subantarctic islands Vulnerable Araliaceae

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ The reduction in predation on islands often also leads to tamer behavior of island prey species, a trend that has been analyzed in lizards.[2][3]
  2. ^ The earliest known New Zealand kiwi ancestor, a presumed recent arrival from Australia.[19]


  1. ^ Herczeg, G. B.; Gonda, A. L.; Merilä, J. (2009-07-16). "Evolution of Gigantism in Nine-Spined Sticklebacks". Evolution. 63 (12): 3190–3200. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2009.00781.x. PMID 19624722.
  2. ^ Cooper, W. E.; Pyron, R. A.; Garland, T. (2014-01-08). "Island tameness: Living on islands reduces flight initiation distance". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 281 (1777): 20133019. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.3019. PMC 3896029. PMID 24403345.
  3. ^ Yong, E. (2014-01-08). "Islands make animals tamer". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2014.14462.
  4. ^ Jaffe, A. L.; Slater, G. J.; Alfaro, M. E. (2011-01-26). "The evolution of island gigantism and body size variation in tortoises and turtles". Biology Letters. 7 (4): 558–561. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.1084. PMC 3130210. PMID 21270022.
  5. ^ Barahona, F.; Evans, S.E.; Mateo, J.A.; Garcia-Marquez, M.; Lopez-Jurado, L.F. (March 2000). "Endemism, Gigantism and Extinction in Island Lizards: The Genus Gallotia on the Canary Islands". Journal of Zoology. 250 (3): 373–388. doi:10.1017/s0952836900003101. hdl:10553/19918.
  6. ^ a b Raia, P.; Meiri, S. (August 2006). "The island rule in large mammals: paleontology meets ecology". Evolution. 60 (8): 1731–1742. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2006.tb00516.x.
  7. ^ Keehn, J. E.; Nieto, N. C.; Tracy, C. R.; Gienger, C. M.; Feldman, C. R. (2013-08-27). "Evolution on a desert island: Body size divergence between the reptiles of Nevada's Anaho Island and the mainland around Pyramid Lake". Journal of Zoology. 291 (4): 269–278. doi:10.1111/jzo.12066.
  8. ^ Lomolino, M. V. (2005-09-05). "Body size evolution in insular vertebrates: generality of the island rule". Journal of Biogeography. 32 (10): 1683–1699. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2005.01314.x.
  9. ^ Filin, I.; Ziv, Y. (2004). "New Theory of Insular Evolution: Unifying the Loss of Dispersability and Body-mass Change" (PDF). Evolutionary Ecology Research. 6: 115–124.
  10. ^ Turvey, S. T. (2006). "A new genus and species of giant hutia (Tainotherium valei) from the Quaternary of Puerto Rico: an extinct arboreal quadruped?". Journal of Zoology. 270 (4): 585–594. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00170.x.
  11. ^ Enric Torres-Roig, Jordi Agustí, Pere Bover & Josep Antoni Alcover (2017): A new giant cricetine from the basal Pliocene of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean): biostratigraphic nexus with continental mammal zones, Historical Biology, DOI:10.1080/08912963.2017.1377194
  12. ^ Freudenthal, M. (1985). Cricetidae (Rodentia) from the Neogene of Gargano (Prov. of Foggia, Italy). Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
  13. ^
  14. ^ Timm, R. M.; Weijola, V.; Aplin, K. P.; Donnellan, S. C.; Flannery, T. F.; Thomson, V.; Pine, R. H. (2016-04-12). "A new species of Rattus (Rodentia: Muridae) from Manus Island, Papua New Guinea". Journal of Mammalogy. 97 (3): 861–878. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyw034.
  15. ^
  16. ^ Daams, R., & Freudenthal, M. (1985). Stertomys laticrestatus, a new glirid (dormice, Rodentia) from the insular fauna of Gargano (Prov. of Foggia, Italy). Scripta Geologica, 77, 21-27.
  17. ^ a b MacPhee, R.D.E., Iturralde-Vinent, M.A., and Gaffney, E.S. (February 2003). "Domo de Zaza, an Early Miocene Vertebrate Locality in South-Central Cuba, with Notes on the Tectonic Evolution of Puerto Rico and the Mona Passage". American Museum Novitates. 3394 (1): 1–42. doi:10.1206/0003-0082(2003)394<0001:DDZAEM>2.0.CO;2. hdl:2246/2820.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ "Late Cretaceous Animals of Romania's Haţeg Island--a More Complex View".
  19. ^ Worthy, Trevor H.; et al. (2013). Miocene fossils show that kiwi (Apteryx, Apterygidae) are probably not phyletic dwarves (PDF). Paleornithological Research 2013, Proceedings of the 8th International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
  20. ^ Pavia, M.; Meijer, H. J. M.; Rossi, M. A.; Göhlich, U. B. (2017-01-11). "The extreme insular adaptation of Garganornis ballmanni Meijer, 2014: a giant Anseriformes of the Neogene of the Mediterranean Basin". Royal Society Open Science. 4 (1): 160722. doi:10.1098/rsos.160722. PMC 5319340. PMID 28280574.
  21. ^ Naish, Darren (2008-01-28). "Titan-hawks and other super-raptors". Tetrapod Zoology blog. ScienceBlogs LLC. Retrieved 2011-03-02.
  22. ^ Meijer H. J. M.; Due, R. A. (2010-11-04). "A new species of giant marabou stork (Aves: Ciconiiformes) from the Pleistocene of Liang Bua, Flores (Indonesia)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 160 (4): 707–724. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00616.x.
  23. ^ Pregill, G. K.; Steadman, D. W. (March 2004). "South Pacific Iguanas: Human Impacts and a New Species". Journal of Herpetology. 38 (1): 15–21. doi:10.1670/73-03A. JSTOR 1566081.
  24. ^ Pregill, G. K.; Worthy, T. H. (March 2003). "A New Iguanid Lizard (Squamata, Iguanidae) from the Lare Quaternary of Fiji, Southwest Pacific". Herpetologica. 59 (1): 57–67. doi:10.1655/0018-0831(2003)059[0057:ANILSI]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0018-0831.
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