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Inwood is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, at the northern tip of Manhattan Island, in the U.S. state of New York. It is bounded by the Hudson River to the west, Spuyten Duyvil Creek and Marble Hill to the north, the Harlem River to the east, and Washington Heights to the south.

Inwood
Inwood, viewed from Inwood Hill Park
Inwood, viewed from Inwood Hill Park
Location in New York City
Coordinates: 40°52′01″N 73°55′19″W / 40.867°N 73.922°W / 40.867; -73.922Coordinates: 40°52′01″N 73°55′19″W / 40.867°N 73.922°W / 40.867; -73.922
Country United States
State New York
City New York City
Borough Manhattan
Community DistrictManhattan 12[1]
Area
 • Total3.22 km2 (1.245 sq mi)
Population
 (2016)[2]
 • Total58,946
 • Density18,000/km2 (47,000/sq mi)
Ethnicity
 • Hispanic52.2%
 • White15.1
 • Black9.1
 • Asian1.9
 • Others1.5
Economics
 • Median income$49,131
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP codes
10034, 10040
Area code212, 332, 646, and 917

Inwood is part of Manhattan Community District 12 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10034 and 10040.[1] It is patrolled by the 34th Precinct of the New York City Police Department.

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
207th Street station (now serving the 1 train) under construction in 1906 in undeveloped fields

On May 24, 1626, according to legend,[4] Peter Minuit, the director general of the Dutch colony of New Netherland, bought the island from the Lenape Indians for 60 Dutch guilders and, the story goes, some trinkets.[5] On the southern tip of the island Minuit founded New Amsterdam. A plaque (on a rock) marking what is believed to be the spot of the sale is in Inwood Hill Park, the only natural forest left in Manhattan.

During the British occupation of Manhattan in the American Revolutionary War, there was an encampment containing more than sixty huts occupied by Hessian troops between 201st and 204th Streets along Payson Avenue. The camp was discovered in 1914 by local archeologist and historian Reginald Bolton after a series of digs around the neighborhood.[6]

Inwood was a very rural section of Manhattan well into the early 20th century. Once the New York City Subway's IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line, the modern 1 train, reached Inwood in 1906, speculative developers constructed numerous apartment buildings on the east side of Broadway. Construction continued into the 1930s, when the IND Eighth Avenue Line, the modern A train, reached Dyckman and 207th Streets along Broadway and the large estates west of Broadway (Seaman, Dyckman, Isham, etc.) were sold off and developed. Many of Inwood's impressive Art Deco apartment buildings were constructed during this period. The area around Dyckman Street and 10th Avenue formerly contained a stadium called the Dyckman Oval, with a capacity of 4,500 spectators, which hosted football games, boxing matches, and Negro League baseball games until it was replaced by public housing in the 1950s.

DemographicsEdit

For census purposes, the New York City government classifies Inwood as part of a larger neighborhood tabulation area called Inwood and Marble Hill.[7] Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Inwood and Marble Hill was 46,746, a change of -2,341 (-5%) from the 49,087 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 405.79 acres (164.22 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 115.2 inhabitants per acre (73,700/sq mi; 28,500/km2).[8] The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 15.1% (7,060) White, 9.1% (4,239) African American, 0.1% (64) Native American, 1.9% (884) Asian, 0% (5) Pacific Islander, 0.4% (179) from other races, and 1% (458) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 72.4% (33,857) of the population.[3]

The entirety of Community District 12, which comprises Inwood and Washington Heights, had 195,830 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 81.4 years.[9]:2, 20 This is about the same as the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods.[10]:53 (PDF p. 84)[11] Most inhabitants are children and middle-aged adults: 33% are between the ages of 25–44, while 25% are between 45–64, and 19% are between 0–17. The ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 10% and 13% respectively.[9]:2

As of 2019, the median household income in Community District 12 was $42,000, compared to $73,000 in Manhattan and $53,000 in the entire city. In 2019, an estimated 25% of Inwood and Washington Heights residents lived in poverty, compared to 18% in all of Manhattan and 21% in all of New York City. One in eight residents (12%) were unemployed, compared to 7% in Manhattan and 9% in New York City.[12] Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 53% in Inwood and Washington Heights, compared to the boroughwide and citywide rates of 45% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Inwood and Washington Heights are considered to be gentrifying.[9]:7

TrendsEdit

The residents of Inwood were substantially of Irish descent for much of the 20th century. The neighborhood exhibited a strong Irish identity with many Irish shops, pubs, and even a Gaelic football field in Inwood Hill Park. The second-largest group during this time was Jewish, an extension of the large Jewish population of Washington Heights. However, in the 1960s through the 1980s, many Irish and Jewish residents moved out to the outer boroughs (for example, Riverdale and Spuyten Duyvil in the Bronx) and the suburbs, in a pattern consistent with overall trends in the city at that time. During the same period, there was a rise in the number of Dominican immigrants to the area.

Today, Inwood has a predominantly Dominican population, especially in the areas east of Broadway; it has the highest concentration of residents of Dominican descent in New York City.[12] Hispanic residents make up 74 percent of Inwood's population as a whole, according to census data.[13] Nearly half of the residents were born outside the US.[12] A few of Irish descent remain in the blocks near the Church of the Good Shepherd at Isham Street, though even its Mass services are now offered in Spanish nearly as often as in English. The YMHA remains, but the former synagogues have now been converted to churches and other uses.

Land use and terrainEdit

GeographyEdit

 
A residential street in Inwood

Inwood is physically bounded by the Harlem River to the north and east, and the Hudson River to the west. It extends southward to Fort Tryon Park and alternatively Dyckman Street or Fairview Avenue farther south, depending on the source.[14][15]

(While Inwood is the northernmost neighborhood on the island of Manhattan, it is not the northernmost neighborhood of the entire borough of Manhattan. That distinction is held by Marble Hill, a neighborhood situated just north of Inwood, on what is properly the North American mainland bordering the Bronx. Marble Hill was isolated from Inwood and the rest of Manhattan in 1895 when the route of the Harlem River was altered by the construction of the Harlem River Ship Canal.)

Because of its water boundary on three sides, its hilly geography, and its limited local street connections (only Broadway and Fort George Hill connect to the rest of the Manhattan street grid), the neighborhood can feel somewhat physically detached from the rest of the borough. The W.P.A. Guide to New York City, published in the 1930s, described Inwood with "rivers and hills insulate a suburban community that is as separate an entity as any in Manhattan."[16]

GeologyEdit

Inwood marble, a soft, white, metamorphic rock found in northern Manhattan, takes its name after the neighborhood. From the mid-17th to the late 18th century, commercial quarries dotted the area as the material was used for building construction. However, due to its susceptibility to erosion, builders eventually used alternate construction materials.[17] Inwood marble was quarried for government buildings in lower Manhattan and Washington, D.C. Small pieces of marble can still be seen in the stone retaining walls around Isham Park.

The seismologically active Dyckman Street Fault runs east-west beneath the Dyckman Valley. As recently as 1989, activity of this fault caused a magnitude 2 earthquake.[18][19][20]

Land useEdit

Commercial retail uses are mainly located along Broadway, Dyckman Street and West 207th Street. In recent years Dyckman Street west of Broadway has become a popular entertainment district with many restaurants and lounges. Offices are typically located on second floors over retail, or in the neighborhood's sole office building (a converted telephone building) at Broadway and West 215th Street. Inwood also contains one of Manhattan's few remaining C-8 zoning districts, which concentrates automotive uses on the northern stretches of Broadway.

Industrial uses, including depots for subway (207th Street Yard), bus (Kingsbridge Bus Depot), and sanitation (Manhattan North), exist primarily along Sherman Creek, an inlet of the Harlem River. The creek and surrounding industrial area is bounded by Dyckman Street to the south, Tenth Avenue to the west, and 207th Street to the north. There has been an initiative among politicians over the last few years to re-zone this area for residential and commercial use, and to create public access to the waterfront.[21] Utility company Consolidated Edison and the City of New York own some of the property in this area.

The major residential land use in Inwood is multifamily five- to eight-story prewar apartment buildings. New construction is rare. Most of the remaining detached and semi-detached houses on Manhattan Island are located in Inwood, nestled between apartment buildings. Adjacent to Sherman Creek is Inwood's public housing development, known as the Dyckman Houses and constructed in 1951.

Real estateEdit

Inwood's real estate rents and values are sharply bifurcated between east and west. According to Manhattan Community Board 12, the districts east of Broadway are predominantly lower-income. This area is also more industrial and commercial and has fewer parks and street trees. Real estate values and rents are correspondingly lower than the area west of Broadway. Almost all of Inwood's co-ops and all of the private houses are located on the west side of Broadway.[22]

In 2015, New York City began soliciting community comments on a major rezoning proposal for Inwood. The New York City Economic Development Corporation proposed to alter the area's 50-year-old current zoning plan by dividing Inwood into five sub-districts called "the tip of Manhattan", "Upland Wedge", "Upland Core", "Commercial U" and "Sherman Creek". Some of these sub-districts would be rezoned to encourage the construction of new commercial space and housing. A resident recalls being told by a city planner, "Don't think you can keep this nice neighborhood all to yourselves."[12] The rezoning proposal has triggered much feedback from the community,[23] including a sleep-in at Councilman Ydanis Rodriguez's office.[12] In August 2018, the New York City Council approved a measure to rezone the neighborhood.[24]

Institutions and landmarksEdit

 
The Cuxa Cloister, at The Cloisters

The area's best known cultural attraction is The Cloisters in Fort Tryon Park. This branch of the Metropolitan Museum of Art is devoted to Medieval art and culture, and is located in a medieval-style building, portions of which were purchased in Europe, brought to the United States, and reassembled. Whether the museum itself is actually located in Inwood depends on one's definition of the neighborhood boundaries but its tower dominates the skyline of the area and the museum can be easily accessed via steep pathways leading up from Dyckman Street.

 
The Columbia "C" from the Spuyten Duyvil Creek
 
Henry Hudson Bridge seen from Inwood Hill Park
 
The Seaman-Drake Arch was the entrance to a 19th-century country estate; now it is almost hidden by later commercial buildings.[25]

From Inwood Hill Park, one can view a 100-foot (30 m)-tall Columbia "C" painted on the face of a rock cut across the Harlem River on the Bronx shore. This collegiate logo has been in place for approximately a half-century, though it is not clear who exactly maintains the painted letter in the present day. Looking west from Inwood Hill Park across the Hudson River, one can view the New Jersey Palisades. Looking east from Inwood, the former NYU campus in University Heights, Bronx, now Bronx Community College, towers above the east end of the University Heights Bridge.

Bridges spanning Spuyten Duyvil Creek include the Henry Hudson Bridge, the longest fixed arch bridge in the world when built in 1936, and the Spuyten Duyvil Bridge, a railroad swing bridge reconstructed numerous times since originally opening in 1849. Road bridges are the Broadway Bridge and the University Heights Bridge, both important local structures.

The local hospital in Inwood is the Allen Hospital, a satellite facility of NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital.

The oldest building in Inwood is the Dyckman House, the oldest farmhouse in Manhattan, on Broadway at 204th Street. It is a designated New York City landmark. Inwood has one small historic district, designated in 2018, clustered around the Park Terrace West-West 217th Street area.

A farmers' market takes place on Isham Street on Saturdays, year-round.

The Seaman-Drake Arch, located on Broadway at 216th Street, is one of only two free-standing arches in Manhattan, the other being the Washington Square Arch. The Seaman-Drake Arch was built in 1855 of local Inwood marble. It is the last remaining structure of the mansion that formerly stood there.[25]

At the North Cove at 207th Street and the Harlem River, both the shoreline and the water just off it have been rehabilitated from their former derelict polluted state by James Cataldi (also known as the "Birdman of Inwood") into a flourishing wetland teeming with geese, ducks, and other varities of fowl.[26]

ParksEdit

Inwood Hill Park, on the Hudson River, is a very large and old-growth forested city park. It is known for its caves that were used by the Lenape before Europeans arrived, and the last salt marsh in Manhattan. Birdwatchers come to the Park to see waterbirds, raptors, and a wide variety of migratory birds. The wooded section, consisting mostly of abandoned former summer estates, features the last natural forest standing on Manhattan Island. A busy ballfield complex, tennis courts, three playgrounds, a waterfront promenade and extensive hiking trails are also prominent components of the Park.

Columbia University's 23-acre (93,000 m2) athletic fields have been located in Inwood since the 1920s. They are known today as the Baker Athletics Complex, though locals still use the historical name of "Baker Field". The football stadium within the complex, officially Robert K. Kraft Field at Lawrence A. Wien Stadium, can accommodate 17,000 fans and was noted by Sports Illustrated as "one of the most beautiful places in the country to watch a football game" due to the scenic views of the Henry Hudson Bridge and the New Jersey Palisades from the home stands.[27] In January 2014, a new one-acre park called Muscota Marsh opened to the public between Inwood Hill Park and Baker Field as part of an agreement with the city for the development of the Campbell Athletic Center at West 218th Street and Broadway. This waterfront park was built by Columbia and is jointly administered by the city parks department and the university.[28] The Inwood waterfront is also home to Columbia University's Boathouse - the "1929 Boathouse" which stands next to the "Gould-Remmer Boathouse" which was originally constructed in 1895 as the Gould Boathouse at 116th Street on the Hudson River and was relocated here in 1989. This new structure now houses the Ivy League school's Crew team and hosts inter-collegiate rowing competitions.[29] In July 2018, a harbor seal nicknamed "Sealy" started showing up by the structure, garnering media attention.[30]

Other parks in or adjoining Inwood are Isham Park, Sherman Creek Park (Swindler Cove), Fort Washington Park, Fort Tryon Park, and Highbridge Park. The Lt. William Tighe Triangle, aka the Riverside-Inwood Neighborhood Garden (RING), is the northernmost piece of Ft. Tryon Park and lies at the confluence of Riverside Drive, Dyckman Street, Broadway, and Seaman Avenue.[31] It is Inwood's oldest community garden, having been founded in 1984. Bruce's Garden is another notable community garden, located in the northeast corner of Isham Park.

Police, crime, and safetyEdit

Inwood, along with northern Washington Heights, is patrolled by the 34th Precinct of the NYPD, located at 4295 Broadway.[32] The 34th Precinct ranked 23rd safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010. At one time, it was among New York City's most dangerous police precincts. However, since the 1990s, increased gang arrests have led to steep declines in car thefts, burglaries, shooting incidents and murders. Certain types of crimes have increased: for example, muggings and other attacks near Isham Park and area subway stations increased from 2009 to 2010.[33] With a non-fatal assault rate of 43 per 100,000 people, Washington Heights and Inwood's rate of violent crimes per capita is less than that of the city as a whole. The incarceration rate of 482 per 100,000 people is higher than that of the city as a whole.[9]:8

The 34th Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 86.3% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct saw 1 murder, 27 rapes, 200 robberies, 315 felony assaults, 155 burglaries, 592 grand larcenies, and 87 grand larcenies auto in 2018.[34]

Inwood is served by the New York City Fire Department (FDNY)'s Engine Co. 95/Ladder Co. 36/Foam 95, located at 29 Vermilyea Avenue.[35][36]

HealthEdit

Preterm births in Inwood and Washington Heights are lower than the city average, though teenage births are higher. In Inwood and Washington Heights, there were 73 preterm births per 1,000 live births (compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide), and 23.3 teenage births per 1,000 live births (compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide).[9]:11 Inwood and Washington Heights have a low population of residents who are uninsured. In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 14%, more than the citywide rate of 12%.[9]:14

The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in Inwood and Washington Heights is 0.0078 milligrams per cubic metre (7.8×10−9 oz/cu ft), more than the city average.[9]:9 Thirteen percent of Inwood and Washington Heights residents are smokers, which is slightly less than the city average of 14% of residents being smokers.[9]:13 In Inwood and Washington Heights, 26% of residents are obese, 13% are diabetic, and 28% have high blood pressure—compared to the citywide averages of 24%, 11%, and 28% respectively.[9]:16 In addition, 24% of children are obese, compared to the citywide average of 20%.[9]:12

Eighty-one percent of residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, which is less than the city's average of 87%. In 2018, 68% of residents described their health as "good," "very good," or "excellent," less than the city's average of 78%.[9]:13 For every supermarket in Inwood and Washington Heights, there are 13 bodegas.[9]:10

NewYork-Presbyterian's Allen Hospital is located in Inwood.[37][38]

Post offices and ZIP codesEdit

Inwood is located in two ZIP Codes. The area south of Dyckman Street is in 10040 while the area north of Dyckman Street is in 10034.[39] The United States Postal Service operates two post offices near Inwood: the Inwood Station at 90 Vermilyea Avenue[40] and the Ft George Station at 4558 Broadway.[41]

EducationEdit

 
PS/MS 278
 
PS/IS 18

Inwood and Washington Heights generally have a higher rate of college-educated residents than the rest of the city. While 38% of residents age 25 and older have a college education or higher, 29% have less than a high school education and 33% are high school graduates or have some college education. By contrast, 64% of Manhattan residents and 43% of city residents have a college education or higher.[9]:6 The percentage of Inwood and Washington Heights students excelling in math rose from 27% in 2000 to 48% in 2011, though reading achievement decreased from 34% to 31% during the same time period.[42]

Inwood and Washington Heights's rate of elementary school student absenteeism is similar to the rest of New York City. In Inwood and Washington Heights, 19% of elementary school students missed twenty or more days per school year, about the same as the citywide average of 20%.[10]:24 (PDF p. 55)[9]:6 Additionally, 68% of high school students in Inwood and Washington Heights graduate on time, less than the citywide average of 75%.[9]:6

SchoolsEdit

Inwood (and Fort George, depending on how one considers neighborhood boundaries) hosts various public schools:

  • PS 5 The Ellen Lurie School, a K–5 public school
  • PS/IS 18 Park Terrace, a K–8 public school
  • PS 98 Shorac Kappock, a K–5 public school
  • PS 152 Dyckman Valley, a K–5 public school
  • PS 178 Juan Bosch School, a K–2 public school (expanding to Grade 5)
  • IS 52 Inwood JHS, a 6–8 public school
  • The Paula Hedbavny School, a K–8 public school
  • MS 322], a 6–8 public school
  • High School for Excellence and Innovation, a 9–12 public specialty school
  • Three public schools are "schools of choice" for District 6 and admit by lottery:
    • Muscota New School, a K–5 progressive public school
    • PS/IS 311 Amistad Dual Language School, a K–8 English/Spanish dual language public school
    • PS 366 Washington Heights Academy, a K–8 public school
  • There is one public charter school located in Inwood: Inwood Academy for Leadership Charter School, a 5–9 public charter school (expanding each year)

There are several private religious schools in Inwood:

  • Good Shepherd School, a PK–8 Roman Catholic school
  • Manhattan Christian Academy, a PK–8 nondenominational Christian school
  • Northeastern Academy, a 9–12 Seventh Day Adventist high school
  • Our Lady Queen of Martyrs School, a PK–8 Roman Catholic school

There is one higher-education classroom campus in Inwood:

  • CUNY In the Heights, community college classes jointly administered by Hostos and BMCC.

LibraryEdit

The New York Public Library (NYPL) operates the Inwood branch at 4790 Broadway. The first library in Inwood opened in 1902 as a partnership between NYPL and the Dyckman Library, and the NYPL opened several small branches in Inwood in 1923. These branches were consolidated with the opening of the current three-story branch in 1952. The Inwood branch was renovated in 2001.[43] In 2017, it was announced that a 14-story, 175-unit residential structure with a larger library would be built on the site of the Inwood branch.[44]

TransportationEdit

 
Broadway and Dyckman Street intersection in Inwood.

Inwood's main local thoroughfare is Broadway, which is co-designated US 9 at this point. Highway access to the area is via the Henry Hudson Parkway to the west, the Harlem River Drive to the southeast (ending at Dyckman Street), and the Alexander Hamilton Bridge over the Harlem River from the Trans-Manhattan Expressway to the Cross Bronx Expressway (both of which carry I-95 and U.S. 1). Other bridges to the area include the Washington Bridge at 181st Street, crossing the Harlem River to the Bronx; the University Heights Bridge, from 207th Street in Manhattan across the Harlem River to Fordham Road in the Bronx; the Broadway Bridge, across the Spuyten Duyvil Creek north to Marble Hill; and the Henry Hudson Bridge across Spuyten Duyvil Creek to the Bronx. Inwood's main commercial shopping streets are Broadway, Dyckman Street, and West 207th Street. Manhattan's first Slow Zone was installed on the side streets west of Broadway in 2012; it is similar to other Slow Zones citywide installed as part of Vision Zero, which commenced under Mayor Bill de Blasio in 2014.[45]

 
207th Street subway station

The majority of neighborhood residents commute via the subway using either the A train at the 207th Street or Dyckman Street stations along Broadway, the latter of which was a subway terminus since it opened in 1932 and was renovated in 1999 to be ADA accessible.[46][47] The neighborhood also is served by the 1 train at the Dyckman Street, 207th Street, or 215th Street stations along Tenth Avenue.

The Metro-North Railroad's Hudson Line has a station just over the Broadway Bridge at Marble Hill as well as across the University Heights Bridge in University Heights, providing an additional commuting options (discounted on weekends using CityTicket).

Inwood is also served by the M100, Bx7, Bx12, Bx12 SBS and Bx20 local buses and the BxM1 express bus. All MTA Regional Bus Operations routes except the Bx7 terminate in the neighborhood.[48] The median commute time for all residents is approximately 45 minutes, with 72.5% of Inwood's residents working within New York County.[46]

Bike infrastructure in Inwood is limited. Painted lanes are located on Seaman Avenue and the far eastern portion of Dyckman Street. West 218th Street is marked with sharrows (shared lane markings). The Manhattan Waterfront Greenway can be accessed from Inwood on both the Hudson and Harlem River sides; in addition, a 0.75-mile (1.21 km) dead-end stub along the Hudson waterfront below Dyckman Street was added in 2014. Technically, there is a ban on bicycles in Inwood Hill Park except for its western edge and the Henry Hudson Bridge. The Broadway Bridge requires cyclists to use the steel-grate roadway, making cycling connections to the Bronx difficult.

Notable residentsEdit

Notable current and former residents of Inwood include:

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "NYC Planning | Community Profiles". communityprofiles.planning.nyc.gov. New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c "Inwood neighborhood in New York". Retrieved March 18, 2019.
  3. ^ a b Table PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, March 29, 2011. Accessed June 14, 2016.
  4. ^ "Where Did the Manhattan 'Purchase' Take Place?," New Netherland Institute
  5. ^ ""Peter Minuit," Britannica Online". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved March 21, 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 16, 2016.
  8. ^ Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 16, 2016.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Washington Heights and Inwood" (PDF). nyc.gov. NYC Health. 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  10. ^ a b "2016-2018 Community Health Assessment and Community Health Improvement Plan: Take Care New York 2020" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
  11. ^ "New Yorkers are living longer, happier and healthier lives". New York Post. June 4, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
  12. ^ a b c d e Mays, Jeffrey C., "Before Rezoing Vote, Residents Ask: 'Where Will We Go?'," The New York Times, Aug. 8, 2018, A17.
  13. ^ Beyer, Gregory (March 1, 2009). "Northern Zone, South-of-the-Border Flavor". The New York Times.
  14. ^ Jackson, Nancy Beth. "If You're Thinking of Living In/Inwood; Away From Manhattan Without Leaving", The New York Times, December 15, 2002. Accessed October 23, 2008. "The neighborhood's southern boundary with Washington Heights depends on who's defining. Residents line up in two camps: Fairview Avenue as described in the Encyclopedia of New York City and Dyckman Street( Most Common), about a half-dozen blocks to the north, on Department of City Planning maps. Real estate agents seem to agree with the encyclopedia."
  15. ^ Russo, Francine. "Close Up On: Inwood", The Village Voice, October 15, 2002. Accessed October 23, 2008. "Boundaries: Fairview Avenue to the south, Dyckman Street to the west, and the Harlem River to the north and east (Inwood is bisected by Broadway)."
  16. ^ Federal Writers' Project (1939). New York City: Vol 1, New York City Guide. US History Publishers. pp. 302–306. ISBN 978-1-60354-055-1.
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  19. ^ Sykes, Lynn R.; et al. (August 2008). "Observations and Tectonic Setting of Historic and Instrumentally Located Earthquakes in the Greater New York City–Philadelphia Area" (PDF). Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 98, No. 4, pp. 1696–1719.
  20. ^ Shahid, Alihay (March 17, 2011). "Could an earthquake hit New York City? History says yes, but not like 9.0 magnitude Japan earthquake". New York Daily News.
  21. ^ "Sherman Creek initiative at nyc.gov". Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
  22. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 20, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ Pichardo, Carolina (July 20, 2017). "5 Takeaways From the Inwood Rezoning Proposal". DNAinfo. Archived from the original on October 8, 2017. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
  24. ^ Walker, Ameena (August 8, 2018). "Inwood rezoning will move forward with City Council approval". Curbed NY. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
  25. ^ a b "The Inwood Arch and Mansion: Circa 1896". myinwood.net. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  26. ^ "Bird Week | 'Birdman' of Inwood". May 4, 2011.
  27. ^ "Columbia Athletics".
  28. ^ Foderaro, Lisa W. (January 20, 2014). "With University's Help, New Park on Harlem River Is a Marshland Sanctuary". The New York Times. Retrieved February 10, 2014.
  29. ^ "Columbia Rowing Boathouses". Columbia University Athletics.
  30. ^ "Lonely Seal Becomes Local Celebrity in Upper Manhattan". NBC New York.
  31. ^ "RING Garden". RING Garden. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
  32. ^ "NYPD – 34th Precinct". www.nyc.gov. New York City Police Department. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
  33. ^ "Inwood – DNAinfo.com Crime and Safety Report". www.dnainfo.com. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  34. ^ "34th Precinct CompStat Report" (PDF). www.nyc.gov. New York City Police Department. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
  35. ^ "Engine Company 95/Ladder Company 36/Foam 95". FDNYtrucks.com. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  36. ^ "FDNY Firehouse Listing – Location of Firehouses and companies". NYC Open Data; Socrata. New York City Fire Department. September 10, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  37. ^ "Manhattan Hospital Listings". New York Hospitals. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
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  39. ^ "Inwood, New York City-Manhattan, New York Zip Code Boundary Map (NY)". United States Zip Code Boundary Map (USA). Retrieved March 26, 2019.
  40. ^ "Location Details: Inwood". USPS.com. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  41. ^ "Location Details: Fort George". USPS.com. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  42. ^ "Morningside Heights/Hamilton – MN 06" (PDF). Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy. 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  43. ^ "About the Inwood Library". The New York Public Library. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
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