Hebburn is a small town situated on the south bank of the River Tyne in North East England sandwiched between the towns of Jarrow and Gateshead and to the south of Walker. The population of Hebburn was 18,808 in 2001,[1] reducing to 16,492 at the 2011 Census for the 2 Hebburn Wards (North & South).[2][3] Once part of the private Ellison estate,[4] and made an independent Urban District in 1894,[4][5] in 1974 it became part of the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear.[5]

Hebburn
Hebburn is located in Tyne and Wear
Hebburn
Hebburn
Location within Tyne and Wear
Population16,492 (2011. South Tyneside Wards)
OS grid referenceNZ318645
Metropolitan borough
Metropolitan county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townHEBBURN
Postcode districtNE31
Dialling code0191
PoliceNorthumbria
FireTyne and Wear
AmbulanceNorth East
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Tyne and Wear
54°58′18″N 1°30′46″W / 54.9718°N 1.5128°W / 54.9718; -1.5128Coordinates: 54°58′18″N 1°30′46″W / 54.9718°N 1.5128°W / 54.9718; -1.5128

HistoryEdit

 
Hebburn in 2011, with Westmorland Court and Durham Court flats visible on the skyline.

In Saxon times Hebburn was a small fishing Hamlet upon the river Tyne.[4] It is thought that the name Hebburn may be derived from the Old English terms, heah meaning "high", and byrgen meaning a "burial mound", though it could also mean the high place beside the water. The first record of Hebburn mentions a settlement of fishermen's huts in the 8th century, which were burned by the Vikings.

In the 14th century the landscape was dominated by a peel tower. A 4-foot-6-inch-tall (137-centimetre) wall, a portion of which still remains at St. John's Church, could also be seen.[6] The Lordship of the Manor of Hebburn passed through the hands of a number of families during the Middle Ages, including the Hodgsons of Hebburn (James 1974, Hodgson).

In the early 1600s, the wealthy Newcastle family, the Ellisons, acquired the land of Hebburn.[4] Coal was mined at Hebburn as early as the 17th century. In 1792 the Ellisons received royalties from coal mining expansion[4] when Hebburn Colliery opened. The colliery eventually operated three pits. In 1786 the Ellisons’ Hebburn estate also made income from dumping ships ballast at Hebburn Quay.[4] By the 1800s the Ellison family had expanded Hebburn Manor into their Hebburn Hall estate.[4] Hebburn Colliery played an important role in the investigations into the development of mine safety, following the mining disaster at Felling Colliery in 1812. Humphry Davy stayed with Cuthbert Ellison at Hebburn Hall in 1815 and took samples of the explosive methane 'fire damp' gas from the Hebburn mine which were taken to London in wine bottles for experiments into the development of a miners' safety lamp. Davy's lamps were tested in the Hebburn mine and remarkably the gauze that protected the naked flames could actually absorb the fire damp so that the lamps could shine more effectively.[7]

In 1853, Andrew Leslie arrived from Aberdeen, Scotland. He expanded the Ellison estate, further, with shipbuilding,[4] and in 200 years of industrialisation, Hebburn grew into a modern town of 20,000 inhabitants.[4] When the railways arrived in Hebburn in 1872, further growth took off in the Ellison estate, with the growth of the brick, metal and chemical industries.[4]

Andrew Leslie's shipyard launched two-hundred and fifty-five ships before 1885.[8] In 1885 the shipyard merged with local locomotive builder W Hawthorne, and then changed its name to Hawthorn Leslie and Company, and grew even more.[8]

Hebburn also hosted its own Highland Games, with the first one being held in 1883, which were usually held annually in July or August, spanning over three decades and with professional sportsmen coming from Scotland and as far as Oban to compete.

In 1894 Hebburn was recognised as its own independent Urban District;[4] it was no longer the private land of the Ellison family; and it also adopted the Ellison family crest as its coat of arms.[5]

In 1901 Alphonse Reyrolle's, Reyrolle Electrical Switchgear Company opened.[4][8] In 1932 Hebburn colliery closed. 200 miners were killed during the life of the colliery.[9] The youngest were 10 years old. In 1936 Monkton Coke Works was built by the Government, in response to the Jarrow Hunger March in 1932.[10]

Hawthorn Leslie built everything from liners to tankers.[7] Many Royal Navy battle ships were built at Hawthorn Leslie shipyard. In WWII the yard built 41 naval vessels and repaired another 120.[7] The best known ship built at the ship yard was HMS Kelly,[11] launched in 1938 and commanded by Lord Louis Mountbatten.[12] The ship, a K-Class destroyer, was commissioned just eleven days before WWII.[12] The ship was hit three times. in December 1939 it was damaged by a German mine not far from the river Tyne.[12] On 9 May 1940 she was torpedoed off Norway with the loss of 27 lives.[12] Badly damaged, she crawled back to Hawthorn Leslie on a 92-hour journey to be repaired.[7] In 1941 the Kelly was sunk off Crete.[7] One hundred and thirty men were killed when it was sunk and they are remembered in memorials at Hebburn Cemetery,[12] which were erected by surviving members of the crew and workers from Hawthorn Leslie.[12] The Kelly's story forms the basis of the 1942 film In Which We Serve.[7]

The Monkton Coke Works plant closed in 1990, and was demolished in 1992.[10] The former British Short-Circuit Testing Station in Victoria Road West within the town, owned by A. Reyrolle & Company provided the backdrop for the Gary Numan video "Metal". The facility was demolished in 2011.[13]

In 2012, the BBC commissioned a television series Hebburn to be set in the town. It was created and co-written by Jason Cook, who was raised in Hebburn.[14] The first episode was broadcast on 18 October 2012.[15][16]

The Parachute Regiment 4th Para Reserves have a base in Hebburn.

The Air Cadets have a unit located at Hebburn TA Centre.[17]

Hebburn has an ecology centre powered by wind turbines.

It is the location of a shipyard, operated by A&P Group.[18]

EducationEdit

Hebburn has two secondary schools St Joseph's Catholic Academy (formerly St Joseph's Comprehensive School) and Hebburn Comprehensive School.[19]

SportEdit

Hebburn Town F.C., formed in 1912,[20] and Hebburn Reyrolle F.C. are the town's local non-league football teams. Hebburn Argyle, which existed in the early 1900s, reformed several years ago as a youth club.

Athletics is also catered for at Monkton Stadium, home of Jarrow and Hebburn Athletic Club,[21] where Brendan Foster, Steve Cram and David Sharpe are notable past runners.

A short lived greyhound racing track was opened in 1945. The plans to build the track were passed in September 1944 and it cost £30,000 to construct a venue that could accommodate 6,000 people. The racing was independent (not affiliated to the sports governing body the National Greyhound Racing Club) and was known as a flapping track, which was the nickname given to independent tracks.[22] The track was trading in 1947 but it is not known when it closed.[23]

TransportEdit

It has a station on the Tyne and Wear Metro called Hebburn Metro station. Frequent bus services to South Shields, Jarrow, Gateshead and Newcastle are available to catch on Station Road.

Hebburn once operated a mid Tyne ferry service.[24] The service was owned by various Tyne ship yards. The service ran between Hebburn, Walker and Wallsend.[24] The ferry service last operated in 1986.[24] One of the fleet, ran by the Mid Tyne Ferry Co, was called the Tyne Queen.[25] In 2020 she was called the Jacobite Queen,[25] and she was still working on the Loch Ness, Inverness, Scotland.[25]

Notable citizensEdit

Academia
Engineering
Entertainment
Politics
Sport


ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Office for National Statistics : Census 2001 : Urban Areas : Table KS01 : Usual Resident Population DMM - Hebburn Colliery
  2. ^ "Hebburn south ward population 2011". Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  3. ^ "Hebburn north ward population2011". Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The Jarrow & Hebburn Local History Society. "Hebburn". jarrowandhebburnhistory.uk. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  5. ^ a b c The Jarrow & Hebburn Local History Society. "About Hebburn". jarrowandhebburnhistory.uk. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  6. ^ Staff (1 January 2012). "Eight interesting facts about Hebburn". Evening Chronicle. Newcastle: chroniclelive.co.uk. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Henderson, Tony (24 June 2016). "From The Cokeys to Spuggies' Bridge: 17 things you'll know if you're from Hebburn". Chronicle. Newcastle: chroniclelive.co.uk. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  8. ^ a b c "Take a tour of the old streets of Hebburn with its people and places". Chronicle. Newcastle: chroniclelive.co.uk. 3 October 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  9. ^ "Hebburn Colliery". dmm.org.uk. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  10. ^ a b "Demolition of Monkton Cokeworks". southtynesidehistory.co.uk. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  11. ^ "Hebburn, Hawthorn Leslie Shipyard - sitelines.newcastle.gov.uk". twsitelines.info. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Morton, David (26 August 2017). "The tragic World War II ship which is forever linked to a Tyneside town". Chronicle. Newcastle: chroniclelive.co.uk. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  13. ^ "Former Reyrolle site set to disappear". shieldsgazette.com. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  14. ^ Dipper, Andrew (2 September 2012). "Interview: Hebburn creator Jason Cook". Giggle Beats. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
  15. ^ Lawson, Ruth. "Jason Cook's pilot show 'Hebburn' commissioned". The Chronicle.
  16. ^ "Hebburn". BBC.
  17. ^ "1027 (Jarrow) Squadron". 1027sqn.org. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  18. ^ Gibson, Robert (6 May 2016). "20,000 tonne wind turbine installation vessel docks at A&P Group's Tyne yard". Chronicle. Newcastle: chroniclelive.co.uk. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  19. ^ "Hebburn Comprehensive School, South Tyneside". hebburn.net. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  20. ^ "History". hebburntownfc.co.uk. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  21. ^ Jarrow and Hebburn AC
  22. ^ Barnes, Julia (1988). Daily Mirror Greyhound Fact File, page 417. Ringpress Books. ISBN 0-948955-15-5.
  23. ^ "Bickington". Greyhound Racing Times.
  24. ^ a b c Morton, David (3 September 2015). "The Tyne ferries that have carried thousands of passengers for generations". Chronicle. Newcastle: chroniclelive.co.uk. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  25. ^ a b c "Jacobite Queen". nationalhistoricships.org.uk. National Historic Ships UK. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  26. ^ Hunt, Philip A. (1988). Biographical Register 1880-1974 Corpus Christi College (University of Oxford). Oxford, England: The College. ISBN 9780951284407.
  27. ^ Henderson, Tony (24 April 2018). "Internationally-renowned Newcastle University scientist Paul Younger has died". Evening Chronicle. Newcastle: chroniclelive.co.uk. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  28. ^ "Working Lives". google.co.uk. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  29. ^ Glanville, Brian (2 November 2000). "George Armstrong - Professional footballer who played with courage and generosity". The Guardian. London: theguardian.com. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  30. ^ "Football mourns death of Geordie", The South Shields Gazette, South Shields, 2 November 2000, retrieved 24 June 2010

BibliographyEdit

James, Mervyn (1974) Family, Lineage, and Civil Society: A Study of Society, Politics, and Mentality in the Durham Region, 1500-1640 (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

External linksEdit