Gimbap (김밥), also romanized as kimbap, is a Korean dish made from cooked rice and ingredients such as vegetables, fish and meats that are rolled in gim—dried sheets of seaweed—and served in bite-sized slices.[1] The origins of gimbap are debated. The majority of scholars accept its origin from the Japanese norimaki, introduced during the colonial times,[2][3][4][5] while a minority states it is a modernized version of bokssam from the Joseon era. Regardless, it has since become a distinct dish. Gimbap can be easily eaten in bite-sized pieces regardless of location.[6] So the dish is often part of a packed meal, or dosirak, to be eaten at picnics and outdoor events, and can serve as a light lunch along with danmuji (yellow pickled radish) and kimchi. It is a popular take-out food in South Korea and abroad,[7] and is known as a convenient food because of its portability.

Gimbap
Vegetable gimbap.jpg
sliced vegetable gimbap
Place of originKorea
Main ingredientsGim, bap
VariationsChungmu-gimbap, samgak-gimbap
Korean name
Hangul
김밥
Revised Romanizationgimbap
McCune–Reischauerkimbap
IPA[kim.bap̚]~[kim.p͈ap̚]

EtymologyEdit

Gim () refers to edible seaweed in the genus Porphyra and Pyropia. Bap () broadly refers to "cooked rice". The compound term gimbap is a neologism; it was not a part of the Korean language until the modern era. A similar dish, cooked rice rolled with Gim, was called bokssam (복쌈; 福-) in the Joseon era (1392–1897).[8][9]

The term gimbap was used in a 1935 Korean newspaper article,[10] but at the time, the loanword norimaki was used as well. Norimaki, which borrowed from the name of a similar Japanese dish, was part of the Japanese vocabulary that entered into the Korean language during the Japanese occupation (1910–1945). The two words were used interchangeably until gimbap was made the universal term as part of efforts to clear away the remnants of Japanese colonialism and purify the Korean language.[11]

HistoryEdit

The origins of gimbap are debated.[12] One theory suggests the modern form of Gimbap was derived from the introduction of the Japanese sushi variant makizushi to Korea during the Japanese occupation of Korea (1910-1945). During that period, Korean cuisine adopted Western food and drink, as well as some Japanese food items such as Bento (Dosirak in Korean) or sushi rolled in sheets of seaweed, popularized in Korea under the name of gimbap.[13][14][15][16] Since then, gimbap has become a distinct dish, often utilizing traditional Korean flavors, as well as sesame oil, instead of rice vinegar.[17][18] This theory is supported by a newspaper from 1925, in which the term Gimbap first appeared in Korea.[10]

Another theory, suggested in the Encyclopedia of Korean Culture published by the Academy of Korean Studies, is that the food was developed from the long-established local tradition of rolling bap (cooked rice) and banchan (side dishes) in gim.[12][19][20] Production of gim in Gyeongsang and Jeolla Provinces is reported in books from the 15th century, such as Gyeongsang-do Jiriji and Sinjeung Dongguk Yeoji Seungnam.[21][22] Yeoryang Sesigi (열양세시기), a Joseon book written in 1819 by Kim Mae-sun (김매순) refers to cooked rice and filling rolled with Gim as bokssam (복쌈; transcribed using the hanja 縛占, pronounced bakjeom in Korean).[8][9] One other theory suggests that Gimbap was introduced to Japan during the Baekje period.[23][24]

Regardless, Gimbap and makizushi now refer to distinct dishes in Japan and Korea: the former called kimupapu (キムパプ) in Japanese and the latter called gimchobap (김초밥; "gim sushi") or norimaki (노리마키) in Korean. Gimbap is usually rolled with several ingredients and is seasoned with sesame oil, while makizushi should be rolled with one ingredient and is seasoned with rice vinegar.

Ingredients and preparationEdit

Gim and bap are the two basic components of gimbap. While short-grain white rice is most commonly used, short-grain brown rice, black rice, or other grains may also serve as the filling.

Some varieties of gimbap include cheese, spicy cooked squid, kimchi, luncheon meat, pork cutlet, pepper, or spicy tuna. The gim may be brushed with sesame oil or sprinkled with sesame seeds. In one variation, sliced pieces of gimbap may be lightly fried with an egg coating.

Fillings vary, often with vegetarian and vegan options.[25] Popular ingredients include danmuji (yellow pickled radish), ham, beef, imitation crab meat, egg strips, kimchi, bulgogi, spinach, carrot, burdock root, cucumber, canned tuna, and kkaennip (perilla leaves).[26][27]

Cheese gimbap and tuna gimbap
Gimbap with meat

To make the dish, gim sheets are toasted over a low heat, cooked rice is lightly seasoned with salt and sesame oil, and vegetable and meat ingredients are seasoned and stir-fried or pan-fried. The toasted gim is then laid on a gimbal—a bamboo gimbap roller—with a thin layer of cooked rice placed evenly on top. Other ingredients are placed on the rice and rolled into a cylindrical shape, typically 3–4 centimetres (1.2–1.6 in) in diameter. The rolled gimbap is then sliced into bite-sized pieces.[28]

gimbal, bamboo gimbap roller
arranging the ingredients
rolling gimbap

VariantsEdit

  • Chungmu-gimbap (충무김밥) – Originating from the seaside city of Chungmu (currently Tongyeong), the dish features thinner rolls with an unseasoned surface and only rice as the filler ingredient. It is served with spicy ojingeo-muchim (squid salad) and seokbakji (radish kimchi).[29]
  • Mayak-gimbap (마약김밥) – A specialty of Gwangjang Market in Seoul. Mayak translates as "drug", a reference to its allegedly addictive and concentrated flavour. Small gimbap filled with carrots, spinach, and danmuji (yellow pickled radish) is sprinkled with ground sesame seeds and dipped in its pairing sauce made from soy sauce and mustard.
  • Samgak-gimbap (삼각김밥) – Literally "triangle gimbap". This variety is similar to Japanese onigiri, and is sold in convenience stores in South Korea.[30] Fillings vary greatly. The expiration date is 1 day, and has a caloric value of between 140 and 200 kilo calories usually.[31]
  • nude gimbap – Unlike ordinary gimbap, the ingredients of the gimbap go inwards, and the rice comes out and covers the entire area.[clarification needed] It is similar to Japanese style rolls, but uses ingredients used in Korean-style kimbap (hams, meat fillets, pickled radish, spinach, etc.) and is also served with cheese or sauce.

Restaurant franchisesEdit

Many South Korean fast food restaurant franchises specialize in gimbap and noodles. Among the chains are Gimbap Cheonguk (김밥천국), Kobongmin Gimbabin (고봉민김밥人), Chungmu Gimbab Matjuk (충무김밥), Teacher Kim (바르다김선생), Gimbap Nara (김밥나라), Gimgane (김家네), Gobong Gimbap (고봉김밥), Jongro Gimbap (종로김밥), Rolling Rice, Gimbap King (김밥 King), and Charles Sutbul Gimbap (찰스숯불김밥).[32] Some of these restaurants also serve other dishes, including dongaseu (pork cutlet), ramyeon (instant noodles), udong (thick noodle soup), naengmyeon (cold noodles), bibimbap, and stews such as kimchi-jjigae (kimchi stew), doenjang-jjigae (soybean paste stew), sundubu-jjigae (soft tofu stew), and omurice.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ National Institute of Korean Language (30 July 2014). "주요 한식명(200개) 로마자 표기 및 번역(영, 중, 일) 표준안" (PDF) (in Korean). Retrieved 15 February 2017. Lay summaryNational Institute of Korean Language.
  2. ^ Levinson, David; Christensen, Karen (2002). Encyclopedia of Modern Asia: China-India relations to Hyogo. Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-80617-7. This process was initiated during the Japanese occupation (1910-1945), when Western food and drink, such as bread, confectionery, and beer, became popular in Korean cities, and a Western-style food processing industry in Korea began. Some Japanese food items were also adopted into Korean cuisine at that time, such as tosirak (the assorted lunch box) and sushi rolled in sheets of seaweed, which was popular in Korea under the name of kimbap.
  3. ^ Brunner, Anne (2011). Algas/ Algae: Sabores Marinos Para Cocinar/ Marine Flavors for Cooking (in Spanish). Editorial HISPANO EUROPEA. ISBN 978-84-255-1977-2. En Corea, los gimbaps son derivados de los maki sushis japoneses, pero generalmente estan rellenos de arroz con aceite de sesamo y carne. [In Korea, gimbaps are derived from the Japanese maki sushi, but they are usually stuffed with rice with sesame oil and meat.]
  4. ^ 김밥 [Gimbap] (in Korean). 한국민족문화대백과[Encyclopedia of Korean National Culture]. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. 일본음식 김초밥에서 유래된 것으로 [(Gimbap is) derived from Japanese norimaki]
  5. ^ 국립국어연구원 [National Institute of Korean languages] (2002). 우리 문화 길라 잡이: 한국인 이 꼭 알아야할 전통 문화 233가지 [Guide To Our Culture: 233 kinds of Korean traditional culture for you to know] (in Korean). 학고재 [Hakgojae]. p. 479. ISBN 89-85846-97-3. 일본 음식인 김초밥 에서 유래 한 것으로 [(Gimbap is) derived from Japanese norimaki]
  6. ^ "김밥". terms.naver.com (in Korean). Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  7. ^ Alexander, Stian (21 January 2016). "UK's new favourite takeaway has been revealed - and it's not what you'd think". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  8. ^ a b Kim, Maesun (1819). Yeoryang Sesigi 열양세시기(洌陽歲時記) [Records of Seasonal Festivities around the Capital]. Joseon Korea.
  9. ^ a b 박, 정배 (12 October 2016). "1819년엔 '福쌈'이라 불려… 이젠 프리미엄 김밥도". The Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  10. ^ a b "휴지통". The Dong-a Ilbo (in Korean). 14 January 1935. Retrieved 26 February 2017 – via Naver. 문어 점복에 김밥을 싸먹고 목욕한후 바위등에 누으면 얼화만수——
  11. ^ "노리마키(海苔卷)". National Institute of Korean Language (in Korean). Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  12. ^ a b "Kimbap: Colorful Korean Rolls Fit for a Picnic | Institute of Culinary Education". www.ice.edu. Retrieved 2021-03-06.
  13. ^ Levinson, David; Christensen, Karen (2002). Encyclopedia of Modern Asia: China-India relations to Hyogo. Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-80617-7. This process was initiated during the Japanese occupation (1910-1945), when Western food and drink, such as bread, confectionery, and beer, became popular in Korean cities, and a Western-style food processing industry in Korea began. Some Japanese food items were also adopted into Korean cuisine at that time, such as tosirak (the assorted lunch box) and sushi rolled in sheets of seaweed, which was popular in Korea under the name of kimbap.
  14. ^ Brunner, Anne (2011). Algas/ Algae: Sabores Marinos Para Cocinar/ Marine Flavors for Cooking (in Spanish). Editorial Hispano Europea. ISBN 978-84-255-1977-2. En Corea, los gimbaps son derivados de los maki sushis japoneses, pero generalmente estan rellenos de arroz con aceite de sesamo y carne. [In Korea, gimbaps are derived from the Japanese maki sushi, but they are usually stuffed with rice with sesame oil and meat.]
  15. ^ 김밥 [Gimbap] (in Korean). 한국민족문화대백과[Encyclopedia of Korean National Culture]. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. 일본음식 김초밥에서 유래된 것으로 [(Gimbap is) derived from Japanese norimaki]
  16. ^ 국립국어연구원 [National Institute of Korean languages] (2002). 우리 문화 길라 잡이: 한국인 이 꼭 알아야할 전통 문화 233가지 [Guide To Our Culture: 233 kinds of Korean traditional culture for you to know] (in Korean). 학고재 [Hakgojae]. p. 479. ISBN 89-85846-97-3. 일본 음식인 김초밥 에서 유래 한 것으로 [(Gimbap is) derived from Japanese norimaki]
  17. ^ 日?フ?ズ株式?社 フ?ドジャ?ナリスト 平松洋子「日本から韓?へ?わった食べ物
  18. ^ 日本の太?きが由?で、近代以降に韓?でも食べられるようになりました。2005年5月13日 西日本新聞
  19. ^ 김, 춘련 (18 August 2015). "gimbap" 김밥. Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean). Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  20. ^ "What is the origin of kimbap?". behgopa. 2018-08-14. Retrieved 2021-03-06.
  21. ^ Ha, Yeon; Geum, Yu; Gim, Bin (1425). Gyeongsang-do Jiriji 경상도지리지(慶尙道地理志) [Geography of Gyeongsang Province] (in Korean). Joseon Korea.
  22. ^ Yi, Haeng (1530) [1481]. Sinjeung Dongguk Yeoji Seungnam 신증동국여지승람(新增東國輿地勝覽) [Revised and Augmented Survey of the Geography of Korea]. Joseon Korea.
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  28. ^ "gimbap" 김밥. Korean Food Foundation. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  29. ^ "Chungmu-gimbap" 충무김밥. Doopedia (in Korean). Doosan Corporation. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  30. ^ Choi, Hyun-joo (18 May 2017). "Republic of convenience stores". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
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  32. ^ 이, 창선 (5 December 2016). "[김밥 프랜차이즈 브랜드평판] 1위 김밥천국, 2위 고봉민김밥인, 3위 충무김밥". The Korea Financial Times (in Korean). Retrieved 20 May 2017.

External linksEdit