Gaumont Film Company
The Gaumont Film Company (French pronunciation: [gomɔ̃]; English pronunciation: /gaʊmɑnt/) (often shorted to Gaumont) is a French mini-major film studio founded by the engineer-turned-inventor Léon Gaumont (1864–1946), in 1895. It is the first and oldest film company in the world, founded before other studios such as Pathé (founded in 1896), Titanus (1904), Nordisk Film (1906), Universal and Paramount Pictures (both founded in 1912). The company headquarters are in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France.
|Traded as||Euronext: GAM|
|Founded||June 23, 1895|
|Léon Gaumont, Nicolas Seydoux|
|Revenue||€ 169.1 million (2013)|
|€ 12.7 million (2013)|
|Total assets||€ 451.5 million (2011)|
|Total equity||€ 255.9 million (2011)|
Number of employees
Gaumont International Television
|Website||www.gaumont.fr (France), Gaumont.net (America)|
Gaumont predominantly produces, co-produces, and distributes films, and in 2011, 95% of Gaumont's consolidated revenues came from the film division. The company is increasingly becoming a TV series producer with its new American subsidiary Gaumont International Television as well as its existing French production features.
Gaumont is run by Nicolas Seydoux (Président), Sidonie Dumas (Directrice Générale) and Christophe Riandee (Directeur Général Adjoint).
Originally dealing in photographic apparatus, the company began producing short films in 1897 to promote its make of camera-projector. Léon Gaumont's secretary Alice Guy-Blaché became the motion picture industry’s first female director and she went on to become the Head of Production of the Gaumont film studio from 1897 to 1907. From 1905 to 1914, its Cité Elgé studios (from the normal French pronunciation of the founder's initials L-G) at La Villette, France, were the largest in the world. Gaumont began producing full-length feature films in 1908.
The company manufactured its own equipment and mass-produced films until 1907, when Louis Feuillade became the artistic director of Gaumont. When World War I broke out, he was replaced by Léonce Perret, who continued his career in the United States a few years later.
Gaumont opened foreign offices and acquired the theatre chain Gaumont British, which later notably produced several films directed by Alfred Hitchcock such as The 39 Steps (1935) and The Lady Vanishes (1938). Along with its competitor Pathé Frères, Gaumont dominated the motion-picture industry in Europe until the outbreak of World War I in 1914.
Following World War I, Gaumont suffered economic losses due to increased competition from American Hollywood productions. In 1925, the studio's output had decreased to only 3 films. In addition, Gaumont was unable to keep pace with the cost of technological changes (e.g., the advent of sound movies). Struck by mounting debts in the early 1930s and the effects of the Great Depression, Gaumont declared bankruptcy in 1935. In 1937, the studio ceased production and operated only as a theater and distribution company. The company was purchased by the French corporation Havas in 1938, renamed Société Nouvelle des Etablissements Gaumont and reopened its film production studio.
During the later years of World War II, Gaumont was affected by the financial ruin of France's economy as well as the physical destruction of its facilities. The company ceased production until 1947. However, the global interest in French New Wave films in the 1950s, as well as the permissiveness within French films (e.g., nudity), allowed French productions to successfully compete against an American cinema that was still burdened by conservative moral codes. The period was to see the return to prominence of Gaumont Studios.
On February 2, 2000, Philippe Binant, technical manager of Digital Cinema Project at Gaumont, realized the first digital cinema projection in Europe with the Texas Instruments prototype projector.
From 1993 to early 2004, Gaumount and Disney made a partnership for producing films for theater distribution. In 2001, Gaumont spun off the cinema division into a joint-venture with Pathé since known as Les Cinémas Gaumont Pathé. Gaumont owned a 34% stake in the entity, which controls a large cinema network in France, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. As of 2011, this stake was worth €214 million. In 2004, Gaumont continued its development with Pathé to set up another joint-venture, Gaumont-Pathé Archives. Gaumont owns 57.5% of this entity, which contains newsreels, documentaries, and silent movies from the 20th and 21st centuries.
From early 2004 to 2007, the company had a partnership with Sony for producing films and for theater and DVD distribution worldwide. And for many years, Gaumont's home video division was a joint venture with Sony Pictures. Currently, Gaumont distributes its films through Paramount Home Media Distribution on video in France.
On December 16, 2010, Gaumont acquired a 37.48% stake in the share capital of the Légende company and its subsidiaries for €6.6 million. Légende is a full-length film and television series production and distribution company managed by Alain Goldman. As of 2011, the Légende stake is worth €6.3 million.
In 2011, Gaumont co-produced and distributed Intouchables became France's highest-grossing movie of all time. The international release of Intouchables was equally successful, trumping previous international blockbusters such as Harry Potter and Transporters in Germany. Intouchables is the highest-grossing foreign-language movie (any language other than English) beating the previous record of $275 million by the Japanese Spirited Away. The film was a major catalyst for Gaumont boosting fourth quarter 2011 cinema sales to €47.9 million, up 651% year on year. The film's success turned a half year 2011 loss to a record annual €26 million profit. Intouchables currently has a box-office of $361 million.
In 2012, Gaumont acquired the production company Nouvelles Editions de Films (NEF) for €3.1 million. The company was previously run and created by cinema legend Louis Malle. As part of the acquisition, Gaumont now owns the entire Malle collection, including Ascenseur pour l'échafaud, Atlantic City, and Au revoir, les enfants.
In February 2012, Gaumount restarted their Television division that was defunct for about ten years.
On May 2, 2016 according to Deadline, Gaumont teamed up with Lionsgate and seven other international companies to launch the Globalgate Entertainment consortium. Globalgate will produce and distribute local-language films in markets around the world. Lionsgate said Monday it has partnered with international entertainment executives Paul Presburger, William Pfeiffer and Clifford Werber to launch Globalgate.
On March 1, 2017, Gaumont sold its 34% stake in Les Cinémas Gaumont Pathé to Pathé for $400 million to focus on production.
Gaumont currently has 938 films in its catalogue, most of which are in the French language, but however there are some exceptions such as Luc Besson's The Fifth Element (1997). Among some of the most notable films produced by Gaumont are the serials Judex (1916) and Fantômas (1913); the comic Onésime series, starring Ernest Bourbon; and the comic Bébé series, starring five-year-old René Dary. The two biggest films that Gaumont own the rights of are Jean-Marie Poiré's Les Visiteurs, with a box-office of $98 million and the 2011 blockbuster Intouchables by Olivier Nakache and Éric Toledano, with a box office of $361 million.
The company has also produced television shows, including seven animated series: Highlander: The Animated Series, Space Goofs, The Magician, Dragon Flyz, F Is for Family, and Sky Dancers (the second and third are based on their respective toy lines), and the very popular Oggy and the Cockroaches. The company also began production in its American unit Gaumont International Television on two series: Hannibal and Hemlock Grove.
Ciné Par is a majority shareholder with 69.92% of the voting rights: this entity is controlled by CEO Nicholas Seydoux. The other private shareholders are First Eagle Investment Management, Bolloré, and Groupe Industriel Marcel Dassault. The company has a free float of 416,784 shares, which represents 9.75% of the capital and 5.99% of the voting rights.
Latest financial informationEdit
In the first half of 2012, Gaumont recorded a profit of €7.7 million, which reversed the €0.6 million loss from the first half of 2011. The profit was driven by a 49% increase in revenue, which reached €50.1 million. The company cited the continued effects of Intouchables, which increased International revenues by 153%.
Léon Gaumont selected the ox-eye daisy as the company logo to pay homage to his mother, whose first name was Marguerite (Daisy). Through the decades the logo has been redesigned several times, but the daisy has always remained present, even though its significance has been largely forgotten.
- "2011 Gaumont Annual Report" (PDF).
- Lieberman, David (2016-05-02). "Lionsgate Partners With Execs At Film Initiative Targeting Global Local Markets". Deadline. Retrieved 2016-11-01.
- Keslassy, Elsa (August 5, 2013). "Gaumont Intl. Television Staff Up L.A. Headquarter". Variety. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
Gaumont International Television, the French mini-major’s L.A.-based production and distribution studio,...
- Richard Abel, The Ciné Goes to Town: French Cinema, 1896-1914, University of California Press, 1994, p. 10, ISBN 0-520-07936-1
- "Contactez-nous." Gaumont Film Company. Retrieved on 2 March 2010.
- "2011 Gaumont Revenue statement"
- "Qui - Gaumont". www.gaumont.fr. Retrieved 2017-11-14.
- Green, Pamela and Sluijs, Jarik van. Be Natural documentary precis. http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/benatural/be-natural-the-untold-story-of-alice-guy-blache . Accessed 10 Aug 2013.
- "Gaumont SA - Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on Gaumont SA". Reference for Business. 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- Cahiers du cinéma, n°hors-série, Paris, April 2000, p. 32.
- Claude Forest, « De la pellicule aux pixels : l'anomie des exploitants de salles de cinéma », in Laurent Creton, Kira Kitsopanidou (sous la direction de), Les salles de cinéma : enjeux, défis et perspectives, Armand Colin, Paris, 2013.
- "2011 Gaumont Annual Report p.54"
- "Gaumont 2008 Annual Report," p.66
- "Gaumont 2010 Report"
- Keslassy, Elsa. Alphanim Inks DreamWorks Deal, Rebrands. March 11, 2013. Variety. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
- Keslassy, Elsa. Gaumont ups TV activity. February 25, 2012. Variety.
- "‘The Intouchables’ Overtakes 'Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows - Part 2' at German Box Office"
- "Gaumont Q4 revenues"
- "Intouchables Box-office mojo". 14th August 2012
- "Gaumont press release"
- "Gaumont 2012 First Half Earnings Report"
- "Gaumont share price"
- Philippe Binant, Au cœur de la projection numérique, Actions, 29, 12-13, Kodak, Paris, 2007
- Marie-Sophie Corcy, Jacques Malthete, Laurent Mannoni, Jean-Jacques Meusy, Les Premières Années de la société L. Gaumont et Cie, Afrhc, Bibliothèque du Film, Gaumont, Paris, 1999
- François Garcon, Gaumont. Un siècle de cinéma, Gallimard, coll. “Découvertes Gallimard” (nº 224), Paris, 1992
- Philippe d'Hugues et Dominique Muller, Gaumont, 90 ans de cinéma, Editions Ramsay, Cinémathèque Française, Paris, 1986
- Nicolas Seydoux, Cent ans de réflexions, Cent ans de cinéma, 6-15, Gaumont, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1995