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Garfield is a city in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 30,487,[10][11][12] reflecting an increase of 701 (+2.4%) from the 29,786 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 3,059 (+11.4%) from the 26,727 counted in the 1990 Census.[21]

Garfield, New Jersey
City
City of Garfield
Street scene
Street scene
Nickname(s): "City of Champions"[1]
Map highlighting Garfield's location within Bergen County. Inset: Bergen County's location within New Jersey
Map highlighting Garfield's location within Bergen County. Inset: Bergen County's location within New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Garfield, New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Garfield, New Jersey
Coordinates: 40°52′47″N 74°06′30″W / 40.879797°N 74.10825°W / 40.879797; -74.10825Coordinates: 40°52′47″N 74°06′30″W / 40.879797°N 74.10825°W / 40.879797; -74.10825[2][3]
Country  United States
State  New Jersey
County Bergen
Incorporated March 15, 1898 (as Borough)
April 19, 1917 (as City)
Named for James Garfield
Government[8]
 • Type 1923 Municipal Manager Law
 • Body City Council
 • Mayor Richard Rigoglioso (term ends December 31, 2020)[4][5]
 • Manager Thomas J. Duch[6]
 • Municipal clerk Andrew J. Pavlica[7]
Area[2]
 • Total 2.160 sq mi (5.594 km2)
 • Land 2.099 sq mi (5.436 km2)
 • Water 0.061 sq mi (0.158 km2)  2.82%
Area rank 398th of 566 in state
45th of 70 in county[2]
Elevation[9] 98 ft (30 m)
Population (2010 Census)[10][11][12]
 • Total 30,487
 • Estimate (2016)[13] 31,876
 • Rank 73rd of 566 in state
5th of 70 in county[14]
 • Density 14,524.8/sq mi (5,608.1/km2)
 • Density rank 15th of 566 in state
4th of 70 in county[14]
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
ZIP code 07026[15][16]
Area code(s) 973[17]
FIPS code 3400325770[18][19]
GNIS feature ID 0876557[20]
Website www.garfieldnj.org
Bird's-eye view of Garfield New Jersey, image from memory.loc.gov
Post Ford at River Drive and Columbus Ave - Revolutionary War Monument

When the area that is now Garfield was first developed in 1873, it was known as East Passaic. In 1881, the community's name was changed to Garfield in honor of President of the United States James Garfield.[22][23][24] There are two explanations given for the circumstances behind the renaming. According to one, shortly after Garfield was elected to the presidency the founder of East Passaic said, "tell everyone...don't speak of East Passaic anymore; call it 'Garfield' after the man who will lead this great country to prosperity." Seven months later, President Garfield was assassinated but his name remained with the community.[25] The second theory holds that after Garfield's death in 1881, a new train station was named in his honor, which in turn led to the surrounding area becoming associated with his name as well.[26]

Garfield was originally incorporated as a borough on March 15, 1898, from portions of Saddle River Township and Wallington. At the time, the New Jersey Legislature set Garfield's boundaries as they exist today. On April 19, 1917, the borough became the City of Garfield, based on the results of a referendum held two days earlier.[27]

Contents

GeographyEdit

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 2.160 square miles (5.594 km2), including 2.099 square miles (5.436 km2) of land and 0.061 square miles (0.158 km2) of water (2.82%).[2][3]

Unincorporated communities, localities and place names located partially or completely within the township include Belmont, Bogart Heights, Dundee Dam and Plauderville.[28]

The city has land borders with adjacent Elmwood Park, Lodi, Saddle Brook and South Hackensack. The Saddle River is a shared border with Wallington. There are three bridges over the Passaic River crossing the municipal and county line to Passaic and Clifton in Passaic County.[29]

EnvironmentEdit

The United States Environmental Protection Agency has identified Garfield as the site of groundwater contaminated hexavalent chromium from a spill in 1983 at the E.C. Electroplating Corporation site. In 2016, the EPA announced a $37 million project to cleanup contamination at the site using Superfund money, as the company responsible for the spill of 3,600 US gallons (14,000 l; 3,000 imp gal) of chromic acid is no longer in business.[30][31][32]

DemographicsEdit

Census Pop.
1890 1,028
1900 3,504 240.9%
1910 10,213 191.5%
1920 19,381 89.8%
1930 29,739 53.4%
1940 28,044 −5.7%
1950 27,550 −1.8%
1960 29,253 6.2%
1970 30,797 5.3%
1980 26,803 −13.0%
1990 26,727 −0.3%
2000 29,786 11.4%
2010 30,487 2.4%
Est. 2016 31,876 [13][33] 4.6%
Population sources:
1890-1920[34] 1880-1890[35]
1890-1930[36] 1900-2010[37][38][39]
2000[40][41] 2010[10][11][12]

The borough is also home to an architecturally prominent Russian Orthodox church,[42] which serves the growing Ukrainian American community in western Bergen County.

2010 CensusEdit

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 30,487 people, 11,073 households, and 7,718 families residing in the city. The population density was 14,524.8 per square mile (5,608.1/km2). There were 11,788 housing units at an average density of 5,616.1 per square mile (2,168.4/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 76.73% (23,393) White, 6.50% (1,981) Black or African American, 0.43% (132) Native American, 2.22% (678) Asian, 0.01% (2) Pacific Islander, 10.85% (3,307) from other races, and 3.26% (994) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 32.24% (9,830) of the population.[10]

There were 11,073 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 17.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.3% were non-families. 24.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.29.[10]

In the city, the population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 25.4% from 45 to 64, and 11.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.5 years. For every 100 females there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and old there were 89.0 males.[10]

The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $51,407 (with a margin of error of +/- $1,842) and the median family income was $56,701 (+/- $5,020). Males had a median income of $42,927 (+/- $1,953) versus $33,231 (+/- $3,471) for females. The per capita income for the city was $24,022 (+/- $1,348). About 9.8% of families and 13.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.0% of those under age 18 and 16.2% of ages 65 years or over.[43]

Same-sex couples headed 68 households in 2010.[44]

2000 CensusEdit

As of the 2000 United States Census[18] there were 29,786 people, 11,250 households, and 7,425 families residing in the city. The population density was 13,976.0 people per square mile (5,399.3/km2). There were 11,698 housing units at an average density of 5,488.8 per square mile (2,120.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 82.11% White, 2.98% African American, 0.33% Native American, 2.69% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 8.10% from other races, and 3.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20.11% of the population.[40][41]

There were 11,250 households out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.5% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.0% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.26.[40][41]

In the city the age distribution of the population shows 22.4% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, and 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 95.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.0 males.[40][41]

The median income for a household in the city was $42,748, and the median income for a family was $51,654. Males had a median income of $35,987 versus $26,896 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,530. About 6.4% of families and 7.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.1% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over.[40][41]

As of the 2000 Census, an adjusted 22.9% of Garfield's population reported Polish ancestry, ranked third highest in New Jersey behind Manville (23.1%) and Wallington (45.5%).[45][46]

GovernmentEdit

Local governmentEdit

The City of Garfield operates under the 1923 Municipal Manager Law of New Jersey municipal government and is governed by a City Manager and a five-member Council. Council members are elected at-large in nonpartisan elections to serve four-year terms on a concurrent basis.[8] In November 2015, following a referendum that supported the move by a 3-1 margin, the City Council voted to shift the city's municipal elections from May to November, citing hopes for greater voter participation and potential savings of $50,000 for each election; the shift result in the extension of terms for the then-serving council and municipal manager by six months, to the end of December 2016. The most recent municipal election was held on November 8, 2016, together with the presidential election.[47][48][49]

At a reorganization meeting held after each election, the Council selects one of its members to be the Mayor and another to serve as Deputy Mayor. The day-to-day operation of the city is carried on under the supervision of the appointed department heads, who report to the City Manager.

As of 2017, members of the Garfield City Council are Mayor Richard Rigoglioso, Deputy Mayor Joseph Delaney, Louis G. Aloia, Frank J. Calandriello and Erin Delaney, all serving terms of office that end December 31, 2020.[4][50][51][52]

Federal, state and county representationEdit

Garfield is located in the 9th Congressional District[53] and is part of New Jersey's 35th state legislative district.[11][54][55] Prior to the 2011 reapportionment following the 2010 Census, Garfield had been in the 36th state legislative district.[56]

New Jersey's Ninth Congressional District is represented by Bill Pascrell (D, Paterson).[57] New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Democrats Cory Booker (Newark, term ends 2021)[58] and Bob Menendez (Paramus, 2019).[59][60]

For the 2016–2017 session (Senate, General Assembly), the 35th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Nellie Pou (D, North Haledon) and in the General Assembly by Shavonda E. Sumter (D, Paterson) and Benjie E. Wimberly (D, Paterson).[61] The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township).[62] The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).[63]

Bergen County is governed by a directly elected County Executive, with legislative functions performed by a seven-member Board of Chosen Freeholders. The seven freeholders are elected at-large in partisan elections on a staggered basis, with two or three seats coming up for election each year, with a Chairman, Vice Chairman and Chairman Pro Tempore selected from among its members at a reorganization meeting held each January.[64][65] As of 2017, the County Executive is Democratic James J. Tedesco III of Paramus, whose term of office ends December 31, 2018.[66] Bergen County's Freeholders are Freeholder Chairwoman Tracy Silna Zur (D, Franklin Lakes, term as freeholder ends December 31, 2018; term as freeholder chairwoman ends 2017),[67] Freeholder Vice-Chairman Thomas J. Sullivan Jr., (D, Montvale, term as freeholder ends 2019; term as freeholder vice-chairman ends 2017),[68] Freeholder Chairman Pro-Tempore Joan Voss (D, Fort Lee, 2017),[69] Mary J. Amoroso (D, Mahwah, 2019),[70] David L. Ganz (D, Fair Lawn, 2017),[71] Germaine M. Ortiz (D, Emerson, 2019)[72] and Steve Tanelli (D, North Arlington, 2018)[73][74][64][75][76][77] Bergen County's constitutional officials are County Clerk John S. Hogan (D, Northvale, 2021),[78][79] Sheriff Michael Saudino (D, Emerson, 2019)[80][81] and Surrogate Michael R. Dressler (D, Cresskill, 2021).[82][83][64][84]

PoliticsEdit

 
Macedonian and American flags on the streets in Garfield, New Jersey on Macedonian Independence Day.

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 11,904 registered voters in Garfield, of which 3,958 (33.2% vs. 31.7% countywide) were registered as Democrats, 1,395 (11.7% vs. 21.1%) were registered as Republicans and 6,541 (54.9% vs. 47.1%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 10 voters registered to other parties.[85] Among the city's 2010 Census population, 39.0% (vs. 57.1% in Bergen County) were registered to vote, including 50.9% of those ages 18 and over (vs. 73.7% countywide).[85][86]

In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 5,538 votes (67.1% vs. 54.8% countywide), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 2,540 votes (30.8% vs. 43.5%) and other candidates with 96 votes (1.2% vs. 0.9%), among the 8,256 ballots cast by the city's 13,183 registered voters, for a turnout of 62.6% (vs. 70.4% in Bergen County).[87][88] In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 5,138 votes (59.7% vs. 53.9% countywide), ahead of Republican John McCain with 3,315 votes (38.5% vs. 44.5%) and other candidates with 68 votes (0.8% vs. 0.8%), among the 8,613 ballots cast by the city's 13,013 registered voters, for a turnout of 66.2% (vs. 76.8% in Bergen County).[89][90] In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 4,804 votes (57.8% vs. 51.7% countywide), ahead of Republican George W. Bush with 3,394 votes (40.9% vs. 47.2%) and other candidates with 66 votes (0.8% vs. 0.7%), among the 8,305 ballots cast by the city's 12,665 registered voters, for a turnout of 65.6% (vs. 76.9% in the whole county).[91]

In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 50.4% of the vote (1,960 cast), ahead of Democrat Barbara Buono with 48.0% (1,865 votes), and other candidates with 1.6% (63 votes), among the 3,960 ballots cast by the city's 12,609 registered voters (72 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 31.4%.[92][93] In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 2,428 ballots cast (54.1% vs. 48.0% countywide), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 1,796 votes (40.0% vs. 45.8%), Independent Chris Daggett with 203 votes (4.5% vs. 4.7%) and other candidates with 27 votes (0.6% vs. 0.5%), among the 4,490 ballots cast by the city's 12,282 registered voters, yielding a 36.6% turnout (vs. 50.0% in the county).[94]

EducationEdit

The Garfield Public Schools serve students in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. The district is one of 31 former Abbott districts statewide,[95] which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement that the state cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority.[96][97]

As of the 2014-15 school year, the district and its 12 schools had an enrollment of 5,279 students and 447.0 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 11.8:1.[98] Schools in the district (with 2014-15 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics[99]) are Garfield Early Childhood Learning Center[100] (329 students; in PreK), Garfield Public Preschool Annex[101] (138; PreK), Washington Irving School #4[102] (422; K-5), Woodrow Wilson School #5[103] (310; K-5), Abraham Lincoln Elementary School #6[104] (360; PreK-5), Roosevelt School #7[105] (355; K-5), Christopher Columbus School #8[106] (413; PreK-5), James Madison School #10[107] (393; K-5), Garfield Middle School[108] (981; 6-8), Garfield High School[109] (1,052; 9-12) and Garfield Auxiliary Middle School & High School[110] (63; 6-12).[111][112]

Public school students from the city, and all of Bergen County, are eligible to attend the secondary education programs offered by the Bergen County Technical Schools, which include the Bergen County Academies in Hackensack, and the Bergen Tech campus in Teterboro or Paramus. The district offers programs on a shared-time or full-time basis, with admission based on a selective application process and tuition covered by the student's home school district.[113][114]

Bergen Arts and Science Charter School, which opened in September 2006, serves public school students in the district, as well as those from Hackensack and Lodi.[115] As of the 2014-15 school year, the school had an enrollment of 959 students and 77.0 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 12.5:1.[116]

Emergency servicesEdit

PoliceEdit

The Garfield Police Department (GPD) provides emergency and protective services to the city of Garfield. The GPD consists of 61 sworn officers.[117]

FireEdit

The Garfield Fire Department (GFD) is a fully volunteer fire department.[118] The GFD was organized on July 17, 1893.[119] The department is staffed by 150 fully trained firefighters operating out of five firehouses. The Department has three engine companies, one rescue engine company and one ladder company. In addition they have a hazardous materials unit, a water rescue boat and a foam tender[120]

TransportationEdit

Roads and highwaysEdit

As of May 2010, the city had a total of 49.24 miles (79.24 km) of roadways, of which 42.67 miles (68.67 km) were maintained by the municipality, 6.44 miles (10.36 km) by Bergen County and 0.13 miles (0.21 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation.[121]

U.S. Route 46 and County Route 507 pass through Garfield. Other main roads include Midland Avenue, Outwater Lane, River Drive and Passaic Street. There are five crossings of the Lower Passaic River.

Public transportationEdit

Both the Garfield station[122] and the Plauderville station, located on the Saddle Brook border,[123] are served by NJ Transit's Bergen County Line, providing service to Hoboken Terminal, with transfers available at Secaucus Junction to Penn Station in Midtown Manhattan and to most of New Jersey Transit's other train lines.[124]

New Jersey Transit buses includes lines 160 and 161 serving the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Midtown Manhattan, and local service on the 702, 707, 709 and 758 routes.[125][126]

Notable peopleEdit

People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Garfield include:

SourcesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kuperinsky, Amy. "'The Jewel of the Meadowlands'?: N.J.'s best, worst and weirdest town slogans", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, January 22, 2015. Accessed July 12, 2016. "Garfield, a city spanning two square miles on the Passaic River, is 'The City of Champions' because of some athletic feats from the distant past — including a championship by the 1939 high school football team."
  2. ^ a b c d 2010 Census Gazetteer Files: New Jersey County Subdivisions, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2015.
  3. ^ a b US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  4. ^ a b City Council, City of Garfield. Accessed June 6, 2017.
  5. ^ 2017 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed May 30, 2017.
  6. ^ City Manager's Office, City of Garfield. Accessed August 29, 2017.
  7. ^ City Clerk's Office, City of Garfield. Accessed August 29, 2017.
  8. ^ a b 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 154.
  9. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: City of Garfield, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 5, 2013.
  10. ^ a b c d e f DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Garfield city, Bergen County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed March 5, 2013.
  11. ^ a b c d Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 14. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  12. ^ a b c Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Garfield city, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed March 5, 2013.
  13. ^ a b PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 - 2016 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 16, 2017.
  14. ^ a b GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed March 5, 2013.
  15. ^ Look Up a ZIP Code for Garfield, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed August 29, 2011.
  16. ^ Zip Codes, State of New Jersey. Accessed August 15, 2013.
  17. ^ Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Garfield, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed December 7, 2013.
  18. ^ a b American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  19. ^ Geographic Codes Lookup for New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed August 29, 2017.
  20. ^ US Board on Geographic Names, United States Geological Survey. Accessed September 4, 2014.
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  22. ^ Hutchinson, Viola L. The Origin of New Jersey Place Names, New Jersey Public Library Commission, May 1945. Accessed August 31, 2015.
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  25. ^ Lanza, Howard D. Garfield, p. 10. Arcadia Publishing, 2002. ISBN 9780738510507. Accessed August 29, 2017. "On the fay following the inauguration of Pres. James A. Garfield, Bogart boasted, "Don't speak of East Passaic anymore, call it 'Garfield' after the man who will lead this great country to prosperity.'"
  26. ^ History of Garfield, City of Garfield. Accessed August 29, 2017. "Gilbert D. Bogart is often credited as having been the founder of "modern day" Garfield. When seven houses were constructed in 1873 between Monroe Street and Van Winkle Avenue, the area became known as 'East Passaic'....In 1881, a railroad shortcut, the Bergen County Railroad, was laid and a station built and called Garfield after President James A. Garfield who died that year."
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  29. ^ Areas touching Garfield, MapIt. Accessed January 6, 2015.
  30. ^ Garfield Chromium Ground Water Contamination, United States Environmental Protection Agency, May 2014. Accessed August 29, 2017.
  31. ^ Incidence of Selected Cancer Types in the Neighborhood near the GARFIELD GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION SITE (a/k/a E.C. Electroplating Corporation), New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, October 17, 2011. Accessed August 29, 2017.
  32. ^ Na, Myles. "EPA has $37M plan for North Jersey chromium cleanup, but no money", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, September 21, 2016. Accessed February 6, 2017. "The federal Environmental Protection Agency on Tuesday finalized a plan to clean up groundwater contaminated with chromium from a former electroplating plant on Clark Street, though it still lacks the funds to pay finish it."
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  34. ^ Compendium of censuses 1726-1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed August 15, 2013.
  35. ^ Porter, Robert Percival. Preliminary Results as Contained in the Eleventh Census Bulletins: Volume III - 51 to 75, p. 97. United States Census Bureau, 1890. Accessed August 15, 2013.
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  40. ^ a b c d e Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Garfield city, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed March 5, 2013.
  41. ^ a b c d e DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Garfield city, Bergen County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed March 5, 2013.
  42. ^ "Moscow Patriarchate, Patriarchal Parish in the USA". Russian Orthodox Church of Three Saints, Garfield, NJ. Retrieved November 8, 2013. 
  43. ^ DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Garfield city, Bergen County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 3, 2012.
  44. ^ Lipman, Harvy; and Sheingold, Dave. "North Jersey sees 30% growth in same-sex couples", The Record (Bergen County), August 14, 2011, backed up by the Internet Archive as of February 4, 2013. Accessed July 9, 2014
  45. ^ Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Garfield city, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 3, 2012.
  46. ^ Polish Communities, EPodunk. Accessed June 15, 2008.
  47. ^ Cattafi, Kristie. "Council introduces ordinance to move elections in Garfield", Community News (Garfield edition), November 19, 2015, backed up by the Internet Archive as of March 5, 2016. Accessed August 29, 2017. "The council unanimously voted in favor of the ordinance after the public voted on Nov. 3, 846 to 276 for a non-binding referendum on whether to change the city council election from May to the day of the general election in November.... If adopted, the next scheduled council election will switch from May 10, 2016 to Nov. 8, 2016. The council elections will be on cycle every four years with the presidential election."
  48. ^ Cattafi, Kristie. "Ten residents seek seats during Garfield's first November election", Community News (Garfield edition), November 8, 2016. Accessed August 29, 2017. "Garfield will be holding it first November council election after the governing body approved to change the date this year."
  49. ^ Chapter 18: Elections, Municipal, Garfield City Code. Accessed August 29, 2017. "Municipal elections in the City of Garfield shall be held on the day of the general election, that is, the Tuesday after the first Monday in November."
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  58. ^ About Cory Booker, United States Senate. Accessed January 26, 2015. "He now owns a home and lives in Newark's Central Ward community."
  59. ^ Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate, January 26, 2015. "He currently lives in Paramus and has two children, Alicia and Robert."
  60. ^ Senators of the 114th Congress from New Jersey. United States Senate. Accessed January 26, 2015. "Booker, Cory A. - (D - NJ) Class II; Menendez, Robert - (D - NJ) Class I"
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  63. ^ "About the Lieutenant Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
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  65. ^ Freeholders, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed October 26, 2017.
  66. ^ County Executive, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed October 22, 2017.
  67. ^ Chairwoman Tracy Silna Zur, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed October 22, 2017.
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