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Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany

Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany (Italian: Ferdinando IV, Granduca di Toscana;[1] 10 June 1835 – 17 January 1908) was the last Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1859 to 1860. The House of Habsburg-Lorraine continued to hold the title as pretenders until the end of World War I.

Ferdinand IV
Grand Duke of Tuscany
Reign21 July 1859 – 22 March 1860
PredecessorLeopold II
Born10 June 1835
Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Died17 January 1908(1908-01-17) (aged 72)
Salzburg, Austria-Hungary
Princess Anna of Saxony
(m. 1856; died 1859)

among others...
Archduchess Maria Antonia
Archduke Leopold Ferdinand
Louise, Crown Princess of Saxony
Archduke Josef Ferdinand
Archduke Peter Ferdinand
Full name
  • Italian: Ferdinando Salvatore Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Battista Francesco Lodovico Gonzaga Raffaele Ranerio Gennaro
  • German: Ferdinand Salvator Maria Joseph Johann Baptist Franz Ludwig Gonzaga Raphael Rainerius Gennarius
FatherLeopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany
MotherPrincess Maria Antonia of the Two Sicilies
ReligionRoman Catholicism



Born at Florence, he was the son of Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Princess Maria Antonia of the Two Sicilies.

He and his family were forced to flee Florence on 27 April 1859, with the outbreak of a revolution inspired by the outbreak of a war by France and Sardinia-Piedmont against Austria as part of the unification of Italy. The family took refuge in Austria. After the end of the war, Leopold II abdicated on 21 July and Ferdinand succeeded him as Grand Duke. Ferdinand proved unable to return to Florence to claim his throne, and an elected Tuscan National Assembly formally deposed him only a month later, on 16 August. Ferdinand still hoped to recover his throne, as both France and Austria had promised to recognize his rights to it in the Armistice of Villafranca. However, neither power was willing to take any steps to bring about his restoration. The Kingdom of Sardinia annexed Tuscany on 22 March 1860, ending Ferdinand's hopes to reclaim the throne.

Ferdinand spent the rest of his life in exile in Austria. He died there, in Salzburg, in 1908.

Family and childrenEdit

He married twice and had issue:

From his first marriage in Dresden on 24 November 1856 to Princess Anna of Saxony, (Dresden, 4 January 1836 – Naples, 10 February 1859), daughter of King John I of Saxony, was born:

From his second marriage in Frohsdorf on 11 January 1868 to Princess Alice "Alix" of Parma (Parma, 27 December 1849 – Schwertberg, 16 November 1935), daughter of Charles III of Parma:

  • Archduke Leopold Ferdinand (1868–1935). He renounced his titles on 29 December 1902 and took the name Leopold Wölfling. He married thrice, without issue.
  • Archduchess Luise (1870–1947). Married first King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony and after divorcing him married second Enrico Toselli and had issue by both marriages.
  • Archduke Josef Ferdinand (1872–1942). He married, firstly, Rosa Kaltenbrunner and, after divorcing her married, secondly Gertrud Tomanek, by whom he had issue. Both marriages were morganatic.
  • Archduke Peter Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany (1874–1948). Married Princess Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, and had issue.
  • Archduke Heinrich Ferdinand (1878–1969). A major general in the Austrian army, morganatically married Maria Karoline Ludescher, and had issue.
    • Count Heinrich von Habsburg (1908-1968) married Helvig Schutte on 13 May 1939
      • Count Ulrich von Habsburg (1941) married Friedericke von Klinkowstrom on 29 October 1964
        • Count Eugen von Habsburg (1964) married Gabriele Wetsching on 27 May 1995
          • Countess Julia von Habsburg (1999)
          • Countess Sara von Habsburg (2003)
        • Count Clemens von Habsburg (1967) married Gislinde Angerer on 12 October 1996
          • Countess Anna-Lea von Habsburg (1996)
          • Count Benedikt von Habsburg (2000)
        • Count Philip von Habsburg (1968) married Bettina Drescher
          • Countess Zoe von Habsburg (2004)
          • Countess Ava von Habsburg (2007)
      • Countess Helvig von Habsburg (1942) married Baron Hans Jordis von Lohausen
      • Count Christoph von Habsburg (1944) married Ebba von Mohrenschildt on 19 May 1973
        • Count Dominik von Habsburg (1974) married Pia Rittinghausen on 17 February 2007
          • Count Pius von Habsburg (2007)
          • Count Hubertus von Habsburg (2009)
          • Countess Maximiliana von Habsburg (2011)
        • Count Maximilian von Habsburg (1975) married Michaela Bobner on 4 May 2001
          • Count Tino von Habsburg (2000)
          • Count Matheo von Habsburg (2003)
        • Count Konstantin von Habsburg (1976) married Maria Antonia Gall on 7 May 2005
          • Count Ferdinand von Habsburg (2008)
          • Count Felix von Habsburg (2010)
        • Count Ferdinand von Habsburg (1980) married Lisa Winter in 2015
        • Count Elmerice von Habsburg (1985) married Alexander Fairfax in May 2015
    • Count Othmar von Habsburg (1910-1988) married Helen Moster on 19 December 1944
      • Countess Ulrike von Habsburg (1945) married Prince Lutipold of Liechtenstein on 22 November 1969 and has issue
      • Countess Elisabeth von Habsburg (1948) married Stephen Schencker on 10 July 1971 and has issue
      • Count Albrecht von Habsburg (1951) married Birgit Guttenberg on 18 July 1997
        • Count Clemens von Habsburg (1995)
    • Countess Veronika von Habsburg (1912-2001)
  • Archduchess Anna Maria Theresia (1879–1961). She married Johannes, Prince of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein; their granddaughter married Hans Veit, Count of Toerring-Jettenbach, son of Princess Elizabeth of Greece and Denmark.
  • Archduchess Margareta (1881–1965)
  • Archduchess Germana (1884–1955)
  • Archduke Robert Salvator (1885–1895)
  • Archduchess Agnes Maria (1891–1945)



See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Full name: Italian: Ferdinando Salvatore Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Battista Francesco Lodovico Gonzaga Raffaele Ranerio Gennaro, German: Ferdinand Salvator Maria Joseph Johann Baptist Franz Ludwig Gonzaga Raphael Rainerius Gennarius
  2. ^ Le livre d'or de l'ordre de Léopold et de la croix de fer, Volume 1 /Ferdinand Veldekens

External linksEdit

Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Cadet branch of the House of Lorraine
Born: 10 June 1835 Died: 17 January 1908
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Leopold II
Grand Duke of Tuscany
Tuscan National Assembly deposes House of Habsurg-Lorraine
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
State annexed
Grand Duke of Tuscany
Succeeded by
Archduke Josef Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany