Englewood is a neighborhood and community area located on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois, United States. It is also the 68th of the 77 community areas in the city. At its peak population in 1960, over 97,000 people lived in its approximately 3 square miles (7.8 km2),[2] but the neighborhood's population has since dropped dramatically. In 2000, it had a population of approximately 40,000 inhabitants, and the 2010 census indicated that its population has further declined to approximately 30,000.[3] Englewood to the north, 75th Street to the south, Racine Avenue to the west, and an irregular border that wends along the Metra Railroad Tracks to the east. On the southwest side of Chicago lies West Englewood, which is generally lumped in with Englewood by Chicagoans. Englewood, a low-income African-American community, has a high rate of foreclosed properties due to its population drop.

Community Area 68 – Englewood
The intersection of 63rd and Halsted, looking south. The Halsted 'L' station can be seen crossing Halsted in the distance. Kennedy–King College occupies the buildings on the left of the photo. The building on the right burned in 2014.
The intersection of 63rd and Halsted, looking south. The Halsted 'L' station can be seen crossing Halsted in the distance. Kennedy–King College occupies the buildings on the left of the photo. The building on the right burned in 2014.
Location within the city of Chicago
Location within the city of Chicago
Coordinates: 41°46′48″N 87°38′42″W / 41.78000°N 87.64500°W / 41.78000; -87.64500
CountryUnited States
  • Englewood
  • Hamilton Park
 • Total3.09 sq mi (8.00 km2)
 • Total24,369
 • Density7,900/sq mi (3,000/km2)
Demographics 2020[1]
 • White1.2%
 • Black92.1%
 • Hispanic3.9%
 • Asian0.6%
 • Other2.2%
Time zoneUTC-6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-5 (CDT)
Zip codes
part of 60621
Area code773
Median income 2020[1]$22,228
Source: U.S. Census, Record Information Services

History edit

Before 1850, Englewood was an oak forest with much swampland. In 1852 several railroad lines crossed at what became known as Junction Grove, stimulating the beginning of what we know today as Englewood. The Union Stock Yard provided employment to early residents. In 1868 Henry B. Lewis, a wool merchant in the Loop and Board of Education member, suggested a new name from his association with Englewood, New Jersey. In 1865, Junction Grove was annexed to the Town of Lake and to Chicago in 1889.[4] The World's Columbian Exposition at nearby Jackson Park in 1893 led to real estate speculation and expansion of the community.[5]

The Englewood community[6] was largely defined by the Englewood Shopping Center at 63rd & Halsted, a large pedestrian mall. The City, social services, and mall management worked with community leaders and groups to integrate the mall with the community. It was the site of numerous community events, parades, outdoor concerts, live radio broadcasts and the like. This was spearheaded by the Englewood Business Men's Association and its director, Richard Drew; after Drew's death in 1978 the Center lost its major anchor tenants, including Sears Roebuck, and became a collection of smaller merchants.

In 1999, Mayor Richard M. Daley announced a $256 million revitalization plan for the area. The keystone of the program is the relocation of Kennedy–King College to the former site of the Englewood Shopping Center. Shortly thereafter the city began an aggressive buyout and relocation program for mall merchants. The campus includes the Washburne Culinary Institute.[7] Groundbreaking for the new, 40-acre (16 ha) campus occurred on November 9, 2005, and it opened in 2007.[8][9]

Digital images of Englewood can be found in Explore Chicago Collections, a digital repository made available by Chicago Collections archives, libraries and other cultural institutions in the city.[10]

Englewood has a community parade every year, which is geared towards preparing it's deserving youth for a new school year. The Englewood Back To School Parade is held annually every 3rd Saturday in August. The parade was founded by Willie Pittman in 1961. https://englewoodparade.org/. Mr. Pittman is also known as the first black Plumber to be licensed in the City of Chicago and Pittman Plumbing still exists today.

Demographics edit

Historical population

In 2000, Englewood had a poverty rate of 44%, substantially higher than the overall poverty rate in Chicago of 20%.[12]

Based on census data collected by the city of Chicago in 2008–2012, the poverty rate for Englewood is 46.6% of households below poverty and 28% of people 16 years of age and older are unemployed.[13]

In 1960, Englewood had 67,216 African American residents who made up about 69% of its population. At the time most African Americans resided around 63rd Street. At the time the median income of Englewood was $5,579 ($57,459.31 adjusted for inflation).[14]

By 1980, the total population was 62,069, a loss of about 30,000 people in two decades; 99% of the people were black, and the white population was down to 818.[14] Edward McClelland of NBC Chicago stated "Not even ethnic cleansing in the Balkans achieved the levels of turnover that white flight in Chicago did."[15]

These communities have among the highest incidents of adolescent violence in the city, creating serious safety and public health concerns.[16]

Transportation edit

Halsted Street is a major thoroughfare in the neighborhood.

Both the Red Line (CTA) and Green Line (CTA) run through Englewood, as does the Dan Ryan Expressway (I-90 and I-94).

The railroad junction at Englewood, where Metra (the former Rock Island) crosses Norfolk Southern (the former Pennsylvania) has long been a cause of delay. In March 2010 a $133 million reconstruction project was announced which improved operations by replacing the diamond crossing between Metra and NS with an overpass for Metra. The project proposed by Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program (CREATE) was completed in 2014.[17]

Education edit

Englewood is host to numerous publicly-operated educational institutions. Primary and secondary schools are operated by Chicago Public Schools, while the community has post-secondary educational needs met at the Kennedy–King College, which was relocated to Englewood in 2005 as part of revitalization efforts in the neighborhood. A public high school, Englewood STEM High School, was opened in September 2019 to serve students in the surrounding area.[18]

Politics edit

The Englewood community area has supported the Democratic Party in the past two presidential elections by overwhelming margins. In the 2016 presidential election, the Englewood cast 8,646 votes for Hillary Clinton and cast 141 votes for Donald Trump (97.11% to 1.58%).[19] In the 2012 presidential election, Englewood cast 12,344 votes for Barack Obama and cast 45 votes for Mitt Romney (99.53% to 0.36%).[20]

Popular culture edit

In 2018, Australian film director George Gittoes made a documentary about Englewood. The 2019 TV show South Side takes place in the area of Englewood.

Mental health edit

The Mental Health Impact Assessment (MHIA) emphasizes mental health outcomes, including depression, anxiety, PTSD, ADHD, and substance abuse. Vacant foreclosed properties often lead to criminal activity, and the amendment aimed to hold banks accountable for security and painting such properties, reducing crime and improving the mental health of affected communities. According to a 2012 mental health impact assessment, Englewood faces various social and economic challenges, including high crime rates and limited access to public services, directly impacting residents' mental health.[21] Community engagement in the MHIA pilot has helped gather input from the community. The findings and recommendations are presented in a policy letter to the Chicago City Council. The proposed amendment to the Vacant Buildings Ordinance was passed, indicating the successful integration of mental health considerations into policy decisions.

Notable people edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d "Community Data Snapshot – Englewood" (PDF). cmap.illinois.gov. MetroPulse. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
  2. ^ "Chicago History Encyclopedia: Englewood". 2005.
  3. ^ "Englewood by the Numbers". redeyechicago.com. July 15, 2011.[dead link] Garfield Boulevard borders
  4. ^ "Englewood".
  5. ^ Larsen, Erik, The Devil in the White City: A Saga of Magic and Murder at the Fair that Changed America, Doubleday Publishing Group, 2004, ISBN 9781400076314
  6. ^ "Brief History of Englewood". chicagoreporter.com. July 12, 2009. Archived from the original on May 31, 2009.
  7. ^ "Washburne Culinary Institute Homepage". Archived from the original on January 12, 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
  8. ^ "Mayor Daley, Community Leaders Break Ground For New Kennedy-King College Campus". Public Building Commission of Chicago. November 9, 2005. Archived from the original on October 27, 2014. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
  9. ^ "New Kennedy-King College". Public Building Commission of Chicago. Archived from the original on June 5, 2013. Retrieved October 6, 2013. "Mayor Daley cut the ribbon to open Kennedy King College on July 18, 2007."
  10. ^ Long, Elizabeth. "A Single Portal to Chicago's History". The University of Chicago News. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
  11. ^ Paral, Rob. "Chicago Community Areas Historical Data". Archived from the original on March 18, 2013. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
  12. ^ Demographics from Metropolitan Planning Council. By Josh Ellis. Published 2009. Data taken from year 2000.
  13. ^ "Englewood | City of Chicago | Data Portal". Chicago. Retrieved February 16, 2016.
  14. ^ a b "A Brief History of Englewood". The Chicago Reporter. October 1, 2007. Archived from the original on November 13, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  15. ^ McClelland, Edward (May 6, 2013). "White Flight, By The Numbers". NBC Chicago. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  16. ^ Gainer, Patricia S. (March 1, 1993). "A Youth Violence Prevention Program". Archives of Surgery. 128 (3): 303. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1993.01420150059011. ISSN 0004-0010.
  17. ^ Vance, Steven (October 10, 2011). "Englewood Flyover broke ground today – will save 7,500 hours of Metra delays annually". Grid Chicago. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
  18. ^ "ArcGIS Web Application". chicago.maps.arcgis.com. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  19. ^ Ali, Tanveer (November 9, 2016). "How Every Chicago Neighborhood Voted in the 2016 Presidential Election". DNAInfo. Archived from the original on September 24, 2019. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
  20. ^ Ali, Tanveer (November 9, 2012). "How Every Chicago Neighborhood Voted in the 2012 Presidential Election". DNAInfo. Archived from the original on February 3, 2019. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
  21. ^ Todman, Lynn C.; Hricisak, Lauren M.; Fay, Jill E.; Sherrod Taylor, J. (June 2012). "Mental health impact assessment: population mental health in Englewood, Chicago, Illinois, USA". Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal. 30 (2): 116–123. doi:10.1080/14615517.2012.659991. ISSN 1461-5517.
  22. ^ Hope, Leah (July 18, 2007). "New billboards tout Englewood neighborhood's success stories". ABC7 News (WLS-TV/DT). Archived from the original on November 1, 2013. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
  23. ^ Davis, Anthony (July 30, 2014). "Anthony Davis Is as Bummed About Chicago Gun Violence as Everyone Else". Vice (Interview). Interviewed by Brian Lauvray. New York.
  24. ^ a b "Specimen Ballot". Warren County Democrat. Vol. 18, no. 6. Illinois Digital Newspaper Collections. November 3, 1904. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
  25. ^ a b John R. Schmidt (August 1, 2011). "The Senator and the Pineapple". Chicago Public Radio. Archived from the original on August 14, 2011. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
  26. ^ a b Austen, Ben (September 17, 2013). "Public Enemies: Social Media Is Fueling Gang Wars in Chicago". Wired. Retrieved June 28, 2019. "Chief Keef and Lil JoJo, two rappers from the South Side neighborhood of Englewood..."
  27. ^ Drake, David (October 17, 2012). "Growing Up in Chicago and Getting Noticed". Complex. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
  28. ^ "Two St. Rita Graduates Headed to Detroit After 2017 NFL Draft - Ashburn - Chicago - DNAinfo". Archived from the original on September 5, 2017. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
  29. ^ "The Strange Life of H. H. Holmes". by Debra Pawlak. The Mediadrome. 2002. Archived from the original on June 11, 2008. Retrieved January 3, 2011.
  30. ^ Lucy Theodate Holmes, passport application, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007. Original data: Passport Applications, January 2, 1906–IMarch 31, 1925; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M1490, 2740 rolls); General Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  31. ^ "Jennifer Hudson 1981–". Biography Today. 17 (1): 50. 2007. ISSN 1058-2347.
  32. ^ Turner Trice, Dawn (August 20, 2012). "Sculptor shares vision for activist's tribute". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
  33. ^ Mobius, Joseph B. (August 1, 1959). "Chapter III The Early Years" (PDF). The propaganda philosophy of Harold L. Ickes (Thesis). Boston University. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
  34. ^ Bill Granger, "Willard Motley – A Writer Of Brutal Honesty", Chicago TribuneJune 26, 1994.
  35. ^ Moore, Natalie (February 28, 2012). "Comedian Bernie Mac gets honorary Chicago street". WBEZ. Retrieved June 25, 2019.
  36. ^ Rodkin, Dennis (February 22, 2023). "At 66, the Rev. James Meeks launches a second career as a homebuilder". Crain's Chicago Business. Archived from the original on February 22, 2023. Retrieved February 22, 2023.
  37. ^ Illinois Blue Book 1959-1960. p. 92. Retrieved March 23, 2023.
  38. ^ Graydon, Megan (March 10, 2016). "Morgan Murphy Jr., former congressman, dies at 83". Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
  39. ^ Lee, William (January 6, 2019). "Chicago rapper Lil Reese pleads guilty in pot possession case". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 28, 2019. "This is Taylor's second marijuana conviction in Cook County since the Englewood native shot into the limelight with the popularity of drill rap,"

External links edit