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Nigeria's primary energy consumption was about 108 Mtoe in 2011.[1] Most of the energy comes from traditional biomass and waste, which account for 83% of total primary production. The rest is from fossil fuels (16%) and hydropower (1%).[1]

Nigeria has oil reserves of about 35 billion barrels (5.6×109 m3) and gas reserves of about 5 trillion cubic metres, ranking 10th and 9th in the world, respectively. Global production in 2009 reached 29 billion barrels (4.6×109 m3) of oil and 3 trillion cubic meters of natural gas.[2] Nigeria is a member of the Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.

Location

Contents

OverviewEdit

Energy in Nigeria[3]
Population
(million)
Primary energy
(TWh)
Production
(TWh)
Export
(TWh)
Electricity
(TWh)
CO2 emissions
(Mt)
2004 128.7 1,151 2,668 1,508 13.4 47.6
2007 148.0 1,241 2,695 1,445 20.3 51.4
2008 151.3 1,293 2,638 1,343 19.1 52.4
2009 154.7 1,259 2,660 1,419 18.6 41.2
2010 158.42 1,315 3,005 1,691 21.62 45.90
2012 162.47 1,376 2,988 1,607 24.45 52.85
2012R 168.83 1,555 3,160 1,625 26.22 64.56
2013 174.00 1,554 2,973 1,415 24.52 61.00
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh . Prim. energy includes energy losses
2012R = CO2 calculation criteria changed, numbers updated

PetroleumEdit

 
Oil and gas in Nigeria

Nigeria was 10th top oil producer in 2005.[4] In 2009 Nigeria was not among the top ten crude oil producers, but it was the fifth oil exporter (102 Mt).[5]

Oando is Nigeria's largest oil company, headquartered in Lagos. Oando is Nigeria's largest non-government owned company in the energy industry. It is listed on the Nigerian and Johannesburg Stock Exchange.

Oil and gas contributors include Nigerian National Petroleum Company NNPC, Chevron Corporation, CNOOC, CNPC, Conoco, Eni, Exxon Mobil Corporation, GEPetrol, Petrobras, Shell, Statoil and Total[6]

OgonilandEdit

Ogoni people live historically in the Niger Delta in the south eastern region of Nigeria. Ogoniland oil facilities are operated mainly by the Shell Petroleum Development Corporation (Nigeria) in the upstream and the Nigerian National Petroleum Company in the downstream since the 1950s. The Ogoni campaign against Shell Oil is led by the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP). MOSOP is campaigning for the expulsion of Shell from Ogoniland.[7]

According to the UNEP assessment in 8/2011 the oil contamination is widespread in Ogoniland and oil spills continue still even in the old oil field areas. The Ogoni people live with this pollution every day. As Ogoniland has high rainfall, delay in cleaning of the oil spills leads to spread oil contamination in the farmlands. Oil contamination of land areas, sediments and swampland is extensive. The wetlands around Ogoniland are highly degraded and facing disintegration. Fishermen must move to less contaminated areas in search of fish. Current Ogoniland community have lived with chronic oil pollution throughout their lives. Of most immediate concern in 12/2011, community members at Nisisioken Ogale are drinking water contaminated with benzene, a known carcinogen, at levels over 900 times above the WHO guideline.[8][9]

Environmental damageEdit

The Niger delta is one of the most polluted regions in the world. Oil is spilled more each year than in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. Nigerian government reports more than 7,000 spills between 1970 and 2000 and 2,000 major spillage sites.[10][11]

Pollution and environmental damage of the oil industry has serious impact on people living in the Niger Delta. The environment laws are poorly enforced. Government agencies responsible for enforcement were ineffective and, in some cases, compromised by conflicts of interest. Communities in the Niger Delta frequently had no access to vital information about the impact of the oil industry on their lives. On 1 May 2010, crude oil from a leaking oil from an offshore platform of ExxonMobil’s Qua Iboe oilfield reached the shores of the Ibeno community, Akwa Ibom state.[12]

Representatives of Anglo-Dutch oil giant Shell are appearing in a Dutch civil court to face accusations of polluting Nigerian villages in 2012.[13] The UNEP report (2011) concludes that pollution of soil by petroleum hydrocarbons in Ogoniland is extensive in land areas, sediments and swampland.[14]

Oil spillsEdit

  • Shell announced a 40,000 barrels of crude oil spill in Nigeria in December 2011. Bonga Field produces around 200,000 barrels a day. The spill was among the worst off the coast of Nigeria in 10 years.[15]
  • 280,000 barrels of oil were estimated spilled in 2008 in two leaks in the Bodo region in the Ogoni district in 2008. Bodo is at the epicentre of several pipelines that collect oil from nearly 100 wells. Nearly 80% of people in Bodo were fishermen dependant on clean water.[10]

Human rightsEdit

The Niger Delta area is oil-rich.

Because of Nigeria's role as a regional power, leading oil exporter, and major contributor of troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions, foreign governments – including the United States and the United Kingdom—have been reluctant to publicly criticize Nigeria's human rights record. In 2010 the UK increased funding to £140 million in aid to Nigeria, including security sector aid, without demanding accountability for Nigerian officials and members of the security forces implicated in corrupt practices and serious human rights abuses.[16]

GasEdit

Gas in Nigeria is supplied to a variety of industrial users in and around Lagos. The gas originates in the Niger Delta area. It passes to Lagos via the Escravos pipeline. A number of major industrial users utilise this gas in captive power plants such as Guinness's Ogba and Benin breweries.[17]

Uranium miningEdit

Nigeria has uranium deposits, but no details were given since their discovery in 2005.[18][19][20]

Renewable energyEdit

Renewable energy penetration in Nigeria is still in its nascent stage, the only source of renewable energy in the country is hydro-power and biomass; wind and solar energy have only been deployed in minuscule amount. With energy policies and initiatives developing, wind and solar energy generation projects are gradually being planned throughout the country. Developments in solar and wind energy are gradually increasing with the discovering of their high potentials and benefits for Nigeria's environment and society.

Current and future projects in renewable energyEdit

Nigeria is only able to supply power to half of its population of 198 million.[21] Currently, Nigeria generates a small amount of energy from renewable sources such as hydro power, solar, wind and biomass.[22] In 2005, the Energy Commission of Nigeria developed the Renewable Energy Master Plan (REMP), which suggests ideas for renewable energy policies, as well as possible technologies that can be used to fulfill their goals.[22] They are targeting to expand their energy access to 90 percent of the population by 2030 and 30 percent of their total generation to be from renewable sources.[21]

Due to its geographic location near the equator, Nigeria has the potential to generate most of its energy through solar.[23] Most of the big cities in Nigeria (Lagos, Abuja, Benin City, Port Harcourt, Kaduna and Kano) now power their street lighting with solar energy through state beautification projects.[24] Low Energy Designs, a firm from the United Kingdom, was contracted to build solar powered street lights across Nigeria.[25] This twelve-month project is expected to cover about 300 km and cost about 7 million U.S. dollars.[25] In addition, the World Bank has lent Nigeria about 350 million to build a solar power grid by 2023 that will help generate power for hospitals, rural areas, schools and households.[21]

In February 2018, Nigeria completed the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Project, which supplies about 261,938 citizens with clean renewable energy.[26] This project was in partnership with USAID, private donors, government agencies, financial institutions and non-governmental organizations.[26] The goal of the project was to build connections to 2.5 MW of power through off and on grid sources, which will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 4.5 million metric tons.[26]

The Nigerian Energy Support Programme was developed in conjunction with the German development agency GIZ and International Finance Corporation. This involves training programs for Renewable energy systems and energy efficiency. Training is carried out by Nigeria's premier power systems trainer National Power Training Institute of Nigeria and other power trainers including the various energy research centers run by the Energy Commission of Nigeria.[27]

Nigeria has secured financial support from Chinese lenders to start construction on their Hydro-electric plant in Mambilla.[28] The idea to create this project was originally proposed in 1972 and is finally ready to be put into action over 45 years later.[29] Chinese lenders are providing 85% of the total 5.8 billion dollar project and Nigerian government will provide the rest of the funding.[30] The 3,050 megawatt power plant is expect to take five years to build.[30] The project will create four dams that measure about 50 meters in width and 150 meters in height.

ChallengesEdit

Despite huge effort by public and private agencies to promote the adoption of alternative energy sources in Nigeria, renewable energy is still marred with several challenges hindering the complete integration, especially in the rural areas of Nigeria with an abundance of solar but little or no access to the grid.[citation needed] The major challenge seems to be capital intensity.[citation needed] The average rural dweller in Nigeria engaged in subsistence farming can not afford the cost of acquiring the components needed to generate electricity that can power as little as a 500W system. This is largely due to the high cost of deep cycle batteries, which is necessary in an off-grid solution.

Another challenge is the lack of adequate skilled labour in the about 200 million population. Installing a renewable energy system is technical and requires the expertise of a trained technician. Some renewable energy companies in Nigeria have identified this problem and established renewable energy training academies across Nigeria.[31]

Solar energyEdit

Solar thermal energy has been utilized for decades in processes for cooking, food preservation, and agriculture. In 2016, President Buhari inaugurated the country's first solar power plant in Ibadan.[32] As of December 2017, Nigeria's federal government has invested $20 million on solar projects throughout the country.[33]

Nigeria's climate, resources, and economic and societal conditions make solar energy a suitable alternative energy source. The Northern part of Nigeria has the highest potential for solar. The North has an average solar insolation of 2200 kWh/m^2,[34] while the southern part has 1800 kWh/m^2.[34] In addition to adequate power outputs, solar energy would aid the country in reducing carbon emissions from fossil-fueled energy generation. Furthermore, solar power would provide a reliable and stable source of energy in both urban and other locations and could alleviate the resources-conflict associated with oil.[citation needed]

Wind powerEdit

Wind turbine generation is another developing energy source in Nigeria. Wind speeds in Nigeria typically range from 2-9.5 m/s.[35] With such low wind speeds investments and interest in wind energy has not been as high as solar power. However, wind power could be advantageous to rural and agricultural areas.[citation needed] Wind power would also be beneficial in Southeast with wind power potentials higher than 4 m/s, and in the North where wind speeds reach up to 6 m/s at a 10 hub height.[34] Initiatives such as Nigeria's National Renewable Energy Plan are beginning to set forth goals in wind turbine implementation.[36] However, with insufficient data and its status as a relatively new technology, development overall has been slow and challenging.[37]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Nigeria: Overview". U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  2. ^ 2011 report on oil and gas companies, Promoting revenue Transparency Transparency International 2011 page reserves 114–115
  3. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2015, 2014 (2012R as in November 2015 + 2012 as in March 2014 is comparable to previous years statistical calculation criteria, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009 Archived 7 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, 2006 Archived 12 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
  4. ^ Key world energy statistics 2006 Archived 12 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine page 11
  5. ^ IEA Key energy statistics 2010 Page 11
  6. ^ 2011 report on oil and gas companies, Promoting revenue Transparency Transparency International 2011
  7. ^ Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland UNEP Aug 4, 2011 Full report 2011 (9.7 MB pdf) Pages 24-25, 39,
  8. ^ UNEP Ogoniland Oil Assessment Reveals Extent of Environmental Contamination and Threats to Human Health UNEP Aug 4, 2011
  9. ^ Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland UNEP Aug 4, 2011 Full report 2011 (9.7 MB pdf)
  10. ^ a b Shell oil spills in the Niger delta: 'Nowhere and no one has escaped' Guardian 3 August 2011
  11. ^ agony dwarfs the Gulf oil spill. The US and Europe ignore it Guardian 30 May 2010
  12. ^ Amnesty International Report 2011[permanent dead link] page 247
  13. ^ Nigeria oil spills: Dutch case against Shell begins bbc 11 October 2012
  14. ^ Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland UNEP 2011
  15. ^ [Nigeria on alert as Shell announces worst oil spill in a decade] Guardian 22.12.2011
  16. ^ Human Rights Watch World Report 2011 Archived 13 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine pages 148
  17. ^ Guinness, Ogba Combined Heat & Power Plant
  18. ^ Energy revolution Archived 6 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine Greenpeace, page 14
  19. ^ "New Uranium Mining Projects - Africa".
  20. ^ https://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/NEFW/documents/RawMaterials/RTC-Namibia-2009/Nigeria-URANIUM%20DEVELOPMENT.pdf
  21. ^ a b c Gerretsen, Isabelle. "Oil-rich Nigeria turns to renewable energy as population booms". U.S. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  22. ^ a b Aliyu, Abubakar Kabir; Modu, Babangida; Tan, Chee Wei (January 2018). "A review of renewable energy development in Africa: A focus in South Africa, Egypt and Nigeria". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 81: 2502–2518. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.06.055. ISSN 1364-0321.
  23. ^ Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Dada, Joseph O.; Adam, Ibrahim Khalil (1 August 2015). "Current status and future prospects of renewable energy in Nigeria". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 48: 336–346. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.03.098. ISSN 1364-0321.
  24. ^ Ojo, Godwin Uyi (16 July 2013). "Prospects of localism in community energy projects in Nigeria". Local Environment. 19 (8): 933–946. doi:10.1080/13549839.2013.818948. ISSN 1354-9839.
  25. ^ a b Andiva, Yvonne (7 March 2018). "10,000 LED Street lights to be installed in Nigeria". Construction Review Online. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  26. ^ a b c "USAID completes renewable energy project in Nigeria". www.esi-africa.com. March 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  27. ^ "NAPTIN, 10 Others to Benefit from €24.5m NESP Fund". International Center for Energy Environment and Development. 27 July 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  28. ^ "Work on 3050 Megawatts Mambilla Power Plant starts early 2019 - Presidency - Vanguard News Nigeria". Vanguard News Nigeria. 6 September 2018. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  29. ^ Wakili, Isiaka (31 August 2017). "Nigeria: Mambilla Power Project Gets $5.79bn for Takeoff". Daily Trust (Abuja). Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  30. ^ a b "Bloomberg - Are you a robot?". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  31. ^ "Solar energy training in Nigeria". www.wavetra.com. 21 February 2018. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  32. ^ "Buhari inaugurates Nigeria's first solar power plant in UI". Punch Newspapers. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  33. ^ "FG, states, others invest $20bn in new 20 solar projects - Vanguard News". Vanguard News. 19 December 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  34. ^ a b c "Renewable Energy Potential – RECP". www.africa-eu-renewables.org. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  35. ^ Adaramola, M.S.; Oyewola, O.M. (1 May 2011). "On wind speed pattern and energy potential in Nigeria". Energy Policy. 39 (5): 2501–2506. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2011.02.016. ISSN 0301-4215.
  36. ^ "IEA - Nigeria". www.iea.org. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  37. ^ "Wind Power Potentials in Cameroon and Nigeria: Lessons from South Africa".