Armand Hammer (May 21, 1898 – December 10, 1990) was an American business manager and owner, most closely associated with Occidental Petroleum, a company he ran from 1957 until his death. He was known as well for his art collection and his close ties to the Soviet Union.
Hammer in 1982
|Born||May 21, 1898|
New York City, U.S.
|Died||December 10, 1990 (aged 92)|
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Alma mater||Columbia University (B.A., 1919; M.D., 1921)|
|Known for||Occidental Petroleum|
Olga Vadina Von Root
(m. 1927; div. 1943)
Angela Carey Zevely
Frances Barrett Tolman
(m. 1956; died 1989)
Hammer's business interests around the world and his "citizen diplomacy" helped him cultivate a wide network of friends and associates.
Hammer was born in New York City, to Jewish parents who immigrated from what was then the Russian Empire, Rose (née Lipschitz) and Julius Hammer. His father came to the United States from Odessa in what was then the Russian Empire (now Ukraine) in 1875 and settled in the Bronx, where he ran a general medical practice and five drugstores.
Hammer originally said that his father had named him after a character, Armand Duval, in La Dame aux Camélias, a novel by Alexandre Dumas, fils. According to other sources, it was later said that Hammer was named after the "arm and hammer" graphic symbol of the Socialist Labor Party of America (SLP), in which his father had a leadership role. (After the Russian Revolution, a part of the SLP under Julius' leadership split off to become a founding element of the Communist Party USA.) Late in his life, Hammer confirmed that this was indeed the origin of his given name.
Due to socialist and communist activities Hammer's father Julius had been put under federal surveillance. On July 5, 1919, federal agents witnessed Marie Oganesoff (the 33-year-old Russian wife of a former tsarist diplomat) enter Julius' medical office located in a wing of his Bronx home. Oganesoff "who had accumulated a life-threatening history of miscarriages, abortions, and poor health, was pregnant and wanted to terminate her pregnancy." The surgical procedure took place in the midst of a great flu epidemic. Six days after the abortion Oganesoff died of pneumonia. Four weeks after her death a Bronx County grand jury indicted Julius Hammer for first-degree manslaughter. The following summer a criminal prosecutor convinced a jury that Julius Hammer had let his patient "die like a dog" and that the claims that she had actually died from complications due to influenza were mere attempts to cover up his crime. In 1920 a judge sentenced Julius Hammer to three and a half years in Sing Sing prison.
While most historians (such as Beverly Gage and Nigel West) state that Julius had performed the abortion, an opposing position has been put forward by author Edward Jay Epstein. Epstein in his book Dossier: The Secret History of Armand Hammer puts forward the claim that it was Armand Hammer, then a medical student, rather than his father who performed the abortion and his father Julius assumed the blame. Epstein's claims come from interview comments made by Bettye Murphy who had been Armand's mistress. According to Murphy and Epstein's account the legal strategy was that Julius did not deny that an abortion had been performed, but insisted that it had been medically necessary and that a licensed doctor rather than a medical student would be more convincing in presenting that argument.
When his father was sentenced to prison, Hammer and his brothers took Allied Drug, the family business, to new heights, reselling equipment they had bought at depressed prices at the end of World War I. According to Hammer, his first business success was in 1919, manufacturing and selling a ginger extract which legally contained high levels of alcohol. This was extremely popular during prohibition, and the company had $1 million in sales that year.
Family envoy in Soviet UnionEdit
After Julius was imprisoned, he sent Armand Hammer to the Soviet Union to look after the affairs of his company Allied Drug and Chemical. Hammer traveled back and forth from the Soviet Union for the next 10 years.
In 1921, while waiting for his internship to begin at Bellevue Hospital, Hammer went to the Soviet Union for a trip that lasted until late 1930. Although his career in medicine was cut short, he relished being referred to as "Dr. Hammer." Hammer's intentions in the 1921 trip have been debated ever since. He has claimed that he originally intended to recoup $150,000 in debts for drugs shipped during the Allied intervention, but was soon moved by a capitalistic and philanthropic interest in selling wheat to the then-starving Russians. In his passport application, Hammer stated that he intended to visit only western Europe. J. Edgar Hoover in the Justice Department knew this was false, but Hammer was allowed to travel anyway. A skeptical U.S. government watched him through this trip and for the rest of his life.
After graduating from medical school, Hammer extended earlier entrepreneurial ventures with a successful business importing many goods from and exporting pharmaceuticals to the newly-formed Soviet Union, together with his younger brother Victor. According to Hammer, on his initial trip, he took $60,000 in medical supplies to aid in a typhus epidemic and made a deal with Lenin for furs and caviar in exchange for a shipment of surplus American wheat. He moved to the USSR in the 1920s to oversee these operations, especially his large business manufacturing and exporting pens and pencils.
According to Alexander Barmine, who was assigned by the Central Committee to run the Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga company to compete with Hammer, the stationery concession to produce such items in the Soviet Union was actually granted to Julius Hammer. Barmine states the party spent five million gold rubles on stationery supplies made in factories controlled by Julius Hammer and other concessionaires making them rich. Barmine further contends that the Soviets were eventually able to duplicate certain items such as typewriter parts and pens and end those concessions but were never able to match the quality of Hammer's pencils so that concession became permanent.
In his 1983 book, Red Carpet, author Joseph Finder discusses Hammer's "extensive involvement with Russia." In Dossier: The Secret History of Armand Hammer, Edward Jay Epstein called Hammer "a virtual spy" for the Soviet Union.
After returning to the U.S., Hammer entered into a diverse array of business, art, cultural, and humanitarian endeavors, including investing in various U.S. oil production efforts. These oil investments were later parlayed into control of Occidental Petroleum. National Geographic described Occidental chairman Hammer as "a pioneer in the synfuels boom." Throughout his life he continued personal and business dealings with the Soviet Union, despite the Cold War. In later years he lobbied and traveled extensively at a great personal expense, working for peace between the United States and the Communist countries of the world, including ferrying physicians and supplies into the Soviet Union to help Chernobyl survivors. In his book The Prize, Daniel Yergin writes that Hammer "ended up as a go-between for five Soviet General Secretaries and seven U.S. Presidents."
Association with the Gore familyEdit
Occidental's coal interests were represented for many years by attorney and former U.S. Senator Al Gore, Sr., among others. Gore, who had a longtime close friendship with Hammer, became the head of the subsidiary Island Creek Coal Company, upon his election loss in the Senate. Much of Occidental's coal and phosphate production was in Tennessee, the state Gore represented in the Senate, and Gore owned shares in the company. Former Vice President Al Gore, Jr. received much criticism from environmentalists, when the shares passed to the estate after the death of Gore, Sr., and Gore, Jr. was a son and the executor of the estate. Gore Jr. did not exercise control over the shares, which were eventually sold when the estate closed.
Hammer was very fond of Gore, Jr. and, in 1984, under Hammer's guidance, Gore, Jr. sought Tennessee's Senate office previously held by Howard Baker. Hammer supposedly promised Gore, Sr. that he could make his son the president of the United States. It was under Hammer's encouragement and support that Gore Jr. sought the Democratic Party presidential nomination in 1988.
Stake in Arm & HammerEdit
In the 1980s Hammer owned a considerable amount of stock in Church & Dwight, the company that manufactures Arm & Hammer products; he also served on its board of directors. However, the Arm & Hammer company's brand name did not originate with Armand Hammer. It was in use 31 years before Hammer was born. He was spurred to buy shares in the company as a result of often being asked about the brand being so close to his name.
President's Cancer PanelEdit
In 1981, Hammer was appointed by President Ronald Reagan to serve on the three-member President's Cancer Panel and he later served as chairman of the panel from 1984 to 1989.As chairman of the panel, he announced a campaign to raise $1 billion a year to fight cancer.
Hammer was the middle of three sons. He had close relationships, including in business, with his brothers, Harry and Victor Hammer, throughout their lives.
He married three times, first in 1927, to a Russian actress, Olga Von Root, the daughter of a czarist general. In 1943, he was married to Angela Zevely. In 1956, he married the wealthy widow Frances Barrett, and they remained married until her death in 1989.
Hammer died of bone marrow cancer in December 1990, aged 92 in Los Angeles, and was buried in Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery, across the street from his Occidental building on Wilshire Boulevard.
Politically, Hammer was a supporter of the Republican Party. He boosted Richard Nixon's presidential campaign with $54,000 in campaign contributions. He pleaded guilty to charges that one of these donations had been made illegally and received probation and a $3,000 fine, but was later pardoned by Republican U.S. President George H. W. Bush.
He was a collector of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings. His personal donation forms the core of the permanent collection of the UCLA Hammer Museum in Los Angeles, California. Together with his brother Victor, he was the owner of the famed "Hammer Galleries" in New York City.
Hammer was a philanthropist, supporting causes related to education, medicine, and the arts. Among his legacies is the Armand Hammer United World College of the American West (now generally called the UWC-USA, part of the United World Colleges). By the time of his death, Hammer had won the Soviet Union's Order of Friendship of Peoples, the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement (1978), the U.S. National Medal of Arts (1987), France's Legion of Honor, Italy's Grand Order of Merit, Sweden's Royal Order of the Polar Star, Austria's Knight Commander's Cross, Pakistan's Hilal-i-Quaid-Azam Peace Award, Israel's Leadership Award, Venezuela's Order of Andrés Bello, Mexico's National Recognition Award, Bulgaria's Jubilee Medal, and Belgium's Order of the Crown. Hammer hungered for a Nobel Peace Prize, and he was repeatedly nominated for one, including by Menachem Begin, but never won.
As of 2016, he has been the subject of six biographies—in 1975 (Considine, authorized biography), 1985 (Bryson, coffee table book), Weinberg 1989, Blumay 1992, Epstein 1996, and Alef 2009; and two autobiographies (1932 and a best seller in 1987). His art collection and his philanthropic projects were the subject of numerous publications.
- Armand Hammer, The Untold Story by Steve Weinberg, p. 16
- "History of Occidental Petroleum Corporation". FundingUniverse.
- "Hammer". highbeam.com. Archived from the original on October 22, 2012.
- Epstein, Edward Jay (1998). Dossier: the secret history of Armand Hammer. Orion Business. p. 34. ISBN 0-7528-1386-2.
- Bradford Matsen (2011). Death and Oil: The True Story of the Piper Alpha Disaster on the North Sea. Pantheon Books. p. 47.
- Considine, Bob (1975). The remarkable life of Dr. Armand Hammer. Harper & Row. pp. 75. ISBN 0-06-010836-3.
- "Reaches Into Her Gypsy Songbag For Tunes To Give To Posterity". Meriden Daily Journal. March 6, 1934. Retrieved May 18, 2011.
- Dossier: The Secret History of Armand Hammer, Edward Jay Epstein, 1996, p. 35
- Bradford Matsen (2011). Death and Oil: The True Story of the Piper Alpha Disaster on the North Sea. Pantheon Books.
- John N. Ingham (1983). Biographical Dictionary of American Business Leaders. 2. Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated.
- Katherine A.S. Siegel (1996). Loans and Legitimacy: The Evolution of Soviet-American Relations, 1919–1933. University Press of Kentucky.
- Beverly Gage (2008). The Day Wall Street Exploded: A Story of America in Its First Age of Terror. Oxford Press.
- Nigel West (2007). Historical Dictionary of Cold War Counterintelligence. Scarecrow Press, Inc.
- Joseph E. Persico (October 13, 1996). "The Last Tycoon". The New York Times.
- Rachel Verdon (2012). Murder by Madness 9/11: The Government & the Goon Squad. CreateSpace Publishing.
- Edward Jay Epstein. "Dossier: The Secret History of Armand Hammer". Archived from the original on March 16, 2015.
- Armand Hammer, The Untold Story, Steve Weinberg, p. 77
- Armand Hammer, The Untold Story, Steve Weinberg, p.43
- Dossier: The Secret History of Armand Hammer, Edward Jay Epstein, 1996, p. 45
- Armand Hammer, The Untold Story, Steve Weinberg, p. 36
- Barmine, Alexander (1945). One Who Survived. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. pp. 331.
- Barmine, Alexander (1945). One Who Survived. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. pp. 157.
- Barmine, Alexander (1945). One Who Survived. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. pp. 158.
- "What's New on the Corporate Bookshelf". The New York Times. July 31, 1983.
- "A Virtual Spy: DOSSIER: The Secret History of Armand Hammer. By Edward J. Epstein (Random House, 1996, 418 pp.)". Los Angeles Times.
- Canby, Thomas Y. (February 1981). "Synfuels: Fill 'er up! With what?". National Geographic (special report on energy): 80.
- Higginbotham, Adam (February 4, 2020). Midnight in Chernobyl : the untold story of the world's greatest nuclear disaster (First Simon & Schuster trade paperback ed.). New York, NY. ISBN 978-1-5011-3463-0. OCLC 1105942734.
- Yergin, Daniel. The Prize, page 575. Simon & Schuster, 1991
- "Gore's Oil Money". The Nation. Archived from the original on July 1, 2009. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
- Frantz, Douglas (March 19, 2000). "THE 2000 CAMPAIGN: THE VICE PRESIDENT; Gore Family's Ties to Oil Company Magnate Reap Big Rewards, and a Few Problems". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
- "Campaigner's finances Where the presidential hopefuls have invested their fortunes may reveal something about the character of each". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on October 15, 2007. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
- "Gore may be flawed, but message is sincere". USA Today. August 16, 2006. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
- Edward Jay Epstein, Dossier: The Secret History of Armand Hammer. NY: Orion Business, 1998.
- “Like his father before him, Al Gore Jr.'s political career was lavishly sponsored by Hammer from the moment it began until Hammer died, only two years before Gore Clinton race for the White House in 1992.” Neil Lyndon, Hammer.
- "The Straight Dope: Did tycoon Armand Hammer have anything to do with Arm & Hammer baking soda?". straightdope.com.
- "Armand Hammer buys into Arm & Hammer". UPI. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
- "Armand Hammer to Own Pinch of Arm & Hammer". The Washington Post. September 23, 1986. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
- "Appointment of Armand Hammer as a Member of the President's Cancer Panel, and Designation as Chairman | The American Presidency Project". www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
- "Designation of Armand Hammer To Be Chairman of the President's Cancer Panel | The American Presidency Project". www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
- Ap (June 24, 1984). "Cancer Panel Chief Named". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
- Kolata, Gina (March 2, 1988). "Hammer Begins a Drive to Raise $1 Billion a Year to Fight Cancer". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
- "Frances Hammer, A Painter, Was 87; Wife of Industrialist, Peter Flint, The New York Times, December 19, 1989
- "Miss Mobley Has Nuptials In Oklahoma". The New York Times. January 13, 1985. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- Armand Hammer: The Untold Story, Steve Weinberg, p. 120
- Nizer, Lois. Reflections without Mirrors.
- Rampe, David (August 15, 1989). "ARMAND HAMMER PARDONED BY BUSH". The New York Times.
- Landi, Ann (December 1, 1996). "150 Years of Helping Shape a Nation's Taste" – via NYTimes.com.
- Hammer, Victor J. (1976). Elizabeth Charleston. New York: S & R Hayden. p. 8.
- "The Armand Hammer Collection". UCLA. Archived from the original on July 3, 2008. Retrieved September 27, 2008.
- "Hammer Icons". Time. August 16, 1937. Archived from the original on September 17, 2008. Retrieved September 27, 2008.
- "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement.
- Dossier: The Secret History of Armand Hammer, Edward Jay Epstein, 1996, p. 8
- "The Unfinished Business of Armand Hammer; After A Lifetime in the Public Eye, He Still Worries About His Place in History", Donald Woutat, Los Angeles Times Magazine, June 7, 1987, p. 8
- Excerpted All the Money in the World (September 14, 2007). "Forbes 400 Members In Trouble With The Law". Forbes.
- O'Connor, John J. (January 21, 1988). "TV Reviews; An Update On 'The Cosby Show'". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- The Armand Hammer Collection: Four Centuries of Masterpieces, published by the Armand Hammer Foundation in multiple editions (eventually becoming five centuries of masterpieces), sometimes in conjunction with museums where the collection was displayed.
- Honore Daumier 1808–1879: The Armand Hammer Daumier Collection Incorporating a Collection from George Longstreet, 1981
- Dreams & Promises: The Story of the Armand Hammer United World College : A Critical Analysis, Theodore Lockwood, 1997
- Averell Harriman – another 20th century American plutocrat with strong ties to the Soviet Union
- List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the president of the United States
- “On a Vast China Market”. Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 39, No. 2, China in Transition (Winter 1986), pp. 19-25
- Ingham, John N. Biographical Dictionary of American Business Leaders, Vol. 2: H–M. Greenwood Press, 1983. ISBN 0313239088. 2026 pages. Profile on pages 533–536.
- Tycoons and Entrepreneurs. New York: Macmillan Library Reference USA, 1998. ISBN 9780028649825. 349 pages. Profile on pages 87–92.
- Cosidine, Bob The Remarkable Life of Dr. Armand Hammer. New York: Harper & Row, 1975. ISBN 0060108363. 287 pages.
- Bryson, John. The World of Armand Hammer. Abrams, 1985. ISBN 9780810910935. 255 pages.
- Weinberg, Steve. Armand Hammer: The Untold Story. Boston: Little, Brown, 1989. ISBN 9780316928397. 501 pages.
- Blumay, Carl. Dark Side of Power: The Real Armand Hammer. New York: Simon & Schuster, November 1992. ISBN 9780671700539. 494 pages.
- Epstein, Edward Jay. Dossier: The Secret History of Armand Hammer. New York: Random House, 1996. ISBN 9780679448020. 418 pages.
- Denver Art Museum. The Armand Hammer Collection: Four Centuries of Masterpieces. An exhibition catalog, February 18 to April 9, 1978.
- Triantafyllou, Soti. The Pencil Factory. (Greek: “To Ergostassio ton Molivion”). Patakis, 2000.