Occidental Petroleum Corporation (often abbreviated Oxy in reference to its ticker symbol) is an American company engaged in hydrocarbon exploration in the United States, the Middle East, and Colombia as well as petrochemical manufacturing in the United States, Canada, and Chile. It is organized in Delaware and headquartered in Houston. The company is ranked 722nd on the Forbes Global 2000 and 220th on the Fortune 500.
|Traded as||NYSE: OXY|
S&P 100 component
S&P 500 component
|Vicki Hollub, CEO & President|
Cedric W. Burgher, CFO
Eugene L. Batchelder, Chairman
|658 thousand barrels of oil equivalent (4,030,000 GJ) per day (2018)|
|Revenue||$17.824 billion (2018)|
|$4.131 billion (2018)|
|Total assets||$43.854 billion (2018)|
|Total equity||$21.330 billion (2018)|
Number of employees
|11,000; 7,000 of which are in the United States (2018)|
|Footnotes / references|
- 1920: Occidental Petroleum was founded in California.
- 1957: Armand Hammer was elected president and chief executive officer of the company after he acquired a controlling stake in the firm for tax reasons.
- 1961: The company discovered the Lathrop Gas Field in Lathrop, California.
- 1960s: The company expanded internationally with operations in Peru, Venezuela, Bolivia, Trinidad, and the United Kingdom.
- 1965: Occidental won exploration rights in Libya. and operated there until all activities were suspended in 1986 after the United States imposed economic sanctions on Libya.
- 1968: The company entered the chemical business with the acquisition of Hooker Chemical Company, 26 years after the contamination at Love Canal.
- 1971: Occidental received permission to develop an oil refinery in Canvey Island in Essex, England. The company began construction but stopped in 1975 as a result of the 1970s energy crisis. The site remained derelict; the tanks and the chimney were subsequently demolished. Only some concrete foundations and the river jetty remain extant.
- 1972: The company was one of the first companies to research developing oil shale.
- 1981: The company acquired IBP, Inc., one of largest producers of beef and pork products in the United States.
- 1983: The company and Ecopetrol, the state-owned oil company, discovered the giant Caño Limón oilfield.
- 1986: The company suspends operation in Libya due to economic sanctions imposed on that country by the United States.
- April 1988: Occidental acquired Cain Chemical for $2 billion.
- July 6, 1988: An explosion and subsequent inferno on the company's Piper Alpha platform in the Scottish North Sea, resulted in 167 fatalities in what remains the world's most deadly offshore disaster.
- September 1988: The company formed a joint venture with Church & Dwight, which makes Arm & Hammer products, for a potassium carbonate plant at Muscle Shoals, Alabama.
- 1990: Armand Hammer died and Ray R. Irani became chairman and chief executive officer of the company.
- 1991: The company sold its stake in IBP, Inc.
- 1993: Occidental sold its remaining coal operations.
- February 1996: The company announced layoffs of 450 people in its chemical division.
- July 1996: The company sold its interest in 3 oilfields in the Congo to the Congolese government for $215 million.
- 1997: Occidental paid $3.65 billion to acquire the Elk Hills Oil Field.
- 2005: The company and its partner, Liwa, won 8 out of 15 exploration spots on the EPSA-4 auction, making both companies among the first to enter the Libyan market since the United States lifted its embargo on Libya.
- October 2005: The company acquired Vintage Petroleum for $3.8 billion.
- 2006: The government of Ecuador seized the company's interest in block 15 of the Amazon Rainforest, forcing the company to take a $306 million after-tax charge. In 2016, Ecuador agreed to pay $980 million in restitution to the company, down from the original award of $1.77 billion. The agreement was based on a 2012 arbitration award from the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes.
- 2007: Occidental's compensation policies came under scrutiny after it was announced that Irani received $460 million in compensation in 2006.
- 2008: The company acquired a 10% stake in Plains All American Pipeline. The company also acquired assets from Plains Exploration & Production for $1.3 billion.
- February 2009: The company closed its Louisville OxyVinyl polyvinyl chloride production plant.
- October 2009: The company acquired Citigroup's controversial Phibro energy-trading business, for its net asset value of approximately $250 million. The unit was managed by Andrew J. Hall, who received compensation of approximately $100 million per year in 2007 and 2008. After the acquisition, the division reported its first losses since the 1990s. In 2016, Phibro was wound down and sold.
- December 2010: Occidental acquired shale oil properties in the Williston Basin in North Dakota for $1.4 billion. These assets, as well as other assets acquired by Oxy in the Williston Basin, were sold in 2015 for $600 million.
- December 2010: The company sold its proven and probable reserves of 393 million barrels of oil equivalent (2.40×109 GJ) in Argentina to Sinopec, a subsidiary of China Petrochemical Corporation. It also acquired properties in South Texas and North Dakota for $3.2 billion.
- January 2011: Occidental partnered with Abu Dhabi's state oil company in developing the Shah Field, one of the largest natural gas fields in the Middle East, through a joint venture known as Al Hosn Gas. Al Hosn Gas became operational in 2015.
- May 2011: Ray R. Irani retires as CEO after CalSTRS and Relational Investors, two major shareholders, objected to the company's compensation policies for top executives. President Stephen I. Chazen was named CEO to replace Irani and in 2013, shareholders ousted Irani as chairman. Despite his outlandish compensation, during Irani's tenure, the company grew from a collection of unrelated businesses to one that focuses on oil and gas and the market capitalization of the company went from $5.5 billion to $80 billion.
- 2013: Oxychem sold its investment in Unipar Carbocloro for R$550 million.
- September 2014: Occidental moved its headquarters to Houston, Texas.
- November 2014: The company sold its 50% interest in BridgeTex Pipeline Company, owner of a 300,000 barrel-per-day crude oil pipeline system that extends from Colorado City, Texas to Texas City, Texas, for $1.075 billion.
- December 2014: The company distributed 80.5% of its shares in California Resources Corporation, the largest producer of oil and natural gas on a gross-operated barrels of oil equivalent basis in California, to Occidental shareholders and distributed its remaining stake to shareholders in March 2016.
- October 2015: Occidental completed the first phase of a $500 million carbon dioxide flooding project in Hobbs, New Mexico.
- January 2016: The company sold an office tower in Dallas, Texas for $95 million.
- May 2016: Vicki Hollub, who had worked at Occidental since 1981 and joined the board in 2015, became the chief executive officer of the company, the first female to serve as chief executive officer of a major U.S. oil and gas company.
- March 2017: the company and its 50/50 joint venture partner Mexichem began operations of a 1.2-billion-pound per year capacity ethylene cracker at the OxyChem plant in Ingleside, Texas, along with pipelines and storage at Markham, Texas.
- June 2017: the company sold land in the Permian Basin for $600 million and used the proceeds to acquire other assets in the area.
Oil and gasEdit
The company's oil and gas operations are concentrated in three geographic areas: the United States, Colombia, and the Middle East. As of December 31, 2018, Occidental had 2.792 billion barrels of oil equivalent (1.708×1010 GJ) of oil equivalent net proved reserves, of which 57% was petroleum, 18% was natural gas liquids, and 25% was natural gas. In 2018, the company had production of 658 thousand barrels of oil equivalent (4,030,000 GJ) per day.
In 2018, the company's United States operations produced 372 thousand barrels of oil equivalent (2,280,000 GJ) per day, representing 57% of the company's worldwide production. Substantially of this production was in the Permian Basin, where Occidental is the largest operator and oil producer. The company produced 214 thousand barrels of oil equivalent (1,310,000 GJ) per day from unconventional oil directional drilling via Permian Resources and 154 thousand barrels of oil equivalent (940,000 GJ) per day using a technique called enhanced oil recovery, whereby carbon dioxide and water are injected into underground formations to extract the oil and gas.
The company's oil and gas operations in the Middle East are in Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates and are via production sharing agreements. The region produced 286 thousand barrels of oil equivalent (1,750,000 GJ) per day, representing approximately 43% of 2018 total worldwide production. The region also held 28% of the company's proved reserves in 2018.
The company is the largest independent oil producer in Oman. In Qatar, the company is the second-largest oil producer offshore and is a partial owner in the Dolphin Gas Project, which delivers gas to Oman and the United Arab Emirates.
OxyChem manufactures polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins, chlorine and sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) used in plastics, pharmaceuticals and water treatment chemicals. Other products manufactured by the company include caustic potash, chlorinated organics, sodium silicates, chlorinated cyanuric acid (isocyanurate), and calcium chloride. OxyChem has manufacturing facilities in the United States, Canada and Chile. In a joint venture with Church & Dwight, OxyChem owns Armand Products Company, which sells potassium carbonate and potassium bicarbonate.
Lobbying to do business in LibyaEdit
The company began operations in Libya in 1965 and operated there until economic sanctions were imposed in 1986 by the United States. The company was one of the first American companies to resume negotiations in Libya after the sanctions were lifted in 2004. In 2008, the company, along with 5 other oil companies, was criticized for hiring Hogan Lovells to lobby to exempt Libya from a law written by U.S. Senator Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) to assist American terror victims in seizing assets of countries found culpable in terror attacks, such as the Libyan bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie in 1988. and to remove a provision in the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act that requires disclosure of payments to foreign governments. In early 2011, the company ceased exploration activities and production operations in Libya due to the growing civil unrest in the country and U.S. sanctions. In June 2011, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and United Kingdom prosecutors requested information from the company, ExxonMobil and ConocoPhillips related to the Libyan Investment Authority (LIA), an investment firm controlled by Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, to determine if there were any violations of international bribery laws. The Libyan Investment Authority's investments were frozen by the U.S. government in early 2011 following the Gaddafi regime's attacks on Libyan civilians. In 2016, the company ceased operations in Libya.
In 2017, the company was ranked 55th on the Carbon Majors Report, a list of the Top 100 producers and their cumulative greenhouse gas emissions from 1988-2015.
In 2017, 23% of the company's production was from a method of oil extraction called carbon dioxide (CO2) flood technology, or carbon sequestration for enhanced oil recovery, which is a more environmental-friendly method of oil extraction because it could stall the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by instead injecting it into the ground. The company has stated that this is one way in which it reduces emissions.
Cleanup of the Copper BasinEdit
In 1982, the company acquired land in the Copper Basin in Tennessee, formerly the site of the Burra Burra Mine, where copper and sulfur had been mined in the 1800s. In 2016, Occidental agreed to spend $50 million to clean up the Copper Basin and restore the water quality of its creeks.
Since the 1920's, several companies and the United States Armed Forces used the Love Canal as a chemical disposal site. In 1942, Hooker Chemical Company began disposing chemical waste at the site and, in 1947, it became the sole owner and user of the land. In 1952, the site was filled to capacity and closed off. The company leased the land to the school board in 1953. Later in the 1950s, the local school board requested that the company sell the land, and threatened to use eminent domain. The school board intended to build a school on an unused area of the dump.
A school was built on the site, and later a middle-class residential district was built on land adjacent to the site. The construction broke through the 4-foot (1.2 m) clay seal containing the waste. In 1968, Hooker Chemical was purchased by Occidental. In 1978, residents became concerned about unusual health issues in the region, including high rates of cancer and birth defects. This subsequently became a national news story, and in 1980, president Jimmy Carter declared a federal emergency in the area. Residents were eventually relocated, and the company paid $129 million in restitution.
On Saturday, October 11, 2008, an accidental spill of oleum, a chemical mixture of sulfuric acid, occurred at a facility in Petrolia, Pennsylvania belonging to Indspec, an affiliate of Occidental Chemical Corporation. The accident caused contamination of the ventilation system and a cloud of toxic gas in the sky and forced the evacuation of over 2,000 residents of the area for the day. The spill was determined to be caused by the use of an auxiliary pump power supply that lacked safety interlocks to prevent tank overfilling.
From 1992 to 2001, the company tried to drill for oil in the territory of the U'wa people, in northeast Colombia. The locals resisted, concerned about environmental degradation and fears that development would bring strangers and be a target for guerilla warfare. There also were tribal beliefs that oil is the "blood of the earth" and should not be removed. In 2002, after years of shareholder resolutions, legal battles, protests, and a failed test well, the company abandoned the project. Repsol took over the project.
On December 13, 1998, 17 civilians, including 7 children, were killed when the Colombian Air Force (CAF) dropped a cluster bomb in the hamlet of Santo Domingo, Colombia, after AirScan, Occidental's security contractor, misidentified it as a hostile guerrilla target. Groups such as FARC and the National Liberation Army were active in the area. Three employees of AirScan were flying the Skymaster plane from which they provided the Colombian military with the coordinates to drop the bombs. The operation had been planned by the CAF and AirScan at Occidental's complex in Caño Limón. In April 2003, Luis Alberto Galvis Mujica, a witness and survivor of the accident, sued Occidental. The courts ruled that Occidental was not liable for the incident.
Maynas Carijano v. Occidental PetroleumEdit
On May 10, 2007, a group of 25 Achuar Peruvians, a group of Indigenous peoples, filed suit against the company, demanding environmental remediation and reparations for environmental degradation allegedly caused by the company between 1971 and 2000, when it drilled in Block 1-AB in Peru. The plaintiffs claimed that the company violated technical standards and environmental law when it dumped a total of 9 billion barrels (1.4×109 m3) of toxic oil by-products, such as cadmium, lead, and arsenic, in drainage basins used by the Achuar people to fish, drink, and bathe. This environmental damage was alleged to have caused premature deaths and birth defects. A 2006 study by the Ministry of Health of Peru, found that all but 2 of the 199 people tested had levels of cadmium in their blood above safe levels.
The Achuar were represented by EarthRights International and the law firm Schonbrun DeSimone Seplow Harris & Hoffman LLP.
On March 3, 2010, EarthRights International argued to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit that the case should be litigated in Los Angeles, where the company was headquartered. The court agreed with a trial in the United States, overturning the decision of the lower courts, and, in 2013, the United States Supreme Court refused to hear the company's appeal. In March 2015, the company made a settlement for an undisclosed amount, with the funds to be used for health, education, and nutrition projects in 5 Achuar communities in the Corrientes River basin.
Former CEO Armand Hammer was a long time friend of former U.S. Senator Albert Gore, Sr. and Gore was a member of the board of directors of the company. In 1972, after he lost an election for the United States Senate, Gore became the head of Island Creek Coal Company, an Occidental subsidiary. Much of the company's coal and phosphate production was in Tennessee, the state Gore represented in the Senate, and Gore owned shares in the company. The company liquidated its coal assets in 1993 after Hammer died.
Former Vice President of the United States Al Gore was criticized by environmentalists when he inherited shares in the company after the death of his father in 1998; however, the shares were immediately sold.
In 1998, the U.S. government sold the Elk Hills Oil Field to Occidental for $3.65 billion after an auction process that involved selling the field in segments and offering it to multiple bidders. However, critics cited the Gore family's involvement with the company as evidence of graft.
In 1999, OxyChem achieved Star Status under OSHA's Voluntary Protection Programs as being among the safest work sites in the U.S.
On July 6, 1988, the company's Piper Alpha offshore production platform in the North Sea was destroyed when an out of service gas condensate pump was started with its pressure safety valve removed. The subsequent gas leak, explosion and fire resulted in the deaths of 167 workers in what remains the world's deadliest offshore disaster.
In 1984, billionaire David Murdock owned about 5% of the company and was a member of its board of directors, after the company acquired IBP, Inc., of which Murdock owned 19%. After disagreements between Murdock and then CEO Armand Hammer, the company paid greenmail to buy Murdock's shares at $40.09 each, while the market price was $28.75.
- "Occidental Petroleum Corporation 2018 Form 10-K Annual Report". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
- "Forbes: Occidental Petroleum". Forbes.
- "Fortune: Occidental Petroleum". Fortune.
- "Top 32 Texas Oil & Gas Producers". Railroad Commission of Texas.
- McCormick, Lynde (July 3, 1980). "Deal-maker Armand Hammer Moscow's capitalist comrade". The Christian Science Monitor.
- MILLER, JUDITH (January 30, 1986). "OIL OFFICIALS ARE SAID TO LEAVE LIBYA". The New York Times.
- WALD, MATTHEW L. (June 22, 1994). "Out-of-Court Settlement Reached Over Love Canal". The New York Times.
- "Stock Photo - The remains of the Occidental Petroleum Jetty on Canvey Island in Essex".
- A Preliminary Assessment of the Environmental Impacts from Oil Shale Developments. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1977.
- PARRISH, MICHAEL (September 5, 1991). "Occidental Will Sell Its Stake in Iowa Beef Unit". Los Angeles Times.
- "OCCIDENTAL TO ACQUIRE IOWA BEEF". The New York Times. June 2, 1981.
- "Occidental to invest $80M in Colombia". American City Business Journals. July 16, 2003.
- WOUTAT, DONALD (April 15, 1988). "Oxy Buys Cain Chemical; Deal Valued at $2 Billion". Los Angeles Times.
- HAYES, THOMAS C. (April 18, 1988). "Workers Cheer Cain's Sale, And the $100,000 Windfalls". The New York Times.
- Duff, Steven (June 6, 2008). "Remembering Piper Alpha disaster". BBC News.
- "Armand Hammer to Own Pinch of Arm &". The Washington Post. September 23, 1986.
- PACE, ERIC (December 12, 1990). "Armand Hammer Dies at 92; Industrialist and Philanthropist Forged Soviet Links". The New York Times.
- "Ray Irani Officially Named Oxy Chairman". Los Angeles Times. December 14, 1990.
- "OCCIDENTAL PETROLEUM SHEDS ITS LAST COAL COMPANY". The New York Times. April 16, 1993.
- "Occidental Petroleum Sells State In Oilfields To Congo". The New York Times. Bloomberg News. July 31, 1996.
- "Occidental Petroleum Announces Layoffs". The New York Times. Bloomberg News. February 14, 1996.
- KRAUL, CHRIS (October 7, 1997). "Occidental's $3.7-Billion Bid Buys Elk Hills Field". Los Angeles Times.
- "Occidental not planning to divest assets in Oman, Abu Dhabi and Qatar: Occidental chief". Times of Oman. January 23, 2016.
- "Occidental Agrees to Acquire Vintage Petroleum" (Press release). Business Wire. October 13, 2005.
- Douglass, Elizabeth (October 14, 2005). "Oxy Agrees to Acquire Vintage Petroleum". Los Angeles Times.
- "Ecuador Cancels an Oil Deal With Occidental Petroleum". The New York Times. Reuters. May 17, 2006.
- "Occidental Petroleum takes $306M charge on Ecuador operations". American City Business Journals. July 5, 2006.
- Valenci, Alexandra (January 13, 2016). "Ecuador to pay $980 million to Occidental for asset seizure". Reuters.
- Douglas, Elizabeth (April 7, 2007). "Occidental CEO's 2006 paycheck: $460 million". Los Angeles Times.
- "Occidental Petroleum to invest in Plains All American". American City Business Journals. July 2, 2008.
- Peer, Melinda (September 25, 2008). "Plains Passes Assets To Occidental". Forbes.
- "OxyChem closing Louisville PVC plant". American City Business Journals. February 4, 2009.
- "Occidental Petroleum Announces Acquisition of Phibro" (Press release). Business Wire. October 9, 2009.
- "Occidental buys Phibro from Citigroup". American City Business Journals. October 9, 2009.
- Krishnan, Barani; Leff, Jonathan; Reddall, Braden (February 9, 2012). "Exclusive: Oil legend Andy Hall suffers first loss since 1990s". Reuters.
- Parashar, Manish (January 26, 2016). "Former Wall Street banker buys Phibro from Occidental Petroleum: FT". Reuters.
- Smith, Nick (December 13, 2010). "Occidental buys land for $1.4 billion". Williston Herald.
- Scheyder, Ernest; Stone, Mike (October 15, 2015). "Exclusive: Oxy to exit North Dakota's oil fields in sale to private equity fund". Reuters.
- KAPLAN, THOMAS; NICHOLSON, CHRIS V. (December 10, 2010). "Occidental Adds to Its U.S. Oil Properties". The New York Times.
- Bai, Jim; Master, Farah (December 10, 2010). "China's Sinopec buys Occidental's Argentina assets". Reuters.
- "Occidental wins Abu Dhabi Shah gas project: sources". Reuters. January 19, 2011.
- "UAE's Shah gas project now seen online early 2015-ADNOC". Reuters. January 20, 2014.
- Driver, Anna (August 31, 2010). "Occidental's Irani to retire as CEO in 2011: report". Reuters.
- Li, Shan; White, Ronald D. (May 4, 2013). "Occidental Petroleum Chairman Ray Irani ousted at annual meeting". Los Angeles Times.
- Corkery, Michael (August 3, 2010). "Is Occidental's Irani Worth His Big Pay Check?". The Wall Street Journal.
- Groom, Nichola (May 6, 2011). "Occidental stockholders want say on pay every year". Reuters.
- "Unipar anuncia compra do restante da Carbocloro por R$550 mi". Exame. March 22, 2013.
- Blum, Jordan (February 14, 2014). "Occidental Petroleum splintering and moving its headquarters to Houston". American City Business Journals.
- Li, Shan (February 14, 2014). "Occidental Petroleum to move headquarters to Houston, spin off California assets". Los Angeles Times.
- "Plains All American Pipeline, L.P. Enters into Agreement to Acquire 50% Interest in BridgeTex Pipeline Company from Occidental Petroleum Corporation" (Press release). Business Wire. November 6, 2014.
- Pulsinelli, Olivia (November 6, 2014). "Occidental Petroleum to sell BridgeTex interest to Plains for $1B". American City Business Journals.
- Olabi, Nora (December 1, 2014). "Occidental Petroleum completes California spin-off". American City Business Journals.
- "Occidental Petroleum Announces Regular Quarterly Dividend" (Press release). Business Wire. February 18, 2016.
- Christ, Sal (October 21, 2015). "$500 million oil recovery project wraps up first phase in Hobbs". American City Business Journals.
- Carlisle, Candace (January 29, 2016). "Occidental Tower sells for about $95M to joint venture". American City Business Journals.
- "Occidental Names Hollub First Woman CEO of Big U.S. Oil Firm". Bloomberg L.P. April 29, 2016.
- Brelsford, Robert (March 1, 2017). "OxyChem, Mexichem commission Texas ethylene complex". Oil & Gas Journal.
- Mann, Joshua (June 19, 2017). "Oxy makes two $600M deals to sell, buy Permian assets". American City Business Journals.
- "Occidental to continue funding growth opportunities in Oman". Muscat Daily. April 21, 2014.
- John, Pratap (January 24, 2016). "Oxy to 'stay very diligent' in Qatar and Mideast". Gulf Times.
- Gelsi, Steve (November 26, 2007). "Occidental Petroleum wins major oil deal with Libya". MarketWatch.
- Calabresi, Massimo (June 14, 2011). "Gaddafi's Corporate Quislings". Time.
- Wang, Marian (March 24, 2011). "Oil Companies That Gave 'Bonuses' to Libya Also Lobbied Against Disclosure Rules". ProPublica.
- Ruffel, Benjamin (July 1, 2011). "Internal Report Shows Even Before War, Libya's SWF Was in Chaos". Chief Investment Officer Magazine.
- Vasan, Paula (June 29, 2011). "UK Prosecutors Team Up With SEC to Investigate Bribery Among SWFs". Chief Investment Officer Magazine.
- Riley, Tess (July 10, 2017). "Just 100 companies responsible for 71% of global emissions, study says". The Guardian.
- Gharib, Susie (June 12, 2017). "Occidental Petroleum Wants to Be 'Part of the Solution' on Climate Change". Fortune.
- Cobb, David (May 10, 2016). "Once barren Copper Basin reaches major milestone in restoration effort [photos]". Times Free Press.
- "Department of Justice and EPA Announce $50 Million Settlement to Clean Up Contamination at Eastern Tennessee Superfund Site" (Press release). United States Department of Justice. April 22, 2016.
- "Superfund Site: LOVE CANAL, NIAGARA FALLS, NY". United States Environmental Protection Agency.
- "Occidental to pay $129 Million in Love Canal Settlement" (Press release). United States Department of Justice. December 21, 1995.
- HOPEY, DON (October 13, 2008). "Chemical cloud brings tense hours". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
- "CSB Issues Final Report on Oleum Release from INDSPEC Chemical Corp. that Forced Thousands to Evacuate in October 2008; Report Cites Use of Pump Power Supply that Lacked Safeguards" (Press release). U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board. October 5, 2009.
- Benson, Robert W. (June 20, 1997). "Oil Giant vs. Mother Earth: Bets Are On". Los Angeles Times.
- BROOKS, NANCY RIVERA (April 29, 2000). "Activists Urge Occidental Petroleum Shareholders to Sell Their Stock". Los Angeles Times.
- "Occidental Petroleum Abandons Oil Development on U'wa Land". Environment News Service. May 3, 2002.
- "Occidental Petroleum to Leave U'wa Land! Company Announces Plans to Leave Controversial Colombia Oil Project" (Press release). Amazon Watch. May 3, 2002.
- "Occidental Petroleum Faces Lawsuit for Its Role in Massacre in Colombia Plaintiff Questions CEO at the Company's Annual Meeting" (Press release). Amazon Watch. April 25, 2003.
- REYNOLDS, MATT (November 13, 2014). "Occidental Averts Suit for Colombia Massacre". Courthouse News Service.
- Mujica v. Occidental Petroleum Corp., 564 F.3d 1190, 1192 (9th Cir. 2009 2009).
- Collyns, Dan (March 5, 2015). "Indigenous Peruvians win Amazon pollution payout from US oil giant". The Guardian.
- "Peruvian Indigenous Communities Pleased with Settlement of Pollution Lawsuit Against Occidental Petroleum". EarthRights International. March 5, 2015.
- "Indigenous Achuar Face Off Against Occidental Petroleum in Amazon Pollution Case". EarthRights International. March 8, 2010.
- "Maynas Carijano v. Occidental Petroleum" (PDF). United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. December 6, 2010.
- "Occidental Petroleum: Political Contributions and Lobbying".
- Drinkard, Jim (January 17, 2005). "Donors get good seats, great access this week". USA Today.
- "Financing the inauguration". USA Today. January 16, 2005.
- "Some question inaugural's multi-million price tag". USA Today. Associated Press. January 14, 2005.
- Foran, Clare (February 18, 2015). "Big Oil and Pro-Keystone Groups Gave Millions to Clinton Foundation". The Atlantic.
- Silverstein, Ken (May 22, 2000). "Gore's Oil Money". The Nation.
- Tony, Karon (September 25, 2000). "Gore's Big Oil Connection: An 'Occident' of Birth?". Time.
- Frantz, Douglas (March 19, 2000). "THE 2000 CAMPAIGN: THE VICE PRESIDENT; Gore Family's Ties to Oil Company Magnate Reap Big Rewards, and a Few Problems". The New York Times.
- Kong, Dolores (July 30, 2000). "Campaigner's finances Where the presidential hopefuls have invested their fortunes may reveal something about the character of each". The Boston Globe.
- "Sale of the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve". United States Department of Energy.
- Minter, Steve (February 1, 1999). "OxyChem Profits from Partnership". EHS Today.
- COLE, ROBERT J. (July 20, 1984). "Occidental Buys Back 5% Stake". The New York Times.