Discovery, Inc.(Redirected from Discovery Education)
Discovery Communications headquarters at Silver Spring, Maryland.
|Discovery Communications (1994–2018)|
NASDAQ: DISCA (Class A)|
NASDAQ: DISCB (Class B)
NASDAQ: DISCK (Class C)
S&P 500 Components (DISCA and DISCK)
|Predecessor||Discovery Holding Company|
|Founder||John S. Hendricks|
|Headquarters||Silver Spring, Maryland, United States|
|Revenue||US$6.497 billion (2016)|
Number of employees
The company primarily operates factual television networks, such as its namesake Discovery Channel, Animal Planet, Investigation Discovery, Science Channel, TLC, and other spin-off brands. In March 2018, the company completed its acquisition of Scripps Networks Interactive, which added networks such as Food Network, HGTV, and Travel Channel to its portfolio. The combined company operates five of the ten most-watched U.S. cable channels among women.
Discovery, Inc. also owns or has interests in local versions of its channel brands in international markets, in addition to its other major regional operations such as Eurosport (a pan-European group of sports channels), Discovery Communications Nordic (which operates general-interest channels in Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland), TVN Group in Poland, Lionsgate, an American-Canadian movie studio, UKTV, a British channel group co-owned with BBC Studios, and a portfolio of various free-to-air channels in Italy such as DMAX and Real Time.
In October 1996, Discovery launched several new spin-off networks, including Animal Planet, and the digital cable channels Discovery Kids, Discovery Travel & Living, Discovery Civilization, and Science Channel. This was followed by the 1997 purchase of a 70% stake in Travel Channel, and the 1998 launches of Discovery en Español, Discovery Wings, and Discovery Health Channel. Also in 1998, Discovery acquired a stake in the struggling CBS Eye on People channel; Discovery eventually acquired the remainder of CBS's stake, leading to its January 1999 re-launch as Discovery People. The network quietly folded in 2000, being replaced by other Discovery channels on providers.
On September 1, 2001, Discovery Communications bought The Health Channel, and announced that it would be re-branded as FitTV. In 2002, Discovery re-launched Discovery Civilization as Discovery Times, as part of a joint venture with The New York Times. In June 2002, coinciding with Discovery's 17th anniversary, the company launched a 24/7 high definition channel known as Discovery HD Theater. In March 2007, Discovery sold its stake in Travel Channel back to Cox Communications, in exchange for the stake in Discovery that Cox owned. Cox would later sell the controlling interest in the channel to Scripps Networks Interactive in 2009. In June 2008, Discovery Home was replaced by Planet Green, a network devoted primarily to environmentalism and ecological living.
On January 15, 2008, Discovery announced that it had entered into a joint venture with Oprah Winfrey's Harpo Productions to re-launch Discovery Health as a new service, OWN: The Oprah Winfrey Network, in 2009. In 2008, Discovery Times was re-launched as Investigation Discovery, a new brand that would be dedicated to true crime programs and documentaries. On April 30, 2009, Discovery announced a joint venture with Hasbro to re-launch Discovery Kids as a new youth- and family-oriented entertainment channel. The channel, ultimately named The Hub, launched on October 10, 2010. After multiple delays, OWN officially launched on January 1, 2011.
On March 17, 2009, Discovery Communications sued Amazon.com for patent infringement by its Kindle e-reader line, regarding "secure distribution of electronic text and graphics to subscribers and secure storage". The patents were originally developed by Discovery founder John Hendricks, who had been developing technologies related to e-books and the digitization of television programs. While Discovery had divested the television-related patents, it retained the e-book patents. Amazon subsequently accused Discovery of violating a patent for an "Internet-based customer referral system"; The two parties settled in 2011.
On October 4, 2011, due to the wider implementation of high-definition feeds for mainstream cable channels, HD Theater was re-launched as Velocity, a new "upscale male" network focusing on automotive programming. On May 28, 2012, Planet Green (which had begun to abandon its original concept in 2010 due to poor viewership) was re-launched as Destination America.
In May 2014, Discovery and its shareholder Liberty Media acquired British television studio All3Media for $930 million in a 50/50 joint venture. The new ownership stated that All3Media would be operated as an independent company. In October 2014, Discovery acquired controlling interest in Hub Network from Hasbro and re-branded it as Discovery Family. In November 2014, Curiosity was spun out as a venture-funded startup, receiving $6 million in funding.
In May 2016, Discovery initiated a restructuring plan aiming to save $40 to $60 million by the third quarter of 2016, including a shift in strategy to "maximize" its linear television business whilst plotting larger investments in content, digital media, sports, and international markets. In August 2016, Discovery purchased a minority stake in the Hong Kong-based digital talent and content company VS Media; Discovery intended to have VS distribute Discovery Digital Networks content in China, and to offer their own resources to VS.
In October 2016, Discovery purchased a minority stake in Group Nine Media, a digital media holding company consisting of Thrillist Media Group, NowThis, The Dodo and Discovery’s digital network Seeker—for $100 million. The transaction gave Discovery an option to acquire a majority stake at a later date.
On August 3, 2017, Discovery announced that it would contribute Velocity into a joint venture with the digital, live events, and direct-to-consumer businesses of automotive publisher TEN: The Enthusiast Network. Discovery will hold a majority stake in the venture; it will not include TEN's print brands, but there will be opportunities for cross-promotion. In December 2017, Discovery announced that it would acquire an additional 24.5% stake in OWN that it did not already own, for $70 million. Oprah Winfrey will remain as CEO of OWN, and extended her exclusivity agreement with the network and Discovery through 2025. Harpo Productions retains a "significant minority stake" in the venture.
Acquisition of Scripps Networks InteractiveEdit
On March 1, 2018, it was announced that Scripps Networks' chief programmer Kathleen Finch would be named Discovery Communications' Chief Lifestyle Brands Officer; she will continue to oversee the six former Scripps channels, in addition to Discovery's lifestyle networks such as TLC. It was also announced that Rich Ross, who formerly served as group president of Discovery and Science, had stepped down, and would be replaced by TLC president Nancy Daniels as Chief Brand Officer, Discovery & Factual.
On March 6, 2018, the acquisition was completed; at the same time, the company was renamed Discovery Inc. SNI shareholders own 20% of Discovery's stock. Discovery will retain an operational hub in SNI's home city of Knoxville, but plans to move its corporate headquarters from Silver Spring, Maryland, where it has operated since 2003, to New York City in late 2019.
Prior to September 18, 2008, DCI's ownership consisted of three shareholders:
- Discovery Holding Company
- Advance/Newhouse Communications, which is owned with Advance Publications
- John S. Hendricks, the company's Founder.
On September 17, 2008, Discovery Holding Company completed a restructuring plan. Discovery Holding's Ascent Media business was spun off, and the remaining businesses, Discovery Communications, LLC and Advance/Newhouse Communications, were combined into a new holding company, Discovery Communications, Inc. The new fully public company and trades on the NASDAQ stock market under the symbols DISCA, DISCB, and DISCK. SEC filings are submitted by the Discovery Holding Company.
In May 2014, the company announced a special dividend of shares of the Company's Series C common stock payable to holders of record of the Company's Series A common stock, Series B common stock and Series C common stock as of the close of business on July 28, 2014. As a result of the dividend, each holder of a share of the Company's Series A common stock, Series B common stock or Series C common stock will receive one additional share of the Company's Series C common stock on or about August 6, 2014.
Liberty Global and Discovery Communications paid approximately $195 million for a 3.4% stake in Lionsgate Entertainment in November 2015. Discovery CEO David Zaslav joined the Lionsgate board of directors as part of the acquisition.
DCI operates its businesses in the following groups: U.S. Networks, International, Digital, Discovery Studios, Lifestyle Studios, and Discovery Global Enterprises.
There are 19 channels owned and operated by Discovery Networks U.S.
|Channel||Launch Date||US Households as of Jan. 2016||Notes|
|Discovery Channel||1985||95 million||Flagship network|
|Food Network||1993||95 million||Acquired in Scripps merger in March 2018. Joint venture ownership with Tribune Media|
|HGTV||1994||94 million||Acquired in Scripps merger in March 2018.|
|TLC||1972||93 million||Acquired by Discovery Communications in May 1991, previously known as The Learning Channel.|
|Animal Planet||1996||92 million|
|Travel Channel||1987||89 million||Re-acquired in Scripps merger in March 2018.|
|Investigation Discovery||1996||85 million||Formerly Discovery Times, Discovery Civilization|
|Oprah Winfrey Network||2011||79 million||Joint venture ownership with Harpo Productions, which holds a minority stake after Discovery acquired a controlling stake from Oprah Winfrey|
|Science Channel||1996||72 million||Formerly Discovery Science|
|Discovery Family||1996||67 million||Initially launched as Discovery Kids in 1996, relaunched as The Hub in 2010, renamed Hub Network on 2013 and rebranded as Discovery Family in 2014.|
40% of the network is owned by Hasbro.
|Velocity||2002||66 million||Formerly Discovery HD Theater and HD Theater|
|Cooking Channel||2010||65 million||Formerly Fine Living. Acquired in Scripps merger in March 2018.|
|DIY Network||1999||61 million||Acquired in Scripps merger in March 2018.|
|Great American Country||1995||58 million||Acquired in Scripps merger in March 2018.|
|American Heroes Channel||1998||58 million||Formerly Discovery Wings, Military Channel|
|Destination America||1996||56 million||Formerly Discovery Home and Leisure (1998–2004), Discovery Home (2004–08), and Planet Green (2008–12)|
|Discovery Life||2011||47 million||Merger of Discovery Health Channel and FitTV, previously known as Discovery Fit & Health|
|Discovery en Español||1998||6 million||Spanish-language version of the Discovery Channel|
|Discovery Familia||2007||6 million||Spanish-language version of Discovery Family|
Discovery Networks InternationalEdit
Discovery Networks International has five regional operations spanning Asia-Pacific; Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA); and Latin America/U.S. Hispanic; with regional headquarters in Singapore, Warsaw, Miami, London, Mumbai and Milan.
On December 21, 2012, Discovery announced it had acquired a 20% stake in the pan-European sports broadcaster Eurosport from TF1 Group for €170 million (US$221.6 million). On January 21, 2014, Discovery acquired an additional 51% share to gain controlling interest, and subsequently acquired the remainder for €491 million in July 2015 to receive sole ownership.
In June 2015, Discovery acquired pan-European rights to the Olympic Games from 2018 through 2024, excluding Russia, on all platforms, in a €1.3 billion deal. Discovery will primarily broadcast the Games on local outlets (including Eurosport), but will sub-license coverage to over-the-air broadcasters in each region.
In June 2016, Discovery acquired a 27.5% stake in Bethia Comunicaciones S.A., a division of Chilean conglomerate Bethia that owns Red Televisiva Megavisión S.A., a company which in turn owns both the private television network Mega and a 70% stake in the anime-, Korean drama- and K-pop-focused cable television channel ETC (which is co-owned with its creator, who is businessman and television executive Hernán Schmidt Fuentes). As a result, Bethia now owns 72.5% of the company.
In August 2016, Discovery renewed its distribution deals in 12 countries with shareholder Liberty Global. On January 31, 2017, after nearly facing a carriage dispute, Discovery renewed its distribution deals in Germany and the United Kingdom with Sky plc.
In November 2016, Discovery partnered with the streaming media company BAMTech to create a joint venture to serve Europe. In May 2017, ProSiebenSat.1 Media and Discovery announced a joint venture to create a German over-the-top content service, built upon its existing 7TV service.
In August 2017, Discovery announced that it would acquire the remaining 51.06% of Green Content, the operator of the Polish DTT channel Metro, from Agora SA for PLN19,000,000 under a share buyback agreement.
Through its purchase of SNI, Discovery added the Polish broadcaster TVN Group to its European portfolio, which SNI had acquired in 2015., as well as the UKTV joint venture with BBC Worldwide (later BBC Studios).
|TLC||2010||A Pan-European feed launched in 1994, Re-launched in 2010.|
|Eurosport 1||2014||Launched in 1989, acquired by Discovery, Inc. in 2014. Launched in India as DSport|
|Discovery Jeet||2018||Indian general entertainment channel launched on 2 February 2018.|
|DMAX||2006||Launch: 2006 Germany, 2008 UK & Ireland, 2011 Italy, 2014 Asia|
|Discovery Turbo/Discovery Turbo Xtra||2005|
|Eurosport 2||2014||Launched in 2005, acquired by Discovery, Inc. in 2014.|
|Discovery Home & Health||2000|
|Fine Living||2018||Launched in 2010, acquired by Discovery, Inc. in 2018.|
|Food Network||2018||Launched in 2009, acquired by Discovery, Inc. in 2018.|
|Travel Channel||2018||Launched in 1994, acquired by Discovery, Inc. in 2018.|
2010 hostage crisisEdit
On September 1, 2010, the Discovery headquarters were the site of a hostage taking; a lone gunman identified as James J. Lee, armed with two starter pistols and an explosive device, took three people hostage inside of the Discovery Communications headquarters in Silver Spring, Maryland, prompting an evacuation of the building. Lee's motive was believed to have been grounded in environmental activism. Lee had previously been arrested in 2008 while protesting in front of the same site. The National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) at the University of Maryland has since labeled the crime a terrorist attack.
The incident began at 1:00 p.m. ET, when 43-year-old James Jay Lee entered the building with two starter pistols and fired a single round at the ceiling of the lobby. The Montgomery County Police Department (MCPD) confirmed that Lee had an explosive device and was holding three people hostage in the lobby. The building was placed on lockdown and most of the 1,500 employees were evacuated. Children from a day care center inside were safely removed to a nearby McDonald's restaurant on Colesville Rd. Lee was shot dead by an MCPD SWAT team at 4:48 p.m. ET after the hostages made a run to escape. The remaining hostages were immediately freed. The incident was described by the FBI as the first instance of a would-be suicide bomber taking hostages in the United States.
James Jay Lee (c. 1967 – September 1, 2010) was an environmental protester who, in 2008, was given six months of supervised probation and fined $500 after he was arrested during a protest outside the Discovery Communications headquarters. Lee had published criticisms of the network in an online manifesto at Savetheplanetprotest.com, among which was a demand for the company to cease the broadcasting of television series displaying or encouraging the birth of "parasitic human infants and the false heroics behind those actions". His manifesto also railed against "immigration pollution and anchor baby filth", leading commentators such as Mark Potok of the Southern Poverty Law Center to decry Lee as an "eco-fascist". Lee's opinions were dominated by Malthusian analysis, though he also cited works ranging from Daniel Quinn's novel My Ishmael to former U.S. Vice President Al Gore's documentary An Inconvenient Truth. The Washington Post credited the Twitter community for initially breaking the story.
Discovery Networks InternationalEdit
- Discovery Networks Asia Pacific
- Discovery Networks Benelux
- Discovery Networks CEEMEA
- Discovery Networks EMEA
- Discovery Networks Northern Europe
- "Discovery Communications, Inc. 2013 Annual Report Form (10-K)" (XBRL). United States Securities and Exchange Commission. February 20, 2014.
- Szalai, Georg (March 6, 2018). "Discovery Closes Scripps Acquisition, Creating Non-scripted Content Giant". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
- Schneider, Steve (June 16, 1985). "CABLE TV NOTES; A CHANNEL WITH A DIFFERENCE". The New York Times. Retrieved May 1, 2010.
- "Television: The Russians Are Coming". Time. February 23, 1987.
- "Discovery to Buy a Channel". The New York Times. April 2, 1991.
- Parsons, Patrick (2008). Blue Skies: A History of Cable Television. Temple University Press. Philadelphia. ISBN 1592137067.
- Kirchdoerffer, Ed (April 1, 1999). "Digital Play in the U.S. of A". Realscreen. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- "Discovery seeks 70% interest in Travel Channel Paxson Communications would get $20 million". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Carter, Bill (July 28, 1998). "THE MEDIA BUSINESS; Discovery to Buy 50% Stake In CBS Eye On People Channel". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- "THE MEDIA BUSINESS; CBS Is Selling Stake in Venture". The New York Times. December 31, 1998. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- "Discovery People fades out". Variety. February 28, 2000.
- "Discovery Finds That FitTV Was Best Fit After All". Multichannel News. Archived from the original on December 5, 2004.
- "'Civilization' Seeks Current-Affairs Niche". Multichannel News. November 4, 2002.
- "Discovery to launch 24-hr HDTV channel in June". Broadcaster Magazine. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
- "Update: Discovery Buys Out Cox, Gives Up Travel Channel". Broadcasting & Cable. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- "Scripps Networks Takes Full Control of Travel Channel". Variety. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- "Planet Green Moves Away From Its Eco Theme". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- "Discovery, Winfrey to Team Up On Network". Washington Post. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
- Ahrens, Frank (November 27, 2007). "Discovery Hopes for Payoff on Crime Channel". The Washington Post.
- Flint, Joe (January 14, 2010). "Discovery and Hasbro Name New Kids Channel "The Hub"". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- Schneider, Michael (April 30, 2009). "Hasbro Nabs Discovery Kids Stake". Variety. Retrieved May 1, 2009.
- Owens, Rob (October 10, 2010). "Tuned In: The Hub Network Offers Programs for Younger Children". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved October 10, 2010.
- "A Children's Channel Retools". The New York Times. October 10, 2010. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
- "Oprah costs Discovery a fortune". New York Post. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- "Oprah Winfrey's OWN network lineup will aim to offer 'mindful television'". National Post. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- "Discovery hits Amazon with Kindle patent suit". CNET. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
- "Amazon: Discovery is infringing on our patents, too!". Ars Technica. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
- "Amazon, Discovery End IP Battle Over Kindle, E-Commerce". Law360. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
- Richmond, Ray (July 29, 2011). "TCA: Discovery Sets Launch Date For Velocity, Adds Big Names to 'Curiosity', Preps Science Channel's 'Trek Nation', Introduces 'Weed' Team". Deadline Hollywood.
- D.M. Levine (April 18, 2011). "Discovery Launches Velocity Channel, Aimed at Rich Men". Adweek.
- Lawler, Richard (April 14, 2011). "Discovery HD Theater is becoming Velocity, focuses on programming for 'upscale male audience'". Engadget.
- "Discovery Communications Replaces Planet Green With Destination America". Adweek. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Grant, Rebecca (January 14, 2014). "Discovery unveils Curiosity.com to inspire everyday learning". VentureBeat.
- "Discovery And Liberty Global Agree To $930M Deal For All3Media". Deadline. May 8, 2014. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
- Szalai, Georg (September 25, 2014). "The Hub to Rebrand as Discovery Family Channel as Discovery Takes Control". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 25, 2014.
- Flint, Joe; Hagey, Keach; Ziobro, Paul (September 17, 2014). "Discovery to Take Control of Hub Children's Network". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
- Elahi, Amina. "Chicago-based Curiosity spins off from Discovery, raises $6 million". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
- "Discovery Bows TV Everywhere App". Multichannel News. Retrieved January 8, 2016.
- "Discovery initiates restructuring plan, reports higher Q1 earnings". Realscreen. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
- Ritchie, Kevin. "Discovery reports Q2 profit rise, invests in Chinese MCN". Retrieved August 5, 2016.
- Kalogeropoulos, Demitrios. "Discovery Communications Inc. Tunes In to Higher Profits -- The Motley Fool". Retrieved August 5, 2016.
- "Discovery Takes Stake in Chinese Digital Talent Firm VS Media". Retrieved August 5, 2016.
- "Discovery Is Investing $100 Million in This Digital Media Venture". Fortune. October 13, 2016. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
- Spangler, Todd (October 13, 2016). "Discovery Investing $100 Million to Merge Thrillist, NowThis, The Dodo in New Digital Venture". Variety. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- Evans, Greg (August 3, 2017). "Discovery Communications Partners With TEN Network For Auto Portfolio". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
- Andreeva, Nellie (December 4, 2017). "Discovery Communications Ups Stake In OWN Via $70 Million Harpo Deal, Oprah Winfrey Extends Contract Through 2025". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- Szalai, Georg. "Discovery to Acquire Scripps Networks for $14.6 Billion". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
- Hipes, Patrick (March 1, 2018). "Rich Ross Out At Discovery In Exec Shakeup; Scripps' Kathleen Finch Adds To Oversight". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- Steinberg, Brian (January 9, 2018). "Discovery Communications to Shift Headquarters to New York City". Variety. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- Ahrens, Frank (November 17, 2006). "Discovery Appoints New Chief". The Washington Post.
- "Discovery to combine stakes in Discovery Communications with Advance/Newhouse". Archived from the original on December 31, 2007.
- Information statement: Discovery Holding Company Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
- Inc., Discovery Communications,. "Discovery Communications Announces Special Dividend of Series C Common Stock". www.prnewswire.com. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
- Meg James, Ryan Faughnder (November 10, 2015). "Lionsgate sells 6.8% stake to John Malone's Liberty Global". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- Gerry Smith (June 30, 2016). "Malone May Have Bigger Plans Beyond Lionsgate Purchase of Starz". Bloomberg. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- Michael J. de la Marced (November 10, 2015). "Liberty Global Take Stakes in Lions Gate". The New York Times. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- "Businesses & Brands – Discovery, Inc". corporate.discovery.com. Retrieved 2018-08-28.
- "Cable Network Coverage Area Household Universe Estimates: January 2016". Nielsen. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- Szalai, Georg (September 25, 2014). "The Hub to Rebrand as Discovery Family as Discovery Takes Control". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
- "Businesses & Brands – Discovery, Inc". corporate.discovery.com. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
- "Discovery Communications to Acquire Dubai-based Takhayal Entertainment". The Hollywood Reporter.
- "TF1 & Discovery finalize agreement and move forward to build three-tier strategic alliance across Eurosport, four payTV channels and production". TF1 Group. December 21, 2012. Archived from the original on October 22, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- "Discovery Communications to acquire TF1 Group's Controlling interest in Top Sports platform Eurosport". Discovery Communications. January 21, 2014. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- Garrahan, Matthew (July 22, 2015). "Discovery takes full control of Eurosport in €491m deal with TF1". The Financial Times. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
- "Discovery Lands European Olympic Rights Through '24". Sports Business Journal. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
- "BBC dealt another blow after losing control of TV rights for Olympics". The Guardian. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
- "Olympics coverage to remain on BBC after Discovery deal". The Guardian. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- "Discovery Group acquires 27,5% of Mega".
- "Discovery, Liberty Global Renew Distribution Pact | Broadcasting & Cable". www.broadcastingcable.com. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
- Barraclough, Leo (August 2, 2016). "John Malone's Liberty Global Signs Deals with All3Media, Discovery". Variety. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
- "Discovery, Sky Renew Carriage Agreement". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
- Perez, Sarah. "Discovery teams with MLB's streaming partner on European partnership". TechCrunch. Retrieved November 1, 2016.
- Meza, Ed (May 2, 2017). "ProSiebenSat.1, Discovery to Launch Streaming Platform". Variety. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- "Discovery przejmie od Agory telewizję Metro". satkurier.pl. 21 August 2017.
- "Scripps buys majority stake in TVN". C21media. March 16, 2015. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
- "Scripps Networks Interactive sfinalizował przejęcie TVN". Retrieved July 3, 2015.
- Dickens, Andrew (July 2, 2015). "Scripps completes TVN purchase". C21media. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
- "Discovery Channel attacker convicted of smuggling immigrant in 2003". CNN (International). April 9, 2010. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
- "Background Report: Discovery Communications Building Hostage-Taking" (PDF). University of Maryland. p. 1. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
- "Armed Man With Bomb Takes at Least One Hostage in Discovery Channel Building". Fox. September 1, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- "Suspect in Maryland hostage situation published angry online manifesto". CNN. September 1, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- Morse, Dan (September 3, 2010). "James J. Lee's hostage standoff at Discovery was grueling time for officials". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
- Robbins, Liz; Stelter, Brian (September 1, 2010). "Gunman Takes Hostage in Maryland". The New York Times. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- Morse, Dan (September 1, 2010). "Environmental militant slain at Silver Spring building after taking hostages". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- "Hostages Safe as Police Shoot Maryland Gunman". The New York Times. September 1, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2010.[dead link]
- "New Strategies for Countering Homegrown Violent Extremism: Preventive Community Policing" (PDF). November 13, 2013. p. 2. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
- Theresa Vargas (September 1, 2010). "James J. Lee is suspect in Discovery hostage case, officials say". The Washington Post.
- Mark Potok (September 1, 2010). "Apparent Eco-Terrorist Holding Hostages at TV Building". Hatewatch (blog), Southern Poverty Law Center.
- Leonard, Andrew (September 1, 2010). "How Malthus drove the Discovery Channel gunman crazy". Salon. p. 1. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- "Police kill Discovery building gunman". MSNBC. January 9, 2010. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Paul Farhi (September 1, 2010). "Twitter breaks story on Discovery Channel gunman". The Washington Post.