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Demographics of South Africa

The demographics of South Africa encompasses about 56[1] million people of diverse origins, cultures, languages, and religions. The last census was held in 2011 and the next will be taken anywhere from 2016–2021.

South-africa-demography.svg
Population of South Africa, 1961–2008
Population 55,908,900 (July 2016 est.)[1]
Density 45.78/km2
Growth rate 1.34%[2]
Birth rate 19.61 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Death rate 16.99 deaths/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Life expectancy 61 years (2012 est.)
 • male 59 years (2012 est.)
 • female 63 years (2012 est.)
Fertility rate 2.4 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Infant mortality rate 43.78 deaths/1,000
0–14 years 28.9% (male 7,093,328/female 7,061,579)
15–64 years 65.8% (male 16,275,424/female 15,984,181)
65 and over 5.4% (male 1,075,117/female 1,562,860) (2010 est.)
Total 0.99 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
At birth 1.02 male(s)/female
Under 15 1 male(s)/female
15–64 years 1.02 male(s)/female
65 and over 0.68 male(s)/female
Nationality South African
Official See Languages of South Africa

In 2011, Statistics South Africa counted 2.1 million foreigners in total.[3] However, numerous reports suggest that that is a vast underestimation. The real figure may in fact be as high as five million,[4] including some three million Zimbabweans.[5]

Contents

PopulationEdit

 
Population density in South Africa (darker color = higher density)

Historical populationEdit

Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1 100,000 —    
1000 300,000 +0.11%
1500 600,000 +0.14%
1600 700,000 +0.15%
1700 1,000,000 +0.36%
1820 1,550,000 +0.37%
1870 2,547,000 +1.00%
1904 5,175,463 +2.11%
1911 5,972,757 +2.07%
1913 6,153,000 +1.50%
1921 6,927,403 +1.49%
1936 9,587,863 +2.19%
1946 11,415,925 +1.76%
1950 13,683,162 +4.63%
1955 15,384,557 +2.37%
1960 17,396,367 +2.49%
1970 22,502,502 +2.61%
1980 29,077,143 +2.60%
1990 36,793,490 +2.38%
1995 41,426,810 +2.40%
2001 44,819,777 +1.32%
2007 48,502,063 +1.32%
2011 51,770,560 +1.64%
2015 54,960,000 +1.51%
Note: Population estimates (1 BCE - 1870 BCE) are deduced from quantitative macroeconomic historical calculations. 1 (est.), 1000 (est.), 1500 (est.), 1600 (est.), 1700 (est.), 1820 (est.), 1870 (est.), 1913,[6] 1904[7] 1904-1946,[8][9][10] 1950-2010,[11] 2001, 2011, 2015[12]

U.N. population projections: 2010 to 2050Edit

Year Pop. ±%
2015 54,957,000 —    
2020 57,296,000 +4.3%
2025 59,702,000 +4.2%
2030 61,836,000 +3.6%
2035 63,670,000 +3.0%
2040 65,413,000 +2.7%
2045 67,075,000 +2.5%
2050 68,642,000 +2.3%
Source: United Nations Secretariat[13]

Age and population estimates: 1950 to 2015Edit

According to the 2010 revision of the United Nations Secretariat's World Population Prospects, South Africa's total population was 50,133,000 in 2010, compared to only 13,683,000 in 1950. In 2010, 30.1% of the people were children under the age of 15, 65.2% were between 15 and 64 years of age, and 4.6% were 65 or older.[14] All population estimates are rounded to the nearest thousand.

Year Total population Percentage
under 15
years old
Percentage
15 to 64
years old
Percentage
at least 65
years old
1950 13,683,000 38.6 57.8 3.6
1955 15,385,000 39.9 56.4 3.8
1960 17,396,000 40.9 55.2 3.9
1965 19,814,000 41.9 54.2 3.9
1970 22,502,000 42.1 54.5 3.4
1975 25,699,000 41.9 54.9 3.2
1980 29,077,000 41.5 55.3 3.1
1985 32,983,000 40.5 56.4 3.1
1990 36,794,000 38.9 57.9 3.2
1995 41,402,000 36.0 60.6 3.4
2000 44,760,000 33.7 62.6 3.7
2005 47,793,000 31.7 64.2 4.1
2010 50,133,000 30.1 65.2 4.6
2015 54,490,000 29.2 63.0 7.7

Historical censusesEdit

1904 CensusEdit

South African Population Figures for the 1904 Census. Source:[7]

Colony Cape Colony Natal Transvaal Orange River
Colony
Total Percent
Black  1,424,787 904,041 937,127 225,101 3,491,056 67.5%
White 579,741 97,109 297,277 142,679 1,116,805 21.6%
Coloured 395,034 6,686 24,226 19,282 445,228 8.6%
Indian 10,242 100,918 11,321 253 122,734 2.4%
Total 2,409,804 1,108,754 1,269,951 387,315 5,175,463 100.0%
% of S. Africa 46.6% 21.4% 24.5% 7.5% 100%

1960 CensusEdit

Sources: Statesman's Year-Book 1967–1968;[15] Europa Year Book 1969 [16]

Province Cape of
Good Hope
Natal Transvaal Orange
Free State
Total Percent
Bantu 3,011,080 2,199,920 4,633,378 1,083,886 10,928,264 68.3%
White 1,003,207 340,235 1,468,305 276,745 3,088,492 19.3%
Coloured 1,330,089 45,253 108,007 25,909 1,509,258 9.4%
Indian 18,477 394,854 63,787 7 477,125 3.0%
Total 5,362,853 2,980,262 6,273,477 1,386,547 16,003,139 100.0%
% of S. Africa 33.5% 18.6% 39.2% 8.7% 100.0%

Fertility Rate (The Demographic Health Survey)[17]Edit

Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and CBR (Crude Birth Rate):

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1998 21,90 2,90 (2,3) 19,2 2,25 (1,8) 25,4 3,92 (2,9)
2003 17,5 2,1 (1,6) 18,4 2,1 (1,6) 16,1 2,2 (1,6)

Vital statisticsEdit

Registration of vital events in South Africa has improved considerably during the past decade, but still not considered to be complete for black South Africans. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[14] (Natural increase or decrease over a time period is the difference between that period's live births and deaths, before accounting for inward or outward migration.)

United Nations estimates, 2010

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural Increase per year Crude Birth Rate
(per 1,000 per year)
Crude Death Rate
(per 1,000 per year)
Natural Increase
(per 1,000 per year)
Total Fertility Rate (over av'ge woman's life) Infant Mortality Rate (per 100,000 live births)
1950–1955 629 000 295 000 + 334 000 43.3 20.3 + 23.0 6.50 96
1955–1960 697 000 297 000 + 400 000 42.5 18.1 + 24.4 6.50 91
1960–1965 774 000 310 000 + 464 000 41.6 16.7 + 25.0 6.30 87
1965–1970 808 000 312 000 + 496 000 38.2 14.7 + 23.5 5.70 84
1970–1975 909 000 317 000 + 592 000 37.7 13.1 + 24.6 5.47 77
1975–1980 980 000 319 000 + 661 000 35.8 11.7 + 24.1 5.00 71
1980–1985 1 052 000 307 000 + 745 000 33.9  9.9 + 24.0 4.56 61
1985–1990 1 086 000 299 000 + 787 000 31.1  8.6 + 22.5 4.00 53
1990–1995 1 073 000 332 000 + 742 000 27.5  8.5 + 19.0 3.34 51
1995–2000 1 082 000 450 000 + 632 000 25.1 10.4 + 14.7 2.95 56
2000–2005 1 111 000 645 000 + 466 000 24.0 13.9 + 10.1 2.80 59
2005–2010 1 074 000 746 000 + 328 000 21.9 15.2 +  6.7 2.55 55
2010–2015 21.0 12.5 +  8.5 2.40 55
Total Fertility Rate = average number of children over a woman's lifetime; Infant Mortality Rate per 100,000 live births
Year Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate
(per 1,000)
Crude death rate
(per 1,000)
Natural increase
(per 1,000)
Fertility rates
(per woman)
Average population
2002 1 118 916 608 480 510 436 24,5 13,3 11,2 2,79
2003 1 127 380 643 285 484 095 24,4 13,9 10,5 2,77
2004 1 134 751 671 101 463 650 24,3 14,4 9,9 2,75
2005 1 141 351 682 059 459 292 24,1 14,4 9,7 2,73
2006 1 150 015 625 210 524 805 24,0 13,0 11,0 2,71
2007 1 162 056 564 663 597 393 23,9 11,6 12,3 2,70
2008 1 175 212 542 038 633 174 23,8 11,0 12,8 2,68
2009 1 188 662 528 342 660 320 23,7 10,5 13,2 2,66
2010 1 201 175 535 396 665 779 23,6 10,5 13,1 2,64
2011 1 211 011 556 087 654 924 23,4 10,7 12,7 2,61
2012 1 222 324 555 921 666 403 23,2 10,6 12,6 2,60
2013 1 232 668 539 880 692 788 23,1 10,1 13,0 2,58 52 982 000
2014 1 242 070 516 929 725 141 22,9 9,5 13,4 2,57
2015 1 250 782 531 965 718 817 22,7 9,6 13,1 2,55 54 956 900

Age and sex distributionEdit

South African National Census of 2011

 
Population pyramid, 2011
Age group Male Female percent Female Total percent of S.A.
under 5 2,867,585 49.6% 2,817,867 5,685,452 11.0%
5–9 2,425,181 49.7% 2,394,570 4,819,751 9.3%
10–14 2,344,275 49.0% 2,250,611 4,594,886 8.9%
15–19 2,498,572 50.1% 2,504,905 5,003,477 9.7%
20–24 2,694,646 49.9% 2,679,896 5,374,542 10.4%
25–29 2,542,682 49.7% 2,516,635 5,059,317 9.8%
30–34 2,036,206 49.5% 1,992,804 4,029,010 7.8%
35–39 1,709,347 50.7% 1,758,420 3,467,767 6.7%
40–44 1,402,328 52.4% 1,546,291 2,948,619 5.7%
45–49 1,195,740 54.4% 1,424,543 2,620,283 5.1%
50–54 1,011,349 54.4% 1,206,940 2,218,289 4.3%
55–59 811,950 54.8% 985,458 1,797,408 3.5%
60–64 612,364 55.8% 773,404 1,385,768 2.7%
65–69 401,548 58.1% 556,256 957,804 1.9%
70–74 293,498 60.8% 454,832 748,330 1.4%
75–79 165,283 65.7% 315,984 481,267 0.9%
80–84 100,694 68.8% 222,222 322,916 0.6%
85-plus 75,543 70.5% 180,130 255,673 0.5%
TOTAL 25,188,791 51.3% 26,581,769 51,770,560 100%
Number of children 0–14 Number of women 15–49 Proportion Fertility Rate
15,812,264 13,866,489 1.14 2.35
Age group Population Male Female Percent
0–14 15,812,268 7,969,880 7,842,388 31.26
15–64 32,235,534 15,538,934 16,696,600 63.72
65+ 2,538,955 1,006,222 1,532,733 5.02

Age and race distributionEdit

South African National Census of 2011

Age distribution within each racial groupEdit

By generationEdit
Age group All races % of All Black African % of Blacks Coloured % of Col'd White % of Whites Indian or other Asian % of Asians Others % of others
0–14 15,100,089 29.2% 12,702,324 31.0% 1,311,811 28.4% 771,187 16.8% 258,602 20.1% 56,164 20.0%
15–64 33,904,479 65.5% 26,502,329 64.6% 3,085,684 66.9% 3,165,965 68.9% 939,379 73.0% 211,126 75.3%
65-plus 2,765,992 5.3% 1,796,285 4.4% 217,906 4.7% 649,686 14.2% 88,949 6.9% 13,164 4.7%
All ages 51,770,560 100% 41,000,938 (100%) 4,615,401 (100%) 4,586,838 (100%) 1,286,930 (100%) 280,454 (100%)
% of SA 100% 79.20% 8.92% 8.86% 2.49% 0.54%


By five-year cohortsEdit

Racial composition of each age group in 2015 (estimates)Edit

Age group All races % of All Black African % of Blacks Coloured % of Col'd White % of Whites Indian or other Asian % of Asians
0–14 16,612,043 30.23% 14,244,663 32.21% 1,288,601 26.66% 789,492 17.41% 289,285 21.24%
15–64 35,465,499 64.53% 28,170,797 63.69% 3,299,771 68.28% 3,026,475 66.75% 968,649 71.12%
65-plus 2,879,378 5.24% 1,812,535 4.10% 244,544 5.06% 718,041 15.84% 104.068 7.64%
All ages 54,956,920 100% 44,227,995 (100%) 4,832,916 (100%) 4,534,008 (100%) 1,362,002 (100%)
% of SA 100% 80.48% 8.79% 8.25% 2.48%
Age group All races % of All Black African % of Blacks Coloured % of Col'd White % of Whites Indian or Asian % of Asians
under 5 5,936,350 10.80% 5,156,508 11.66% 426,156 8.82% 254,978 5.62% 98,708 7.25%
5 to 9 5,537,225 10.08% 4,746,115 10.73% 430,666 8.91% 263,378 5.81% 97,065 7.13%
10 to 14 5,138,468 9.35% 4,342,040 9.82% 431,779 8.93% 271,136 5.98% 93,512 6.87%
15 to 19 5,124,373 9.32% 4,292,220 9.70% 437,412 9.05% 295,733 6.52% 99,007 7.27%
20 to 24 5,302,246 9.65% 4,461,515 10.09% 426,013 8.81% 306,415 6.76% 108,304 7.95%
25 to 29 5,232,254 9.52% 4,437,570 10.03% 389,429 8.06% 287,485 6.34% 117,771 8.65%
30 to 34 4,307,693 7.84% 3,535,173 7.99% 366,955 7.59% 281,358 6.21% 124,206 9.12%
35 to 39 3,774,921 6.87% 3,001,989 6.79% 376,488 7.79% 279,439 6.16% 117,005 8.59%
40 to 44 3,204,952 5.83% 2,444,972 5.53% 368,886 7.63% 288,370 6.36% 102,725 7.54%
45 to 49 2,738,580 4.98% 2,004,009 4.53% 307,363 6.36% 335,434 7.40% 91,774 6.74%
50 to 54 2,297,586 4.18% 1,619,249 3.66% 264,593 5.47% 332,977 7.34% 80,767 5.93%
55 to 59 1,942,942 3.54% 1,334,800 3.02% 209,933 4.34% 328,999 7.26% 69,210 5.08%
60 to 64 1,539,953 2.80% 1,039,301 2.35% 152,698 3.16% 290,075 6.40% 57,879 4.25%
65 to 69 1,153,159 2.10% 737,581 1.67% 105,403 2.18% 265,818 5.86% 44,357 3.26%
70 to 74 805,114 1.46% 511,723 1.16% 65,465 1.35% 198,876 4.39% 28,949 2.13
75 to 79 502,005 0.91% 313,800 0.71% 41,978 0.87% 128,675 2.84% 17,552 1.29%
80-plus 419,100 0.76% 249,431 0.56% 31,698 0.66% 124,672 2.75% 13,210 0.97%
All ages 54,956,920 100% 44,227,995 (100%) 4,832,916 (100%) 4,534,008 (100%) 1,362,002 (100%)
% of SA 100% 80.48% 8.79% 8.25% 2.48%
Age group All races Black African % of age grp Coloured % of age grp White % of age grp Indian or Asian % of age grp
under 5 5,936,350 5,156,508 86.86% 426,156 7.18% 254,978 4.30% 98,708 1.66%
5 to 9 5,537,225 4,746,115 85.71% 430,666 7.78% 263,378 4.76% 97,065 1.75%
10 to 14 5,138,468 4,342,040 84.50% 431,779 8.40% 271,136 5.28% 93,512 1.82%
15 to 19 5,124,373 4,292,220 83.76% 437,412 8.54% 295,733 5.77% 99,007 1.93%
20 to 24 5,302,246 4,461,515 84.14% 426,013 8.03% 306,415 5.78% 108,304 2.04%
25 to 29 5,232,254 4,437,570 84.81% 389,429 7.44% 287,485 5.49% 117,771 2.25%
30 to 34 4,307,693 3,535,173 82.07% 366,955 8.52% 281,358 6.53% 124,206 2.88%
35 to 39 3,774,921 3,001,989 79.52% 376,488 9.97% 279,439 7.40% 117,005 3.10%
40 to 44 3,204,952 2,444,972 76.29% 368,886 11.51% 288,370 9.00% 102,725 3.21%
45 to 49 2,738,580 2,004,009 73.18% 307,363 11.22% 335,434 12.25% 91,774 3.35%
50 to 54 2,297,586 1,619,249 70.48% 264,593 11.52% 332,977 14.49% 80,767 3.52%
55 to 59 1,942,942 1,334,800 68.70% 209,933 10.80% 328,999 16.93% 69,210 3.56%
60 to 64 1,539,953 1,039,301 67.49% 152,698 9.92% 290,075 18.84% 57,879 3.76%
65 to 69 1,153,159 737,581 63.96% 105,403 9.14% 265,818 23.05% 44,357 3.85%
70 to 74 805,114 511,723 63.56% 65,465 8.13% 198,876 24.70% 28,949 3.60%
75 to 79 502,005 313,800 62.51% 41,978 8.36% 128,675 25.63% 17,552 3.50%
80-plus 419,100 249,431 59.52% 31,698 7.56% 124,672 29.75% 13,210 3.15%
All ages 54,956,920 44,227,995 4,832,916 4,534,008 1,362,002
% of SA 80.48% 8.79% 8.25% 2.48%

Ethnic groupsEdit

 
Annual per capita personal income by race group in South Africa relative to white levels.
 
Dominant population groups in South Africa.
  Black African
  Coloured
  Indian or other Asian
  White
  None dominant

Statistics South Africa asks people to describe themselves in the census in terms of five racial population groups.[18] The 2011 census figures for these groups were Black African at 80.2%, White at 8.4%, Coloured at 8.8%, Indian /Asian at 2.5%, and Other/Unspecified at 0.5%.[19]

The white population has experienced a sharp decline over time, due to Emigration and much lower fertility rates. The first census in South Africa in 1911 showed that whites made up 22% of the population; it declined to 16% in 1980,[20] and 8.9% in 2011.[21]:21

 

Ethnic groups South-Africa (1911)

  Black African (67%)
  White (21%)
  Coloured (9%)
  Indian (3%)
 

Ethnic groups South-Africa (2004)

  Black African (79%)
  White (10%)
  Coloured (9%)
  Indian (2%)

LanguagesEdit

South Africa has eleven official languages:[22] IsiZulu[19] 22.7%, IsiXhosa[19] 16%, Afrikaans[19] 13.5%, English language [19] 9.6%, Sepedi [19] 9.1%, Setswana[19] 8%, Sesotho[19] 7.6%, Xitsonga[19] 4.5%, siSwati[19] 2.5%, Tshivenda[19] 2.4% and isiNdebele[19] 2.1%.

In this regard it is third only to Bolivia and India in number. While all the languages are formally equal, some languages are spoken more than others. According to the 2011 census, the three most spoken first languages are Zulu (22.7%), Xhosa (16.0%), and Afrikaans (13.5%).[21]:23–25 Despite the fact that English is recognised as the language of commerce and science, it ranked fourth, and was spoken by only 9.6% of South Africans as a first language in 2011.[21]:23–25

The country also recognises several unofficial languages, including Fanagalo, Khoe, Lobedu, Nama, Northern Ndebele, Phuthi, San and South African Sign Language.[23] These unofficial languages may be used in certain official uses in limited areas where it has been determined that these languages are prevalent. Nevertheless, their populations are not such that they require nationwide recognition.

Many of the "unofficial languages" of the San and Khoikhoi people contain regional dialects stretching northwards into Namibia and Botswana, and elsewhere. These people, who are a physically distinct population from other Africans, have their own cultural identity based on their hunter-gatherer societies. They have been marginalised to a great extent, and many of their languages are in danger of becoming extinct.

Many white South Africans also speak other European languages, such as Portuguese (also spoken by black Angolans and Mozambicans), German, and Greek, while some Indians and other Asians in South Africa speak South Asian languages, such as Tamil, Hindi, Gujarati, Urdu and Telugu. Although many South Africans are of Huguenot (French) origin, South African French is spoken by fewer than 10,000 individuals country-wide. Congolese French is also spoken in South Africa by migrants.

The primary sign language of Deaf South Africans is South African Sign Language. Other sign languages among indigenous peoples are also used.

By ethnicityEdit

In 2011, the first language was Zulu for 28.1% of Black residents, Xhosa for 19.8%, Northern Sotho for 11.2%, Tswana for 9.7%, Sesotho for 9.3%, Tsonga for 5.5%, Swati for 3.1%, Venda for 2.9%, English for 2.8%, Southern Ndebele for 2.6%, Afrikaans for 1.5%, while 3.4% had another first language.[24]

Among whites, Afrikaans was the first language for 59.1% of the population, compared to 35.0% for English. Other languages accounted for the remaining 5.9%.[24]

ReligionEdit

According to the 2001 national census, Christians accounted for 79.7% of the population. This includes Protestant (36.6%), Zionist Christian (11.1%), Pentecostal/Charismatic) (8.2%), Roman Catholic (7.1%), Methodist (6.8%), Dutch Reformed (6.7%), Anglican (3.8%); members of other Christian churches accounted for another 36% of the population. Muslims accounted for 1.5% of the population, Other 2.3%, and 1.4% were Unspecified and None 15.1%.[19]

African Indigenous Churches made up the largest of the Christian groups. Some believe that many people claiming no affiliation with any organised religion adhered to traditional indigenous religions. Many people have syncretic religious practices combining Christian and indigenous influences.[25]

Muslims are largely found among the Coloured and Indian ethnic groups. They have been joined by black or white South African converts as well as immigrants from other parts of Africa.[26] South African Muslims claim that their faith is the fastest-growing religion of conversion in the country, with the number of black Muslims growing sixfold, from 12 000 in 1991 to 74 700 in 2004[26][27]

The Hindu population has its roots in the British colonial period, but later waves of immigration from India have also contributed to it. Most Hindus are of South Asian origin, but there are many who come from mixed racial stock. Some are converts due to the efforts of Hindu missionaries such as ISKCON.

Other minority religions in South Africa are Sikhism, Jainism and Bahá'í Faith.[28]

By ethnicityEdit

87.9% of Black residents are Christian, 9.5% have no religion, 0.2% are Muslim, 0.0% are Jewish, 0.0% are Hindu and 2.3% have other or undetermined beliefs.

71.8% of White residents are Christian, 23.8% have no religion, 0.2% are Muslim, 1.4% are Jewish, and 0.0% are Hindu. 2.7% have other or undetermined beliefs.

ImmigrationEdit

South Africa hosts a sizeable refugee and asylum seeker population. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, this population numbered approximately 144,700 in 2007.[29] Groups of refugees and asylum seekers numbering over 10,000 included people from Zimbabwe (48,400), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (24,800), and Somalia (12,900).[29] These populations mainly lived in Johannesburg, Pretoria, Durban, Cape Town, and Port Elizabeth.[29] Many refugees have now also started to work and live in rural areas in provinces such as Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal.

Statistics SA assumes in some of their calculations that there are less than 2 million immigrants in South Africa.[30] Other institutions, like the police and Médecins Sans Frontières place estimate the figure at 4 million.[31][32][33][34][35]

Immigration figuresEdit

Immigration assumptions by Statistics South Africa to South Africa based on race. Negative numbers represent net migration from South Africa to other countries.[36]

Year African Asian White
1985-2000 1 135 275 14 476 -304 112
2001-2005 769 038 23 335 -133 782
2006-2010 922 885 34 688 -112 046
2011-2015 1 067 936 40 929 -95 158

Largest municipalitiesEdit

Graphs and mapsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Mid-year population estimates, 2016" (PDF). Statistics South Africa. 
  2. ^ "Mid-year population estimates, 2013" (PDF). Statistics South Africa. 
  3. ^ "Table 3.5, Statistical release (Revised) P0301.4, Census 2011" (PDF). Statssa.gov.za. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  4. ^ "Nowhere left to go". Economist.com. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2017 – via The Economist. 
  5. ^ "Escape From Mugabe: Zimbabwe's Exodus". Archived from the original on 24 January 2016. 
  6. ^ Angus Maddison (2010). "Statistics on World Population, GDP and Per Capita GDP, 1-2008 AD". University of Groningen. Retrieved 1 March 2016. 
  7. ^ a b Smuts I: The Sanguine Years 1870–1919, W.K. Hancock, Cambridge University Press, 1962, pg 219
  8. ^ The Statesman's Year-Book 1977–1978 (ed. John Paxton), St. Martin's Press, New York (& Macmillan, London), 1977, page 1296
  9. ^ "City of Cape Town / Isixeko Sasekapa, Stad Kaapstad: Metropolitan Municipality & Main Places – Statistics & Maps on City Population". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2017-08-29. 
  10. ^ "South Africa: Provinces and Major Urban Areas - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 29 August 2017. 
  11. ^ Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (2015). "Total Population - Both Sexes (XLS, 3.74 MB) - 2015 revision". United Nations. Retrieved 1 March 2016. 
  12. ^ a b "Mid-year population estimates" (PDF). Statistics South Africa. 23 July 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2016. 
  13. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision". UN. Retrieved 28 July 2014. 
  14. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived 6 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ The Statesman's Year-Book, 1967–1968 (104th annual edition), edited by S.H. Steinberg, Macmillan, London; St. Martin's Press, New York, 1967, pages 1405–1424
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  31. ^ So where are Zimbabweans going?, BBC News. 8 November 2005.
  32. ^ SA population may be much larger than previously thought Beeld 1 June 2009.
  33. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 September 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2016. 
  34. ^ South African Police Service 2009 Annual Report Archived 25 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. page 9 indicating the number exceeds 3 million
  35. ^ [1][dead link]
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  37. ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839
  38. ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839
  39. ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839
  40. ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839
  41. ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839
  42. ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839
  43. ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839
  44. ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839
  45. ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839
  46. ^ http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3839

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit