Demographics of Jordan

Jordan has a population of approximately 9,531,712 inhabitants (Female: 47%; Males: 53%) as of 2015. Jordanians (Arabic: أردنيون‎) are the citizens of Jordan, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry. Some 98% percent of Jordanians are Arabs, while the remaining 2% are other ethnic minorities.[1] Around 2.9 million were non-citizens, a figure including refugees, legal and illegal immigrants.[2] Jordan's annual population growth rate stood at 2.05% in 2017, with an average of three children per woman. There were 1,977,534 households in Jordan in 2015, with an average of 4.8 persons per household.[2]

Demographics of Jordan
Population of Jordan since 1952.svg
Population of Jordan (1952 - 2008)
Population2015 census: 9,531,712 (92nd)
2019 estimate: 10,392,309 (86th)
Density116/km2 (300/sq mi) (70th)
Growth rate2.05% (2017 est.)
Birth rate23.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate3.4 deaths/1,000 population
Life expectancy74.8 years (2017 est.)
 • male73.4 years
 • female76.3 years
Fertility rate2.7 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years34.68%
15–64 years61.87%
65 and over3.45%
Sex ratio
Total1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
At birth1.06 male(s)/female
Under 151.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years1.00 male(s)/female
65 and over0.89 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalityJordanians
Major ethnicArab
Minor ethnicArmenians, Chechens, Circassians
Language
OfficialArabic
SpokenArabic, English

The official language is Arabic, while English is the second most widely spoken language by Jordanians. It is also widely used in commerce and government. In 2016, about 84% of Jordan's population live in urban towns and cities.[1] Many Jordanians and people of Jordanian descent live across the world, mainly in the United States, United Arab Emirates, Canada, France, Sweden and Spain.

In 2016, Jordan was named as the largest refugee hosting country per capita in the world, followed by Turkey, Pakistan and Lebanon.[3] The kingdom of Jordan hosts refugees mainly from Palestine, Syria, Iraq and many other countries. There are also hundreds of thousands of workers from Egypt, Indonesia and South Asia, who work as domestic and construction workers.

DefinitionEdit

The territory of Jordan can be defined by the history of its creation after the end of World War I, the League of Nations and redrawing of the borders of the Eastern Mediterranean littoral. The ensuing decisions, most notably the Sykes–Picot Agreement, which created the Mandatory Palestine. In September 1922, Transjordan was formally identified as a subdivision of the Mandate Palestine after the League of Nations approved the British Transjordan memorandum which stated that the Mandate east of the Jordan River would be excluded from all the provisions dealing with Jewish settlement west of the Jordan River.[4]

Ethnic and religious groupsEdit

Ethnic groups in Jordan[5]
Ethnic groups
Arabs
98%
Circassian, Chechens
1%
Armenian
1%

ArabEdit

Arab Jordanians are either descended from families and clans who were living in the cities and towns in Transjordan prior to the 1948 war, most notably in the governorates of Jerash, Ajlun, Balqa, Irbid, Madaba, Al Karak, Aqaba, Amman and some other towns in the country, or from the Palestinian families who sought refuge in Jordan in different times in the 20th century, mostly during and after the wars of 1948 and 1967. Many Christians are natives especially in towns such as Fuhies, Madaba, Al Karak, Ajlun, or have Bedouin origins, and a significant number came in 1948 and 1967 mainly from Jerusalem, Jaffa, Lydda, Bethlehem, and other Palestinian cities. Along to some other Arab ethnicities, mostly from Syria and Iraq.

DruzeEdit

The Druze people are believed to constitute about 0.5% of the total population of Jordan, which is around 32,000.[6] The Druze, who refer to themselves as al-Muwahhideen, or "believers in one God," are concentrated in the rural, mountainous areas west and north of Amman. Even though the faith originally developed out of Ismaili Islam, Druze do not identify as Muslims,[7][8][9][10][11] and they do not accept the five pillars of Islam.[12]

Bedouins arabsEdit

The other group of Jordanians is descended from Bedouins (of which, less than 1% live a nomadic lifestyle). Bedouin settlements are concentrated in the wasteland south and east of the country.

ArmeniansEdit

There were an estimated 5,000 Armenians living within the country in 2009.[13] An estimated 4,500 of these are members of the Armenian Apostolic Church,[13] and predominantly speak the Western dialect[14] of the Armenian language. This population makes up the majority of non-Arab Christians in the country.[15]

AssyriansEdit

There is an Assyrian refugee population in Jordan. Many Assyrians have arrived in Jordan as refugees since the invasion of Iraq, making up a large part of the Iraqi refugees.

CircassiansEdit

By the end of the 19th century, the Ottoman Authorities directed the Circassian immigrants to settle in Jordan. The Circassians are Sunni Muslims and are estimated to number 20,000 to 80,000 people.

ChechensEdit

There are about 10,000 Chechens estimated to reside in Jordan.

RefugeesEdit

Jordan is a home to 2,175,491 registered Palestine refugees.[16] Out of those 2,175,491 refugees, 634,182 have not been given Jordanian citizenship.[17] Jordan also hosts around 1.4 million Syrian refugees who fled to the country due to the Syrian Civil War since 2011. About 31,163 Yemenis and 22,700 Libyan refugees live in Jordan as of January 2015.[2] There are thousands of Lebanese refugees who came to Jordan when civil strife and war and the 2006 war broke out in their native country. Up to 1 million Iraqis came to Jordan following the Iraq War in 2003.[18] In 2015, their number was 130,911. About 2,500 Iraqi Mandaean refugees have been resettled in Jordan.

ReligionEdit

Marsa Zayed mosque in Aqaba.
An eastern Orthodox church during a snowstorm in Amman.
Religions of Jordan (2010 ) [5]
Religions percent
Islam
95%
Christian
4%
Buddhist
0.4%
Hindu
0.1%
Folk religionist
0.1%
Unaffiliated
0.2%
Other
0.2%

Health and educationEdit

Jordan prides itself on its health services, some of the best in the region.[19] Qualified medics, favourable investment climate and Jordan's stability have contributed to the success of this sector.[20]

Jordan has a very advanced education system. The school education system comprises 2 years of pre-school education, 10 years of compulsory basic education, and two years of secondary academic or vocational education, after which the students sit for the General Certificate of Secondary Education Exam (Tawjihi).[21] Scholars may attend either private or public schools.

Access to higher education is open to holders of the General Secondary Education Certificate, who can then choose between private Community Colleges, public Community Colleges or universities (public and private). The credit-hour system, which entitles students to select courses according to a study plan, is implemented at universities. The number of public universities has reached (10), besides (17) universities that are private, and (51) community colleges. Numbers of universities accompanied by significant increase in number of students enrolled to study in these universities, where the number of enrolled students in both public and private universities is estimated at nearly (236) thousand; (28) thousand out of the total are from Arab or foreign nationalities.[22]

Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 46.5 1985–1990 69.2
1955–1960 50.7 1990–1995 70.4
1960–1965 54.6 1995–2000 71.3
1965–1970 58.4 2000–2005 72.2
1970–1975 61.9 2005–2010 73.0
1975–1980 64.9 2010–2015 73.8
1980–1985 67.2

Source: UN World Population Prospects[23]

StatisticsEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1952586,200—    
1961900,800+53.7%
19701,508,200+67.4%
19802,233,200+48.1%
19903,468,000+55.3%
20004,857,000+40.1%
20106,698,000+37.9%
201710,053,000+50.1%
Source:[24][25]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Total populationEdit

10,086,876 (According to the Population Clock as of February 14, 2018).[26]

Gender ratioEdit

  • at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  • 0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  • 15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  • 25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
  • 55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  • 65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
  • total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Age structureEdit

  • 0-14 years: 34.68% (male 1,827,554/female 1,726,691)
  • 15-24 years: 20.07% (male 1,103,042/female 953,704)
  • 25-54 years: 37.36% (male 2,073,211/female 1,755,290)
  • 55-64 years: 4.44% (male 236,435/female 218,469)
  • 65 years and over: 3.45% (male 174,470/female 179,203) (2017 est.)

Structure of the population [27]

Structure of the population (01.10.2004) (Census)

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 2 626 287 2 477 352 5 103 639 100
0-4 333 216 317 115 650 331 12,74
5-9 329 133 313 738 642 871 12,60
10-14 313 083 297 046 610 129 11,95
15-19 287 693 272 145 559 838 10,97
20-24 279 600 260 593 540 193 10,58
25-29 239 774 216 487 456 261 8,94
30-34 207 178 191 991 399 169 7,82
35-39 167 737 155 689 323 426 6,34
40-44 123 945 117 455 241 400 4,73
45-49 87 098 83 358 170 456 3,34
50-54 64 607 63 633 128 240 2,51
55-59 55 765 57 956 113 721 2,23
60-64 52 084 46 703 98 787 1,94
65-69 37 095 34 728 71 823 1,41
70-74 23 467 23 353 46 820 0,92
75-79 12 651 11 617 24 268 0,48
80+ 10 137 11 923 22 060 0,43
80-84 6 144 7 441 13 585 0,27
85-89 2 444 2 588 5 032 0,10
90-94 1 012 1 304 2 316 0,05
95-99 537 590 1 127 0,02
unknown 2 024 1 822 3 846 0,08
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 975 432 927 899 1 903 331 37,29
15-64 1 565 481 1 466 010 3 031 491 59,40
65+ 83 350 81 621 164 971 3,23

Structure of the population (31.12.2013) (Estimates) (Excluding foreigners, including registered Palestinian): refugees. :

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 3 366 000 3 174 000 6 530 000 100
0-4 427 485 405 300 832 785 12,75
5-9 422 095 400 880 822 975 12,60
10-14 401 900 379 680 781 580 11,97
15-19 368 915 347 720 716 635 10,97
20-24 358 485 333 170 691 655 10,59
25-29 307 650 276 855 584 505 8,95
30-34 265 915 245 520 511 435 7,83
35-39 215 425 199 015 414 440 6,35
40-44 158 875 149 975 308 850 4,73
45-49 111 750 106 630 218 380 3,34
50-54 82 805 81 320 164 125 2,51
55-59 71 360 74 040 145 400 2,23
60-64 66 645 59 800 126 445 1,94
65-69 47 485 44 280 91 765 1,41
70-74 30 040 29 785 59 825 0,92
75-79 16 195 14 815 31 010 0,48
80-84 7 865 9 495 17 360 0,27
85-89 3 130 3 300 6 430 0,10
90-94 1 295 1 665 2 960 0,05
95+ 685 755 1 440 0,02
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 1 251 480 1 185 860 2 437 340 37,33
15-64 2 007 825 1 874 045 3 881 870 59,45
65+ 106 695 104 095 210 790 3,23

Median ageEdit

  • total: 22.5 years
  • male: 22.9 years
  • female: 22 years (2017 est.)

Population growth rateEdit

2.05% (2017 est.)

Birth rateEdit

23.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Births and deaths[28][29]

Average population


Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate (TFR)
1951 51,518
1952 586,200 46,146
1953 49,228
1954 53,170
1955 58,037
1956 55,374
1957 60,582
1958 69,594
1959 63,643
1960 78,520
1961 900,800 70,775
1962 86,397
1963 84,544
1964 86,327
1965 91,857
1966 94,299
1967 70,956
1968 69,483
1969 73,443
1970 1,508,200 76,828
1971 77,758
1972 80,327
1973 81,302
1974 81,490
1975 81,659
1976 84,380
1977 79,882
1978 84,195
1979 2,133,000 91,622
1980 2,233,000
1981 2,319,000 95,628
1982 2,409,000 97,794
1983 2,502,000 98,398
1984 2,599,000 102,521
1985 2,700,000 102,712
1986 2,805,000 112,451
1987 2,914,000 107,519
1988 3,027,000 116,346
1989 3,144,000 115,742
1990 3,468,000 116,520
1991 3,701,000 150,177
1992 3,844,000 155,684
1993 3,993,000 149,493
1994 4,139,400 140,444
1995 4,264,000 141,319
1996 4,383,000 142,404
1997 4,506,000 130,633 4.4
1998 4,623,000 133,714
1999 4,738,000 135,266
2000 4,857,000 126,016 13,339 112,677
2001 4,918,000 142,956 16,164 126,792 29.1 3.3 25.8
2002 5,038,000 146,077 17,220 128,857 29.0 3.4 25.6
2003 5,164,000 148,294 16,937 131,357 28.7 3.3 25.4
2004 5,414,000 150,248 17,011 133,237 27.8 3.1 24.6
2005 5,678,000 152,276 17,883 134,393 26.8 3.1 23.7
2006 5,843,000 162,972 20,397 142,575 27.9 3.5 24.4
2007 6,017,000 185,011 20,924 164,087 30.7 3.5 27.3 3.6
2008 6,200,000 181,328 19,403 161,925 29.2 3.1 26.1 3.6
2009 6,392,000 179,872 20,251 159,621 28.1 3.2 25.0 3.8
2010 6,594,000 183,948 21,550 162,398 27.9 3.3 24.6 3.8
2011 6,846,000 178,435 21,730 156,705 26.1 3.2 22.9 3.8
2012 7,210,000 177,695 22,785 154,910 24.6 3.2 21.5 3.5
2013 7,771,000 178,143 23,898 154,245 22.9 3.1 19.9 3.5
2014 8,459,000 188,902 25,782 163,120 22.3 3.0 19.3 3.5
2015 9,182,000 198,018 26,640 171,378 21.6 2.9 18.7 3.38
2016 9,798,000 197,789 27,608 170,181 20.4 2.9 17.6 3.38
2017 10,053,000 211,441 27,516 183,925 21.0 2.7 18.3 2.7
2018 10,309,000 207,917 27,753 180,164 20.2 2.7 17.5 2.7
2019 10,554,000 197,287 29,836 167,451 20.6 6.0 14.6 2.7

Death rateEdit

3.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Net migration rateEdit

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)

UrbanizationEdit

urban population: 84.1% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.26% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Maternal mortality rateEdit

58 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birthEdit

  • total population: 80.18 years
  • male: 78.82 years
  • female: 81.61 years (2012 est.)
  • total population: 74.8 years
  • male: 73.4 years
  • female: 76.3 years (2017 est.)

Total fertility rateEdit

3.19 children born/woman (2017 est.)

Fertility Rate (The Demographic Health Survey) [30] Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and CBR (Crude Birth Rate):

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1976 7.4
1983 6.6
1990 36.1 5.57 (3.94) 33.9 4.75 (3.36) 39.0 6.85 (4.76)
1997 33.1 4.35 (2.9) 32.5 4.22 (2.9) 35.5 5.00 (3.1)
2002 29.0 3.7 (2.6) 28.4 3.5 (2.5) 31.3 4.2 (2.8)
2007 28.1 3.6 (2.8) 28.1 3.6 (2.8) 28.2 3.7 (2.8)
2009 30.6 3.8 (3.0) 30.6 3.8 (2.9) 30.7 4.0 (3.1)
2012 27.2 3.5 (2.4) 26.7 3.4 (2.4) 29.8 3.9 (2.7)
2017-18 21.6 2.7 (2.2) 21.3 2.7 (2.1) 23.7 3.1 (2.4)

Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) by nationality

Year Jordanian Syrian Other nationality
2017-2018 2.6 (2.1) 4.7 (3.7) 1.9 (1.7)

Health expendituresEdit

7.5% of GDP (2014)

Physicians densityEdit

2.65 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital bed densityEdit

1.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Obesity - adult prevalence rateEdit

35.5% (2016)

Children under the age of 5 years underweightEdit

3% (2012)

Literacy rateEdit

15–24 years (in 2015):[31]

  • Total: 99.23%
  • Male: 99.11%
  • Female: 99.37%

15 years and older (in 2015):[31]

  • Total: 98.01%
  • Male: 98.51%
  • Female: 97.49%

UN estimates[32]Edit

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 26 000 11 000 15 000 47.4 19.3 28.1 7.38 160.9
1955–1960 38 000 13 000 25 000 49.4 16.5 32.9 7.38 128.9
1960–1965 54 000 15 000 40 000 53.6 14.5 39.1 8.00 103.2
1965–1970 73 000 16 000 57 000 52.3 11.8 40.5 8.00 82.8
1970–1975 90 000 17 000 73 000 49.0 9.4 39.6 7.79 68.3
1975–1980 92 000 16 000 76 000 42.8 7.5 35.3 7.38 56.5
1980–1985 101 000 17 000 85 000 39.7 6.5 33.2 7.05 44.4
1985–1990 117 000 18 000 99 000 37.5 5.7 31.8 6.44 36.0
1990–1995 132 000 19 000 113 000 33.9 4.9 29.0 5.14 30.6
1995–2000 147 000 21 000 127 000 32.0 4.5 27.5 4.34 26.7
2000–2005 143 000 21 000 122 000 28.1 4.2 23.9 3.60 23.6
2005–2010 152 000 23 000 128 000 26.4 4.1 22.3 3.27 21.0
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Public attitudesEdit

One World Values Survey reported 51.4% of Jordanians responded that they would prefer not to have neighbors of a different race.[33]

BibliographyEdit

  • Gandolfo, Luisa (24 December 2012). Palestinians in Jordan: The Politics of Identity. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-78076-095-7.

ReferencesEdit

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  3. ^ "Jordan tops list of refugee-host countries — Amnesty". Jordan Times. 2016-10-04. Archived from the original on 2018-11-24. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
  4. ^ "American Jewish Yearbook p.528" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-07-30. Retrieved 2010-12-22.
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  6. ^ International Religious Freedom Report, US State Department, 2005
  7. ^ Pintak, Lawrence (2019). America & Islam: Soundbites, Suicide Bombs and the Road to Donald Trump. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 86. ISBN 9781788315593.
  8. ^ Jonas, Margaret (2011). The Templar Spirit: The Esoteric Inspiration, Rituals and Beliefs of the Knights Templar. Temple Lodge Publishing. p. 83. ISBN 9781906999254. [Druze] often they are not regarded as being Muslim at all, nor do all the Druze consider themselves as Muslim
  9. ^ "Are the Druze People Arabs or Muslims? Deciphering Who They Are". Arab America. Arab America. 8 August 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  10. ^ J. Stewart, Dona (2008). The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives. Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 9781135980795. Most Druze do not consider themselves Muslim. Historically they faced much persecution and keep their religious beliefs secrets.
  11. ^ Yazbeck Haddad, Yvonne (2014). The Oxford Handbook of American Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 142. ISBN 9780199862634. While they appear parallel to those of normative Islam, in the Druze religion they are different in meaning and interpretation. The religion is consider distinct from the Ismaili as well as from other Muslims belief and practice... Most Druze consider themselves fully assimilated in American society and do not necessarily identify as Muslims..
  12. ^ De McLaurin, Ronald (1979). The Political Role of Minority Groups in the Middle East. Michigan University Press. p. 114. ISBN 9780030525964. Theologically, one would have to conclude that the Druze are not Muslims. They do not accept the five pillars of Islam. In place of these principles the Druze have instituted the seven precepts noted above..
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  23. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Archived from the original on 2016-09-19. Retrieved 2017-07-15.
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  25. ^ "Population - Estimated population of 2017 and some of selected data". Department of Statistics. Archived from the original on 8 August 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
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  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-12-27. Retrieved 2015-10-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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