A Deadhead or Dead Head is a fan of the American rock band the Grateful Dead.[1][2][3][4][5] The Deadhead subculture originated in the 1970s, when a number of fans began traveling to see the Grateful Dead in as many shows or festival venues as they could. As more people began attending live performances and festivals, a community developed. The Deadhead community has since gone on to create slang and idioms unique to them.[6]

A Deadhead school bus conversion

Unlike other popular acts in music, the Grateful Dead are well known for the use of improvisation in their performances making each show unique.[7] This coupled with the band's permissive attitude on taping performances has created a plethora of historical material.[7] Such recordings of previous performances are shared widely among the Deadhead community.[8]

Much Deadhead-related historical material received or collected by the band over the years is housed in the Grateful Dead Archive of University of California, Santa Cruz. Archive founding curator Nicholas Meriwether, who has also written extensively about the culture and its impact on society, predicted, "The Grateful Dead archive is going to end up being a critical way for us to approach and understand the 1960s and the counterculture of the era... It's also going to tell us a lot about the growth and development of modern rock theater, and it's helping us understand fan culture."[9] Over the course of their thirty-year career, the Grateful Dead performed over 2,200 live shows.[10]

Overview Edit

The eclectic musical styling of the Grateful dead was heavily inspired by the Beatnik movement of the 1950s and later the psychedelic counterculture of the 1960's. One group at the forefront of the psychedelic sound was the Merry Pranksters. On the first historic bus trip, on the bus Furthur, a pattern was set for the Deadhead touring lifestyle to come. By the late 1970s, some Deadheads began to sell tie-dye T-shirts, veggie burritos, or other items at Grateful Dead concerts. In the 1980s, the area where Grateful Dead merchandise was sold became popularly referred to as "Shakedown Street", named after the 1978 song. Income from these shops allowed Deadheads a way to follow the band on its tours. During the early 1980s, the number of Deadheads taping shows increased, and the band created a special section for fans who wished to record the show. These tapes are still shared and circulated today via websites such as the Live Music Archive and bt.etree.org. In the earlier days of the Grateful Dead, there were questions as to whether or not it was in the best interest of the band for fans to tape concerts. In 1982, Garcia himself was asked what he thought about it, and he replied, "When we are done with it [the concerts], they can have it."[11] The practice of taping has evolved and expanded in the digital age. The rise of the Internet and peer to peer file sharing networks has made it extremely easy for Deadheads to share concerts through unofficial and official channels.[12] Bob Dylan, who toured with the Grateful Dead during their 1987 summer tour, observed "With most bands the audience participates like in a spectator sport. They just stand there and watch. They keep a distance. With the Dead, the audience is part of the band-they might as well be on stage."[13]

Origins Edit

The term "Deadhead" first appeared in print at the suggestion of Hank Harrison, author of The Dead Trilogy, on the sleeve of Grateful Dead (also known as Skull & Roses), the band's second live album, released in 1971.[14] It read:

DEAD FREAKS UNITE: Who are you? Where are you? How are you?

Send us your name and address and we'll keep you informed.

Dead Heads, P.O. Box 1065, San Rafael, California 94901.

This phenomenon was first touched on in print by Village Voice music critic Robert Christgau at a Felt Forum show in 1971, noting "how many 'regulars' seemed to be in attendance, and how, from the way they compared notes, they'd obviously made a determined effort to see as many shows as possible."[14]

Eileen Law, a long time friend of the band, was put in charge of the mailing list and maintained the Dead Heads newsletter. It is estimated that by the end of 1971, the band had received about 350 letters, but this number swelled greatly over the next few years to as many as 40,000.[14] In total, 25 mailings/newsletters reached Dead Heads between October 1971 and February 1980. After this time, the Grateful Dead Almanac would succeed it, with this eventually being abandoned for Dead.net.[14] Those who did receive the newsletter in the 1970s often found pleasant surprises sent along. One example is from May 1974 when Heads received a sample EP of Robert Hunter's upcoming album Tales of the Great Rum Runners as well as selections from Jerry Garcia's second album, Compliments of Garcia, and some cuts that were from bandmembers Keith and Donna Godchaux's eponymous solo album, Keith & Donna, both on Round Records. This sample was titled Anton Round, which was an alias used by Ron Rakow.[15]

Impact on shows Edit

Fans attending a Grateful Dead concert at Red Rocks, Colorado, 1987

The Grateful Dead's appeal to fans was supported by the way the band structured their concerts and the use of the jam band format.[16]

  • From the early 1970s on, the Grateful Dead performed few shows with a predetermined setlist.[17]
  • At the behest of the band, a section of the audience was walled off to be used exclusively by fans recording the concert.[18]
  • From the 1980s on, the second set usually contained a prolonged percussion interlude, called "Drumz" (and eventually incorporating electronic elements), by Mickey Hart and Bill Kreutzmann (also known as the "Rhythm Devils") followed by an extended improvisational "space" jam played by the rest of the band (as featured on the album Infrared Roses).[19]

The band's extensive song catalog enabled them to create a varied “rotation” of setlists, which were never exactly the same for each performance (“show”) throughout a tour.[20]The use of these unique set rotations created two phenomena: The first had to do with Deadheads wanting to go to more shows in order to get a chance to hear their favorite song(s) - the same song was rarely played the same way twice during any given tour.[1] Also, a great show often inspired many fans to begin following the band for the rest of the tour, as well subsequent tours. The second was that having a large number of traveling fans had empowered the band to perform multiple shows at each venue, since they were assured that their performances would mostly sell out (almost all shows sold out from the mid-1980s and on). At this point, it became apparent that Deadheads were a major driving force that encouraged the band to keep going. Along with the large number of people attending several shows, a traveling community developed amongst fans in response to the familiarity of seeing the same people from previous strings of shows. As generations turned from the Acid Tests to the 1970s (and onward), tours became a time to revel with friends at concerts, old and new, who never knew the psychedelic age that spawned the band they loved.[21] As with any large community, Deadheads developed their own idioms and slang which is amply illustrated in books about the Grateful Dead such as the Skeleton Key.[22]

"The Vibe" Edit

Some Deadheads use the term "X Factor" to describe the intangible element that elevates mere performance into something higher.[23] Publicist and Jerry Garcia biographer Blair Jackson stated that "shows were the sacrament ... rich and full of blissful, transcendent musical moments that moved the body and enriched the soul."[24] Phil Lesh himself comments on this phenomenon in his autobiography by saying "The unique organicity of our music reflects the fact that each of us consciously personalized his playing: to fit with what others were playing and to fit with who each man was as an individual, allowing us to meld our consciousnesses together in the unity of a group mind."[25]

Jackson takes this further, citing drummer Mickey Hart as saying "The Grateful Dead weren't in the music business, they were in the transportation business." Jackson relates this to the Deadhead phenomenon directly by saying "for many Deadheads, the band was a medium that facilitated experiencing other planes of consciousness and tapping into deep, spiritual wells that were usually the province of organized religion ... [they] got people high whether those people were on drugs or not." It was times like these that the band and the audience would become one; The Grateful Dead and the Deadheads were all in the same state of mind.[26]

Rock producer Bill Graham summarized much of the band's effect when he created a sign for the Grateful Dead when the group played the closing of the Winterland Ballroom on December 31, 1978, that read:[27]

They're not the best at what they do,

They're the only ones that do what they do.


— Bill & the Winterland Gang[27]

Through the years Edit

  • 1960s – Before the term was invented, The Grateful Dead became one of the first cult acts in music. Although not as mainstream as other psychedelic bands, they were the leaders of the Haight-Ashbury music scene and had an intense following that started in San Francisco and eventually spread. Fans gathered at their jam concerts throughout the sixties.
  • 1970s – essentially known as the "second generation of Deadheads", the new Deadheads of this time can either be traced to "an older sibling who had turned them on by spinning Workingman's Dead or Europe '72" or through college and university dorm rooms.[21]
  • 1980s – The early 1980s brought about what would later become known as "Shakedown Street" (in reference to the Grateful Dead album of the same name). Starting during the New Year's Eve shows at the Oakland Auditorium in California from 1979 to 1982, Deadheads began to realize they could sell their wares (anything from tie-dye T-shirts to veggie burritos) in order to follow the band around more. Also during the early 1980s, Deadhead tapers grew exponentially, resulting in the band designating a taping section in October 1984.[28] With the success of their album In the Dark (and the single "Touch of Grey"), 1988 started the "Mega-Dead" period.[29]
    • In the Darkers – also known as "Touchheads" (a reference of the album for the former and the single for the latter), these fans "dissed the fragile ecosystem" of a Grateful Dead show, in the words of Jackson. This led to "wiser" Deadheads, with the backing of the band, to mail SOSs and hand out show flyers telling people to "cool out."[29]
    • Minglewood Town Council – this group was a direct result of the Touchheads and were a "tribal council" consisting of Deadheads and the Hog Farmers Calico and Goose. They handed out garbage bags at shows for people to pick up trash afterwards and tried to keep the masses mellow.[29] The iconic lot leader, "Trash Captain" aka Douglas Seaton, was a well known member of this group.
  • 1990s – The Deadheads of this time "tended to be young, white, male, and from middle-class backgrounds – in short, they were drawn from much the same demographic base as most rock fans." The band also tended to attract a large percentage of fans from high-income families. The main draw for these Deadheads to travel to shows seemed to be the sense of community and adventure. During the mid-1990s there were a series of small "Deadhead Riots" peaking with a large scale riot at the Deer Creek Music Center near Indianapolis in July 1995. The riot was triggered by several gate crashing incidents, and resulted in the fence at the venue being torn down by rioting Deadheads and the subsequent cancellation of the next day's show. The riot received national attention and is immortalized by Keller Williams in his song "Gatecrashers Suck", in which he calls the rioters "cock-sucking motherfuckers".[30] Concert promoter Peter Shapiro filmed the iconic and influential [1] Deadhead documentary, "Tie-Died, Rock and Roll's Most Deadicated Fans" about life on Grateful Dead Tour 1994. The film was released through Sony Tri Star in September 1995 in major motion picture theaters across America, shortly after Jerry Garcia's death. At the premiere party of the film's release, Deadheads at the after-party at the Fillmore West met with Jerry Garcia's close friend and musician, David Nelson, to formulate a strategy for continuing Deadhead culture. Thus, the David Nelson Band was formed. Other Dead related jam bands also did their part to continue the culture.
  • 21st century – Many Deadheads of all ages, including fans who were generally too young to have seen the Grateful Dead, continue to passionately follow the many current Grateful Dead cover bands and spin-off bands such as Dead & Company, The David Nelson Band, the Donna Jean Godchaux Band, RatDog, Phil Lesh and Friends, 7 Walkers, The Rhythm Devils, The Dead, Furthur, Dark Star Orchestra, and Joe Russo's Almost Dead.
  • The Spinners – also known as "The Family" or Church of Unlimited Devotion. These people "used the band's music in worship services and were a constant presence at shows." They were called "spinners" because of their twirling dance style. John Perry Barlow stated at the 'So Many Roads Conference' that the Dead family hadn't realized at the time that the Spinners were a cult. Observers have reported seeing them spinning only to Jerry songs and sitting down at the songs Bobby performed. Allegations of abuse have circulated widely in Deadhead groups.[30]
  • Wharf Rats – Deadheads who helped each other remain drug and alcohol free while staying in the Dead scene.[31] The Wharf Rats were named from the song of same title. They were allowed to set up a table at every concert to support Dead Heads who believed in enjoying the Grateful Dead sober or needed more efforts to remain straight.

Recordings of shows Edit

Bob Weir and Mickey Hart of the Grateful Dead performing on January 20, 2009, at the Mid-Atlantic Inaugural Ball during President Barack Obama's Inaugural

At almost every Grateful Dead show, it was common to see fans openly recording the music for later enjoyment.[10] The tradition can be traced to 1966 with the number of tapers increasing yearly.[32] In 1971, Les Kippel, from Brooklyn, New York, started the First Free Underground Grateful Dead Tape Exchange with the purpose of preserving the heritage of the Grateful Dead's concert history by exchanging copies of recorded tapes made from audience members. This started a new era in recording, collecting, and trading Grateful Dead tapes.

The "Tape Exchange" evolved into Dead Relix magazine, co-founded by Kippel and its first editor, Jerry Moore (1953–2009), a native of The Bronx, New York.[33] First fliers were handed out at concerts in 1973, followed by a first issue in 1974. In 1974, Dead Relix evolved into Relix magazine and kept the Grateful Dead in the news while they took a year off in 1975. In 1980, Toni Brown became owner and publisher of Relix. In 2000, it was sold to Steve Bernstein. In 2009, Peter Shapiro bought Relix and still maintains ownership.

There were other Deadhead magazines that came about in the 1970s, notably, Dead in Words and In Concert. The 1980s saw the production of Terrapin Flyer, Dupree's Diamond News,[34] Golden Road, and Acid. Dupree's Diamond News was distributed as an in-concert newsletter at several hundred Grateful Dead concerts, where it averaged 10,000 copies per run. Dupree's Diamond News was also distributed on a quarterly basis as a full-color, 72-page magazine to approximately 35,000 international subscriptions.

In 1998, Grateful Dead scholar Johnny Dwork, the founder of Terrapin Flyer and Dupree's Diamond News, published the award-winning, three-volume The Deadhead's Taping Compendium: A Guide to the Music of the Grateful Dead on Tape.

Fans were also known to record the many FM radio broadcast shows. Garcia looked kindly on tapers (he himself had been on several cross-country treks to record bluegrass music prior to the Grateful Dead), stating: "There's something to be said for being able to record an experience you've liked, or being to obtain a recording of it ... my responsibility to the notes is over after I've played them." In this respect, the Dead are considered by many to be the first "taper-friendly" band.[35]

It is a matter of strict custom among Deadheads that these recordings are freely shared and circulated, with no money ever changing hands. Some bootleg recordings from unscrupulous bootleggers have turned up on the black market, but a general "code of honor specifically prohibited the buying and selling of Dead tapes." These recordings, sometimes called "liberated bootlegs", are still frowned upon by the community and that feeling "has spread into non-Grateful Dead taping circles."[35]

Many Deadheads now freely distribute digital recordings of the band's live shows through the Internet Archive.[36]

Archives Edit

Much Deadhead-related historical material received or collected by the band over the years is housed in the Grateful Dead Archive of UC-Santa Cruz. Archive curator Nicholas Meriwether, who has also written extensively about the culture and its impact on society, states "The Grateful Dead archive is going to end up being a critical way for us to approach and understand the 1960s and the counterculture of the era... It's also going to tell us a lot about the growth and development of modern rock theater, and it's helping us understand fan culture."[9]

In addition to the band's collection, many longtime fans have also accrued a large collection of Grateful Dead memorabilia and recorded live performances.[37]

Famous Deadheads Edit

The following celebrities have claimed to be Deadheads or have had media reported on them saying they are Deadheads:

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ a b "I Saw a Deadhead Sticker on a Bentley". The New York Times. 9 June 2006. Retrieved July 1, 2006.
  2. ^ "Life of the party". Boston Globe. Globe Newspaper Company. 7 June 2006. Retrieved July 1, 2006 – via boston.com.
  3. ^ "Puppet master". Missoula Independent. Vol. 17, no. 26. Missoula, Montana. 2006. Retrieved July 1, 2006 – via missoulanews.com.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ "Local Artists Complete SMC's Art Mentor Program". Santa Monica Mirror. Vol. 8, no. 3. Santa Monica, California. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-02-15. Retrieved July 1, 2006 – via smmirror.com.
  5. ^ AScribe Newswire (2006). Article from non-profit news distribution organization: Central Valley scientist looks at music's ‘heady’ experience[permanent dead link], using the term Deadhead, Retrieved July 1, 2006.
  6. ^ "Deadheads – Subcultures and Sociology". Retrieved 2023-07-17.
  7. ^ a b Malvinni, David (2013). Grateful Dead and the Art of Rock Improvisation. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0810882553.
  8. ^ Wilson, Jamie (2005-12-02). "Grateful fans bring live recordings back from the dead". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2023-07-17.
  9. ^ a b "Understanding Counterculture..." austin.culturemap.com.
  10. ^ a b McNally, Dennis (2003). A Long Strange Trip: The Inside History of the Grateful Dead. Crown. ISBN 978-0767911863.
  11. ^ Greene, Andy (12 March 2015). "Flashback: Jerry Garcia and Bob Weir do 'Letterman' in 1982". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  12. ^ Billboard Staff (2005-12-01). "Grateful Dead Allows Free Web Downloads". Billboard. Retrieved 2023-07-21.
  13. ^ Dylan, Bob (2022). The Philosophy of Modern Song. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 137. ISBN 978-1-4516-4870-6.
  14. ^ a b c d Grateful Dead: The Illustrated Trip edited by Jake Woodward, et al. Dorling Kindersley Limited, 2003, pg. 138.
  15. ^ Grateful Dead: The Illustrated Trip edited by Jake Woodward, et al. Dorling Kindersley Limited, 2003, pg. 168.
  16. ^ McNally, Dennis (2003). A Long Strange Trip: The Inside History of the Grateful Dead. ISBN 0767911865.
  17. ^ Schlansky, Evan (2009-05-29). "The Grateful Dead's Set List Secrets Revealed". American Songwriter. Retrieved 2023-07-21.
  18. ^ Coscarelli, Joe (2015-07-05). "'Tapers' at the Grateful Dead Concerts Spread the Audio Sacrament". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2023-07-18.
  19. ^ "Grateful Dead's Mickey Hart a complex groove-master". The Morning Call. 2011-12-30. Retrieved 2023-07-18.
  20. ^ Fricke, David (2020-08-08). "20 Essential Grateful Dead Shows". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2023-08-22.
  21. ^ a b Grateful Dead: The Illustrated Trip edited by Jake Woodward, et al. Dorling Kindersley Limited, 2003, pg. 174.
  22. ^ "How Grateful Dead Fans Became Deadheads". Time. 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2023-07-21.
  23. ^ Grateful Dead: The Illustrated Trip edited by Jake Woodward, et al. Dorling Kindersley Limited, 2003, pg. 113.
  24. ^ Garcia: An American Life by Blair Jackson, Penguin Books, 1999, pg. 219.
  25. ^ Searching for the Sound: My Life with the Grateful Dead by Phil Lesh, Little, Brown, April 2005
  26. ^ Garcia: An American Life by Blair Jackson, Penguin Books, 1999, pg. 319.
  27. ^ a b Grateful Dead: The Illustrated Trip edited by Jake Woodward, et al. Dorling Kindersley Limited, 2003, pg. 227.
  28. ^ Grateful Dead: The Illustrated Trip edited by Jake Woodward, et al. Dorling Kindersley Limited, 2003, pg. 263.
  29. ^ a b c Grateful Dead: The Illustrated Trip edited by Jake Woodward, et al. Dorling Kindersley Limited, 2003, pg. 315.
  30. ^ a b Grateful Dead: The Illustrated Trip edited by Jake Woodward, et al. Dorling Kindersley Limited, 2003, pg. 415.
  31. ^ "The Wharf Rats". Wharfrat.org. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
  32. ^ Fricke, David (2020-08-08). "20 Essential Grateful Dead Shows". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2023-07-21.
  33. ^ Jarnow, Jesse (April 15, 2014). "Early Tapers, the United Dead Freaks of America, and the Dawn of _Relix_". Relix.
  34. ^ "Dupree's Diamond News". Dead.net. Retrieved 2014-06-19.
  35. ^ a b Garcia: An American Life by Blair Jackson, Penguin Books, 1999, pg. 277.
  36. ^ "Grateful Dead Archive". Retrieved 2021-12-17.
  37. ^ Wilson, Jamie (2005-12-02). "Grateful fans bring live recordings back from the dead". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2023-07-21.
  38. ^ "The Days Between: Trey Anastasio Reflects on His Time in Dead Camp". relix.com. Relix Media. 23 November 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  39. ^ a b c d "Celebrity Deadheads a to z". Biography.com. A&E. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  40. ^ Cook-Wilson, Winston (March 15, 2017). "Steve Bannon Was Apparently a Huge Deadhead". Spin.com. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h Woodward, Jake, ed. (2003). Grateful Dead: The Illustrated Trip. Dorling Kindersley Limited. pp. 330, 375.
  42. ^ turn Mars Hotel upside down & look at it in a mirror to see name of Blair's band"
  43. ^ "Interview with Tucker Carlson". Interviews with Max Raskin. Retrieved 2023-07-08.
  44. ^ "SUVs, Canadians and the Grateful Dead". NBCnews.com. NBC. Retrieved 2007-06-15.
  45. ^ "Rose Bowl: Carroll the life of Southern Cal's party". MySA.com. December 31, 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29.
  46. ^ Sager, Mike (December 6, 2009). "Big Balls Pete Carroll". Esquire. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  47. ^ a b c d Jackson, Blair (1999). Garcia: An American Life. Penguin Books.
  48. ^ O'Brien, Andrew (June 20, 2017). "TV's Andy Cohen Talks Raging Dead & Co Tour With Mickey Hart's Wife On Seth Meyers". Live For Live Music. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  49. ^ Coulter, Ann. "Ann Coulter on Why She Loves the Grateful Dead". Billboard. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
  50. ^ Adler, Marlene (1995). "Harper's Index". Retrieved May 1, 2009.
  51. ^ "Celebrating Cronkite at 90". CBS News. 15 May 2007. Retrieved May 1, 2009.
  52. ^ "Lila Downs Bio". culturebase.net.
  53. ^ "Rolling with the Dead". RollingStone.com. Archived from the original on April 1, 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  54. ^ "Dead World Roundup". dead.net. Grateful Dead. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  55. ^ Thompson, Stephen (16 October 1996). "Bassist/vocalist Mike Gordon talks about his new album, his band's notorious long windedness and his most aggravating fans". Music.AVClub.com. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
  56. ^ "Company News; Ben & Jerry's". The New York Times. July 30, 1987. Retrieved 2007-06-16.
  57. ^ a b c "Bill Walton, George R.R. Martin And A Dozen Of The Most Famous Grateful Dead Fans". StarPulse.com. Archived from the original on October 31, 2018. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
  58. ^ Sagon, Candy (February 18, 2004). "King of the Kitchen". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 16, 2011.
  59. ^ Pauly, Brett (May 26, 1994). "STEPHEN KING'S A DEADHEAD AND IT SHOWS". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
  60. ^ "EZRA KOENIG, IN DEFENSE OF THE DEAD". m.mixcloud.com.
  61. ^ Greenhaus, Mike. "Moving Full Circle With Vampire Weekend's Chris Tomson: TRI, Phish and Old-School Geeking". Jambands.com.
  62. ^ "Patrick Leahy at Vermont Senate.gov". Archived from the original on 2006-06-01.
  63. ^ "A Greg-Shaped Box: Barry Williams dismantles post-Brady hijinx, and hawks his CD". Gettingit.com. Archived from the original on January 20, 2013. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
  64. ^ "Fall 1999 – On the phone from Canada". Kaos2000 Magazine. Archived from the original on 2008-07-20. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
  65. ^ "George RR Martin says Grateful Dead inspired previous work". The Guardian. May 5, 2015. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
  66. ^ Newman, Laraine, Conversation with Tom Davis, interviewed by Tom Davis – via YouTube
  67. ^ "For the Love of Spock: An Imperfect Portrait of a Fascinating Man". sequart.org. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  68. ^ "For the Love of Spock (2016)". moria.co.nz. 18 September 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  69. ^ Vise, David A.; Malseed, Mark (2006). "When Larry met Sergey". The Google Story (2nd ed.). Delacorte Press. p. 22. ISBN 0-330-44005-5.
  70. ^ "The Skinny: Follow The Money? Nah". CBS News. January 4, 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
  71. ^ "Confessions of a Deadhead: 40 years with the Grateful Dead". CNBC.com. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  72. ^ Knapp, George. "The I-Team Talks With Senator Reid in Searchlight". 8newsnow.com. KLAS-TV. Archived from the original on 2014-02-20. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
  73. ^ "Response to BAM". The Golden Road. fanzine. Winter 1986.
  74. ^ "Analyze Phish episode 3; episode 5 of Earwolf Presents" (Podcast). Earwolf.com. 2011-11-28. Retrieved 2014-06-19.
  75. ^ "On My iPod: Chloë Sevigny". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
  76. ^ "All In The Family: Steve Silberman". dead.net. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  77. ^ "Mark Talbott: A Very Good Friend". squashmagazine.ussquash.com. July 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
  78. ^ "Interview with Patrick Volkerding". Linux Journal. April 1, 1994. Retrieved 2011-07-18.
  79. ^ "Press Release" (Press release). Archived from the original on May 14, 2006.
  80. ^ Varga, George (27 June 2015). "Bill Walton has seen the Dead 850+ times". sandiegouniontribune.com. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  81. ^ Salsberg, Bob (March 15, 2012). "Ex-Mass. Gov. with ALS raising funds for research". The Boston Globe. Retrieved February 5, 2013 – via boston.com.
  82. ^ Markoff, John (10 August 1995). "Sadness From the Streets to High Offices". The New York Times.

Further reading Edit