Daryl Christine Hannah (born December 3, 1960) is an American actress. She made her screen debut in Brian De Palma's supernatural horror film The Fury (1978). She has starred in various movies across the years, including as Pris Stratton in Ridley Scott's science fiction thriller Blade Runner (1982) and as Cathy Featherstone in Randal Kleiser's romantic comedy Summer Lovers (1982), as the mermaid Madison in Ron Howard's fantasy-romantic comedy Splash (1984), Roxanne Kowalski in the romantic comedy Roxanne (1987), Darien Taylor in Oliver Stone's drama Wall Street (1987) and Annelle Dupuy Desoto in the comedy-drama Steel Magnolias (1989). In 2004, Hannah won a Saturn Award for her role as one-eyed assassin Elle Driver in Quentin Tarantino's two-part martial arts action film Kill Bill. In 2015 she appeared in the Netflix series Sense8 as Angelica Turing.
Daryl Hannah in 2019
Daryl Christine Hannah
December 3, 1960
Hannah was born in Chicago, Illinois, to Susan Jeanne Metzger, a producer and former schoolteacher, and Donald Christian Hannah, a tugboat and barge company owner. Her parents divorced and her mother subsequently married businessman Jerrold Wexler, brother of cinematographer Haskell Wexler. Hannah grew up with siblings Don and Page Hannah as well as her maternal half-sister Tanya Wexler, in Long Grove, Illinois. She was raised Roman Catholic.
Hannah became interested in movies at a young age, partly due to insomnia. She has said that she was very shy growing up. As a young child, Hannah was emotionally isolated and struggled in school. She was subsequently diagnosed with autism, and medical professionals urged her parents to have her institutionalized. Instead, her mother decided to relocate with Hannah temporarily to Jamaica, in hopes that the change in environment would help her daughter. Hannah later attended the progressive Francis W. Parker School (where she played on the soccer team) in Chicago before enrolling at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, where she studied ballet and acting.
Hannah made her film debut in 1978 with an appearance in Brian De Palma's horror film The Fury. She turned down many roles early in her career. She also had an early role along with Rachel Ward in the 1983 horror film The Final Terror which was shot in the Redwood Forests in 1981. The film was released in 1983 to capitalize on Hannah's blossoming career.
In 1982, Hannah played the acrobatic and violent replicant Pris in Ridley Scott's science fiction classic Blade Runner, in which she performed some of her own gymnastic stunts. That same year she appeared in the summer hit release Summer Lovers. She then was cast as a mermaid in Ron Howard's 1984 fantasy Splash, which starred Tom Hanks. Also in 1984, she appeared in The Pope of Greenwich Village, with co-stars Mickey Rourke and Eric Roberts. In 1985, Hannah appeared in and provided backing vocals in the music video "You're a Friend of Mine", performed by Clarence Clemons and Jackson Browne. She also appeared in the video for Browne's Tender Is the Night (song). Hannah's roles in the remainder of the 1980s ranged from 1986's film version of the best seller The Clan of the Cave Bear and Legal Eagles. The next year, she appeared in the Academy Award–winning Wall Street, for which she received a Razzie Award. She starred in the title role of Fred Schepisi's 1987 film Roxanne, a modern retelling of Edmond Rostand's play Cyrano de Bergerac. Her performance was described as "sweet" and "gentle" by film critic Roger Ebert. She starred in High Spirits (1988) alongside Peter O'Toole and ended the decade with Crimes and Misdemeanors (alongside Woody Allen) and Steel Magnolias (both 1989).
Hannah played the daughter of Jack Lemmon's character in both of the Grumpy Old Men comedies. That same year, she played Nancy Archer in the HBO comedy remake of Attack Of The Fifty-Foot Woman. In 1995, Hannah was chosen by Empire magazine as No. 96 of the "100 Sexiest Stars in Film History." That year she appeared as homicidal sociopath Leann Netherwood in The Tie That Binds. She also starred in the 1998 direct-to-video film Addams Family Reunion playing Morticia Addams.
In the early 2000s, her most memorable role may be that of the one-eyed assassin, Elle Driver, in Kill Bill, directed by Quentin Tarantino. Her performance in this film and her appearances in A Walk to Remember, Speedway Junky, Northfork, Michael Radford's Dancing at the Blue Iguana, John Sayles' Casa de los Babys and Silver City, have been described by some as a comeback. After Kill Bill, she appeared in several TV films and miniseries, including the Syfy original film Shark Swarm, Final Days of Planet Earth for the Hallmark Channel, and Kung Fu Killer for Spike. She also appeared in Shannon's Rainbow and The Cycle in 2009.
In the 2010s, Hannah released several films, including A Closed Book, A Fonder Heart, and Eldorado. Robert Koehler of Variety wrote of A Closed Book that it allows curious fans to see what Hannah has been up to lately. In 2013, she starred in Zombie Night, a Syfy original film by The Asylum as well as in TV movie Social Nightmare (a.k.a. Mother: She'll Keep You Safe), a thriller by The Asylum about internet bullying. In 2013, she joined Skin Traffik, and, in 2014, she signed on to Signs of Death.
Since 2015, she has appeared in Sense8, a series on Netflix from the Wachowskis. The series ran for two seasons, with a finale episode released on June 8, 2018. Also in 2018 Hannah released Paradox, for which she was writer and producer, and featuring musician Neil Young .
Hannah is also an accomplished theatre actress, reprising Marilyn Monroe's starring role in The Seven Year Itch in 2000 in London's West End. Reviews of the play commended Hannah's performance, with Lizzie Loveridge of Curtain Up! saying that the play was the "perfect vehicle" for Hannah to "show her talents as a comedienne." She was also in films Cord and First Target in the same year.
Hannah wrote, directed and produced a short film titled The Last Supper. She directed, produced, and was cinematographer for the documentary Strip Notes, which was broadcast on Channel 4 in the UK and on HBO. It was about the research Hannah did for her role as a stripper in Dancing at the Blue Iguana.
Hannah, an active environmentalist, has her own weekly video blog called DHLoveLife on sustainable solutions. She is often the sound recordist, camera person and on-screen host for the blog. Her home runs on solar power and is built with green materials. She drives a car that runs on biodiesel. She has been vegetarian since age 11, and later became vegan. In late 2006, she volunteered to act as a judge for Treehugger.com's "Convenient Truths" contest. On December 4, 2008, Hannah joined Sea Shepherd Conservation Society's crew aboard the MV Steve Irwin, as part of Operation Musashi.
On June 13, 2006, Hannah was arrested, along with actor Taran Noah Smith, for her involvement with over 350 farmers, their families and supporters, confronting authorities trying to bulldoze the largest urban farm in the U.S., located in South Central Los Angeles. She chained herself to a walnut tree at the South Central Farm for three weeks to protest against the farmers' eviction by the property's new owner, Ralph Horowitz. The farm had been established in the wake of the 1992 L.A. riots to allow people in the city to grow food for themselves. However, Horowitz, who had paid $5 million for it, sought to evict the farmers to build a warehouse. He had asked for $16 million to sell it but turned down the offer when the activists raised that amount after the established deadline. Hannah was interviewed via cell phone shortly before she was arrested, along with 44 other protesters, and said that she and the others are doing the "morally right thing". She spent some time in jail.
Hannah was among 31 people arrested on June 23, 2009, in a protest against mountaintop removal in southern West Virginia, part of a wider campaign to stop the practice in the region. The protesters, who also included NASA climate scientist James E. Hansen, were charged with obstructing officers and impeding traffic after they sat in the middle of State Route 3 outside Massey Energy's Goals Coal preparation plant, The Charleston Gazette reported. In a Democracy Now! phone interview on June 24, 2009, Hannah spoke briefly on why she went to West Virginia and risked arrest.
Hannah was arrested on August 30, 2011, in front of the White House as part of a sit-in to protest against the proposed Keystone oil pipeline from Alberta to the U.S. Gulf Coast. In a Huffington Post piece co-authored with Phil Radford, Hannah explained that the purpose of her action was to "shine the light" on the President's decision on the pipeline for "millions of voters" to see. In October 2011, Hannah and other pipeline opponents rode horses and bicycles and walked from the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation to the Rosebud Reservation to protest the project.
In September 2012, Hannah signed environmental activist Tom Weis' open letter calling on President Barack Obama and Governor Mitt Romney to withdraw their support for the construction of the southern leg of the Keystone XL pipeline, that would transport oil sands from Montana to Texas. Other signatories included climate scientist James Hansen and actors Sheryl Lee, Mariel Hemingway, and Ed Begley Jr.. On October 4, 2012, Hannah was arrested and jailed in Wood County, Texas, for criminal trespassing. She and a local landowner, 78-year-old Eleanor Fairchild, were arrested while protesting against the TransCanada Keystone XL oil sands pipeline by attempting to block heavy construction equipment. Although they were charged with trespassing, they were in fact protesting on Fairchild's land. On February 13, 2013, Hannah was arrested at the White House along with Robert F. Kennedy Jr. and Conor Kennedy during a climate change protest against the proposed Keystone Pipeline.
Hannah had long-term relationships with John F. Kennedy Jr. and musician Jackson Browne. She began seeing Browne in 1983, they broke up in 1992 amid allegations that Browne was physically abusive to her. She began a relationship with musician Neil Young in 2014 and they married in 2018.
Hannah was among the numerous women who brought sexual abuse allegations against Harvey Weinstein. In a part of Ronan Farrow's 2017 expose, Hannah claimed that Weinstein sexually harassed her multiple times during the production of Kill Bill and that he once tried to break into her hotel room, forcing her to flee through a fire escape. Hannah later expressed belief that Weinstein sabotaged her career in retaliation for refusing his advances, as she struggled to find work after appearing in Kill Bill.
In September 2013, Forbes magazine reported that Hannah had been diagnosed as autistic in childhood. When she was a child, medical professionals recommended that she be institutionalized and medicated.
Hannah is a strict vegan.
|1982||Blade Runner||Pris Stratton|
|1982||Summer Lovers||Cathy Featherstone|
|1983||The Final Terror||Windy Morgan|
|1984||Splash||Madison||Saturn Award for Best Actress|
|1984||The Pope of Greenwich Village||Diane|
|1986||The Clan of the Cave Bear||Ayla|
|1986||Legal Eagles||Chelsea Deardon||Also performance artist|
|1987||Wall Street||Darien Taylor||Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Supporting Actress|
|1988||High Spirits||Mary Plunkett Brogan||Nominated—Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Supporting Actress|
|1989||Crimes and Misdemeanors||Lisa Crosley||Uncredited|
|1989||Steel Magnolias||Annelle Dupuy Desoto|
|1990||Crazy People||Kathy Burgess|
|1991||At Play in the Fields of the Lord||Andy Huben|
|1992||Memoirs of an Invisible Man||Alice Monroe|
|1993||Grumpy Old Men||Melanie Gustafson|
|1994||The Little Rascals||Miss June Crabtree|
|1995||The Tie That Binds||Leann Netherwood|
|1995||Grumpier Old Men||Melanie Gustafson|
|1996||Two Much||Liz Kerner|
|1996||The Last Days of Frankie the Fly||Margaret|
|1998||The Gingerbread Man||Lois Harlan|
|1998||The Real Blonde||Kelly|
|1998||Addams Family Reunion||Morticia Addams||Direct-to-video|
|1999||My Favorite Martian||Lizzie|
|1999||Diplomatic Siege||Erica Long|
|2001||Dancing at the Blue Iguana||Angel|
|2001||Cowboy Up||Celia Jones||aka Ring of Fire|
|2002||A Walk to Remember||Cynthia Carter|
|2002||Searching for Debra Winger||Herself|
|2003||The Job||CJ March|
|2003||Casa de los babys||Skipper|
|2003||The Big Empty||Stella|
|2003||Kill Bill: Volume 1||Elle Driver|
|2004||Kill Bill: Volume 2||Italian Online Movie Award for Best Cast|
MTV Movie Award for Best Fight (with Uma Thurman)
Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated—Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture
|2004||Silver City||Maddy Pilager|
|2004||Careful What You Wish For||Store Patron||Short film|
|2006||Love Is the Drug||Sandra Brand|
|2006||Keeping Up with the Steins||Sacred Feather / Sandy|
|2007||The Poet||Marlene Konig|
|2009||The Cycle||Carrie||aka The Devil's Ground|
|2009||Shannon's Rainbow||Dr. Rita Baker|
|2010||A Closed Book||Jane Ryder||Bahamas Film Award for Best Actress|
|2011||Every Generation Needs a Revolution||Herself||Short film|
|2011||A Fonder Heart||Margaret Boone|
|2013||The Hot Flashes||Ginger Peabody|
|2014||2047: Sights of Death||Major Anderson|
|2014||Father Rupert Mayer||Joanna Sebastian|
|2015||I Am Michael||Deborah|
|2015||Sicilian Vampire||Carmelina Trafficante|
|2017||The American Connection||Flora|
|1982||Paper Dolls||Taryn Blake||Television film|
|1993||Attack of the 50 Ft. Woman||Nancy Archer||Television film|
|1997||The Last Don||Athena Aquitane||2 episodes|
|1997||Gun||Jill Johnson||Episode: "All the President's Women"|
|1997||Muppets Tonight||Herself||1 episode|
|1998||Rear Window||Claudia Henderson||Television film|
|1998||Rescuers: Stories of Courage: Two Families||Maria Althoff||Television film|
|2000||First Target||Alex McGregor||Television film|
|2001||Jack and the Beanstalk: The Real Story||Thespee||Television film|
|2002||Frasier||Caller #2 (voice)||Episode: "Frasier Has Spokane"|
|2006||Final Days of Planet Earth||Liz Quinlan||Television film|
|2007||All the Good Ones Are Married||Alex||Television film|
|2008||Storm Seekers||Leah Kaplan||Television film|
|2008||Kung Fu Killer||Jane||Television film|
|2008||Shark Swarm||Brooke Wilder||Television film|
|2013||Social Nightmare||Susan Hardy||Television film|
|2013||Zombie Night||Birdy||Television film|
|2013–2014||Hawaii Five-0||Cherie Tranton||2 episodes|
|2015–2018||Sense8||Angelica Turing||17 episodes|
|2020||The Now||Upcoming series|
|1993||The Last Supper||Also writer and co-producer|
|2000||The Seven Year Itch||The Girl||Made famous by Marilyn Monroe.|
Helped Daryl Hannah overcome stage fright.
- Best Fight—MTV Movie Awards Kill Bill: Volume 2, 2005
- Best Supporting Actress—Saturn Award Kill Bill: Volume 2, 2004
- Best Actress—Saturn Award Splash, 1984
- Influencer of the Year Award—National Biodiesel Board, 2004
- Ongoing Commitment Award—Environmental Media Award, 2004
- Environmental Activism – Water Quality Awards, 2006
- Environmental Preservation – Artivist Awards, 2006
- Special golden camera 300 – Manaki Brothers Film Festival, 2010
- "Daryl Hannah Biography (1960–)". www.filmreference.com. Archived from the original on June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- Lambert, Bruce (November 12, 1992). "Jerrold Wexler, 68; Chicago Developer Who Built Empire". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 30, 2013. Retrieved February 8, 2011.
- Page, Eleanor (January 31, 1958). "Athletic Club Trend: Exercise". Chicago Daily Tribune. Archived from the original on July 24, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2011.
- "Daryl Hannah". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016.
- "Daryl Hannah". Celebrity Ghost Stories. Season 2. Episode 10. A&E. October 30, 2010.
I was brought up Catholic...
- Flintoff, John-Paul (December 2, 2007). "Hollywood's full-on green guerrilla". The Times. Retrieved June 22, 2011.
- Willingham, Emily. "'Wall Street' Actress Daryl Hannah Is An Autistic Woman". Forbes. Archived from the original on October 17, 2017.
- Cooper, Gael Fashingbauer. "Daryl Hannah: I've battled autism since childhood". Today. Archived from the original on December 25, 2016.
- Vancheri, Barbara (February 25, 2000). "Wonder Boy". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. p. 42.
- Roger Ebert Review of Roxanne (1987) Archived March 30, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. June 16, 1987. Retrieved April 28, 2006.
- "Daryl Hannah". AskMen. Archived from the original on August 25, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- Daryl Hannah: Comeback Kill Bill Vol. 1 Archived February 3, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
- Koehler, Robert (July 15, 2012). "Review: 'Blind Revenge'". Variety. Archived from the original on March 6, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- McNary, Dave (August 13, 2013). "Eric Roberts, Daryl Hannah, Mickey Rourke to Star in 'Skin Traffik' (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Archived from the original on February 17, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- Barton, Steve (January 23, 2014). "An All-Star Cast Sees Signs of Death". Dread Central. Archived from the original on February 26, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- "Paradox (2018)". IMDb. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
- Ray-Ramos, Dino (November 11, 2019). "Quibi Comedy 'The Now' Sets O'Shea Jackson, Daryl Hannah, And Jimmy Tatro In Lead Roles; Alyssa Milano, Rob Yang And Lex Scott Davis To Recur". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
- ""Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 21, 2010. Retrieved November 28, 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "The Daryl Hannah Picture Pages". www.superiorpics.com. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- "Robbie Williams real-life angels – we reveal the stories behind his female video co-stars". Daily Mirror. September 13, 2009. Archived from the original on May 23, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 28, 2006. Retrieved October 5, 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Courteney Cox, Daryl Hannah, Martina McBride". The Ellen DeGeneres Show. Season 3. Episode 66. December 5, 2005.
- "welcome to dhlovelife.com – home of the dhlovelife show, lovelife goods, and the new knowdummy eco-resource!". www.dhlovelife.com. Archived from the original on June 14, 2017. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- Murphy, Heather. "Daryl Hannah". Swindle. Archived from the original on December 24, 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
- DHLovelife.com (MOV file) Archived June 14, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved April 28, 2006.
- Gillick, Kathryn. "Daryl Hannah". Sass Magazine. Archived from the original on February 17, 2006. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
- hudsonunionsociety (April 6, 2012). "Daryl Hannah on Becoming a Vegan". Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved June 15, 2017 – via YouTube.
- "TreeHugger". www.treehugger.com. Archived from the original on February 24, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- "Convenient Truth Contest". treehugger.com. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- McGuirk, Rob (December 3, 2008). "'Splash' star makes waves as she sets sail on annual anti-whaling crusade". The Scotsman. Archived from the original on March 20, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
- "Daryl Hannah arrested after garden protest" . Associated Press. Today.com. June 13, 2006.
- "What Can Paris Expect Behind Bars?". Fox News. May 7, 2007. Archived from the original on May 8, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
- Pesta, Abigail (January 28, 2008). "Daryl Hannah: Saving Sex Slaves" Archived October 21, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Marie Claire. Retrieved October 24, 2010.
- Kari Friedlander (June 24, 2009). "Daryl Hannah Arrested at West Virginia Mine Protest". TV Guide Online. Archived from the original on June 28, 2009. Retrieved June 24, 2009.
- "Actress Daryl Hannah, Climate Scientist James Hansen Among 30+ Arrested Protesting Mountaintop Removal in West Virginia". Democracy Now!. June 24, 2009. Archived from the original on June 25, 2009. Retrieved June 24, 2009.
- "Daryl Hannah Arrested"[permanent dead link]. Edmonton Journal.
- Radford, Phil; Hannah, Daryl (August 29, 2011). "Shining Light on Obama's Tar Sands Pipeline Decision". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on September 3, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- "Protesters, including Daryl Hannah, ride in South Dakota against proposed pipeline". Rapid City Journal. Associated Press. October 27, 2011. Archived from the original on October 29, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- Fernandez, Jay A. (February 7, 2012). "Daryl Hannah Boards 'Greedy Lying Bastards' Documentary as Executive Producer". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 11, 2015. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
- "Open Letter to President Obama and Governor Romney: Defend America Against Keystone XL Economic, Public Health & National Security Threat". Ride for Renewables. September 26, 2012. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- "Daryl Hannah arrested in Texas protesting pipeline". 1070knth.com. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- Suzanne Goldenberg (February 13, 2013). "Daryl Hannah leads celebrity Keystone XL protest at White House gates". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on December 4, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
- "Neil Young, Daryl Hannah lead anti-Keystone XL march in Washington, D.C." CTVNews.ca. April 26, 2014. p. 1. Archived from the original on January 1, 2015. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Uechi, Jenny (April 27, 2014). "Neil Young, Rueben George and Daryl Hannah fire up crowd at anti-Keystone XL protest in Washington". vancouverobserver.com. Archived from the original on July 8, 2014. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Hays, Brooks (April 26, 2014). "Cowboys, Indians and Neil Young voice opposition to Keystone XL Pipeline". United Press International, Inc. Archived from the original on September 13, 2014. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Daryl Hannah [@dhlovelife] (July 6, 2015). "How and when to vote for #UncleBernie Bernie Sanders in the Primaries (by State) voteforbernie.org/ via @vote_for_bernie @SenSanders" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Councillor Biographies" Archived October 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. World Future Council. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- "Daryl Hannah Biography" Archived September 30, 2013, at Wikiwix. Showtimes.com. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- Gleick, Elizabeth (August 16, 1993). "Two of a Kind". People. 40 (7). Archived from the original on February 26, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- Pearce, Garth (December 31, 2007). "Daryl Hannah: 'I hated being young'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on March 26, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- Browne Getting On With Life After Daryl
- Browne Prevails In Defamation Disputes
- Jackson Browne wins apology from JFK Jr. filmmakers
- Kielty, Martin (March 17, 2018) NEIL YOUNG, DARYL HANNAH ‘DON’T GIVE A S—’ WHAT PEOPLE THINK OF THEIR RELATIONSHIP. Ultimate Classic Rock. Retrieved May 21, 2018; https://www.theguardian.com/music/2018/aug/29/neil-young-daryl-hannah-marry-california-wedding; "Neil Young Confirms Marriage to Daryl Hannah | Pitchfork". pitchfork.com.
- Farrow, Ronan (October 28, 2017). "Weighing the Costs of Speaking Out About Harvey Weinstein". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on October 28, 2017. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
- Lyndsey Parker (March 16, 2018). "Neil Young, Daryl Hannah talk 'Paradox' film: 'We're very lucky to have found each other'". Yahoo Entertainment.
- "Daryl Hannah Biography". Biography.com. Archived from the original on May 16, 2014. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
- Staff, Indiewire. "Bahamas Fim Fest To Toast Alan Arkin – IndieWire". www.indiewire.com. Archived from the original on July 9, 2015. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- "SXSW Film Festival Announces 2018 Features and Opening Night Film A Quiet Place". SXSW.com. January 31, 2018. Archived from the original on February 1, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
- Gibbons, Fiachra (August 18, 2000). "Latest itch". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on September 27, 2016.