Crime in London

Figures on crime in London are based primarily on two sets of statistics: the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) and police recorded crime data. Greater London is generally served by three police forces; the Metropolitan Police which is responsible for policing the vast majority of the capital, the City of London Police which is responsible for The Square Mile of the City of London, and the British Transport Police which polices the national rail network and the London Underground. A fourth police force in London, the Ministry of Defence Police, do not generally become involved with policing the general public. London also has a number of small constabularies for policing parks. Within the Home Office crime statistic publications Greater London is referred to as the London Region.

An anti-knife crime demonstration in Wood Green, north London, October 2019

Current trendsEdit

The Mayor’s Office for Policing & Crime (MOPAC) prepares quarterly performance reports for policing and crime in the Greater London area. Q1 2021[1] showed a reduction in all crime in London with the exception of hate crimes and domestic violence. Total notifiable offences (TNO) had decreased by 17.2% when compared to the same quarter in 2019/20 (-20,465) and had decreased by 8.1% (17,148) compared to Q2 2020. These figures include Covid-19 lockdown periods.

The Office for National Statistics data between June 2016 and March 2020 showed per person crime had increased by 31% in England and by a lower margin of 18% in London since 2016.[2] These statistics only count crime recorded by police,[3] and it’s estimated by that overall crime continues to decrease.[4]

The increase in crime recorded in London is not uniform across different types of offence. For example, while homicides increased over the period by 23% in London compared to 8% across England, violence against the person in general increased by 2% in London compared to 7% across England.[2] Over the same period, sexual offences recorded by police in London fell by 2% while in England they remained flat. But robbery increased by 16% in London compared to 6% across England. Otherwise the increase in London over 2019/20 was largely driven by an increase in theft offences, including burglary. Theft[5] is stealing from a person without the use or threat of force, robbery is stealing by using force or the threat of force on someone, and burglary is entering a property illegally in order to steal. Theft offences account for 50% of the Metropolitan Police’s recorded crimes and increased by 4% last year. Across England they fell 5%.

Over the longer period the trend is similar. Since 2016, the number of police recorded theft offences (without force or threat) per person has increased by 23% in London, compared to a rise of 7% in England more widely, accounting for much of the recorded increase in crime in the capital.

Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services (HMICFRS) independently assess the effectiveness and efficiency of police forces. In 2018 they reported the Met recorded just 89.5%[6] of reported crime. Increases in recorded crime since are likely to be partly credited to improvements in the recording of reported crime across London, rather than simply an increase in crime experienced by residents and visitors.

A report that London crime had risen five times faster than the rest of the country since Sadiq Khan became Mayor in 2016 was debunked[7] by the independent fact checker Full Fact.[8] The misinformation is credited to Dan Wooton in the Sun on 1 October 2020,[7] who may have misinterpreted an article in the Evening Standard on 17 July 2020[9] claiming the "over-arching figure for the total number of offences recorded by Metropolitan Police in the last financial year rose by five per cent in 2018".

Violent crimeEdit

 
London Mayor Sadiq Khan is also the Police and Crime Commissioner for the city.

Offences categorised as "violent crime" by the Home Office are violence against the person,[10] including robbery and sexual offences. Sometimes includes kidnapping. It was announced in September 2018 that the city planned to emulate Scotland's public health approach, inspired by Cure Violence in Chicago, to violent crime. This saw the murder rate in Glasgow drop by more than a half between 2004 and 2017. In 2018 Sadiq Khan announced funding of £500,000 for a Violence Reduction Unit, though this has been criticised as insufficient.[11]

HomicideEdit

Between 1990 and 2003 the number of homicides—i.e. murder, manslaughter, etc.—in London averaged 120 per year, with a low of 109 in 1996, and a high of 204 in 2003. The number then fell in each and every year between 2004 and 2014 to a new low of 83. They then rose sharply to 118 in 2015 and 110 in 2016.[n 1] In 2017 there was a further rise to 131, although this included the combined 14 victims of the Westminster Bridge (5), London Bridge (8), and Finsbury Park (1) terrorist attacks, but even with these major events was still lower than any year between 1990 and 2009.[24] As of 31 December 2018, there have been 132 homicides reported in London in 2018.[25] The year 2019 was reportedly London's bloodiest year since more than a decade, which recorded a 11-year high of 143 people being killed.[26][27] As of 31 December 2019, the number of homicides reported reached 149, the highest in a decade.[28]

Of the 126 cases looked into by the Met:[29]

  • 31 of them were categorised as domestic violence offences, included 12 resulting from stabbing
  • 44 of the homicides took place in a dwelling and 71 of them on the street
  • Of the 126 victims, 14 were teenagers and 40 were aged between 20 and 24
  • 31 of the homicides were assessed as “gang-related”
  • In 14 cases the killer used a firearm, and in 71, a knife
Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Number of homicides in London[30][31] 119 114 140 122 129 107 98 130 159 166 181 194 216 221 121 145 132 125 154 129 124 118 104 107 94 119 109 122 133 149 126
Homicide Rate (per 100,000) 1.7 2.1 1.8 2.1 2.1 2.4 2.0 2.3 2.3 2.5 2.4 2.2 1.8 1.6 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.7 1.4

Although the homicide rate in London has been increasing year on year since 2014, its homicide rate is still much lower than other major cities such as NYC and Toronto. England is a relatively safe country by European standards, and safer than country in North America. Comparisons can be made to other world cities.

Number of homicides in 2017 Homicide Rate Population (thousands)
London 118 1.3           8,825
Berlin[32] 91 2.6           3,500
Madrid[32] 39 1.2           3,200
Rome (2016)[32] 21 0.7           2,900
Amsterdam[32] 19 2.3                   813

The distribution of homicide offences in London can vary significantly by borough.

Between 2000 and 2015 there were 2,326 offences committed in London.

The murder rate increased 25.5% in between 2014 and 2015.

The 2015 total was still lower than most recent years prior and the increase came from a relatively low count in 2014.[33]

Rank Borough Number of homicides 2000 to 2012
1 Lambeth 154
2 Southwark 124
3 Newham 122
4 Hackney 114
5 Brent 100
6 Haringey 97
7 Croydon 87
8 Camden 85
9 Ealing 84
10 Lewisham 83
11 Tower Hamlets 83
12 Waltham Forest 73
13 Greenwich 71
14 Islington 70
15 Enfield 66
16 Westminster 63
17 Wandsworth 62
18 Hillingdon 61
19 Barnet 48
20 Hammersmith and Fulham 48
21 Hounslow 42
22 Barking & Dagenham 42
23 Bromley 38
24 Redbridge 38
25 Bexley 30
26 Havering 28
27 Merton 26
28 Sutton 25
29 Harrow 24
30 Kensington & Chelsea 23
31 Kingston upon Thames 17
32 Richmond upon Thames 14

Moped crimeEdit

A noted trend since 2014 is robberies and assaults committed by individuals riding mopeds; Crime involving mopeds has gone up by more than 600% in London in the past two years.[34]

Assault with injuryEdit

Assault with injury, currently comprising assault occasioning actual bodily harm and grievous bodily harm by the Metropolitan Police, accounts for on average 40% of all violence against the person offences within the Metropolitan Police area and 45% of all violence against the person nationally.[35] In England and Wales, 'assault without injury' and harassment account for a further 38% of crimes recorded within the violence against the person category.

In 2008–09, there 70,962 assault with injury offences in London with a rate of 9.5 per 1,000 residents.[36] This was slightly higher than the total rate for England and Wales, which was 7.0 per 1,000 residents.[37]

 
British Crime Survey Violence Rates (1981–2009)[14][38]
Crime rate 2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09
ABH and GBH rate per 1,000 London 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.8 9.4 11.2 10.4 9.5 9.5
ABH and GBH rate per 1,000 England & Wales 3.6 3.8 6.2 7.6 8.6 9.0 8.4 7.5 7.0

Following the changes introduced by the National Crime Recording Standard (NCRS) in 2002, the way assaults were categorised was dependent on injury, leading to a significant jump in combined ABH and GBH figures nationally in 2002–03. Prior to NCRS, minor injuries were counted as common assault, while after NCRS any assault with injury would be categorised as ABH. Looking at figures over time is of limited value as figures prior to 2002–03 are not comparable with the way certain violent crimes have been recorded since then. These changes were not reflected in the Metropolitan Police performance figures until 2004/05, when the rate almost doubled to 9.4 per 1,000 residents compared to 5.8 the previous year. In 2005–06, the rate of recorded ABH and GBH peaked both nationally and within the Metropolitan Police force area according to recorded statistics.

The British Crime Survey or BCS is a systematic victim study, currently carried out by BMRB Limited on behalf of the Home Office. The BCS seeks to measure the amount of crime in England and Wales by asking around 50,000 people aged 16 and over, living in private households, about the crimes they have experienced in the last year. The survey is comparable to the National Crime Victimization Survey conducted in the United States. The Home Office estimated that just 37% of violence with injury offences were reported to and recorded by police.

An advantage of the BCS is that it has not been affected by the changes in counting rules and the way crime is categorised because it is survey-based. This makes it possible to observe national trends in crime over time. Crime in England and Wales 2008/09,[39] shows BCS violence with injury to have peaked in 1995 and declined steadily since then. Between 1995 and 2008–09, the BCS estimates that violence with injury offences decreased 53.6% across England & Wales.

Gun and knife crimeEdit

Weapon-enabled crimes are recorded by the Metropolitan Police when a weapon is used to assist a crime, for example a gun being used as part of a robbery. Recorded gun- and knife-enabled offences in London account for about 2% of total recorded crime. The two London Boroughs with the highest rate of gun and knife crime are Southwark and Lambeth. Other London Boroughs with high gun and knife crime rates include Brent, Haringey and Hackney.[40][failed verification] Gun-enabled crime figures are displayed on the Metropolitan Police website at borough level expressed as financial year to date comparisons[41] but they are seldom made available for historical comparisons. Figures are available for calendar years 2000 to 2007[42] as shown in the table below.[41][43]

Crime rate 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Gun-enabled crime 2961 3250 4005 4444 4025 3744 3881 3327 3459 2525 3295
Rate per 10,000 London 3.9 4.3 5.3 5.9 5.4 4.9 5.2 4.4 4.6 3.4 4.4

Since 2000 there has been consistent fluctuations in the number of gun-enabled crimes recorded by the Metropolitan Police which peaked in 2003 when there were 4,444 recorded offences. The lowest number of offences recorded was potentially in 2008 where there were just 1,980 gun-enabled crimes between December 2007 and November 2008, an unusually low figure in comparison to other years. Since then however gun-enabled crime has increased 67% across London with 3,309 offences being recorded in the 12 months to November 2009.

Crime rate 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008–09 2009–10
Knife-enabled crime[43] 10305 12985 12367 12301 10699 12345 12611
Rate per 10,000 London 13.7 17.3 16.5 16.4 14.3 16.4 16.8

Knife-enabled crime figures are available from 2003 to 2007 and more recently monthly knife crime summaries are provided on the Metropolitan Police website showing financial year to date figures.[44] Knife enabled offences increased from 2003 to 2004 and from then on saw annual reductions until 2007. It was not possible to retrieve statistics for 2008 and 2009.

The Metropolitan Police a number of operations that concentrate on knife and gun crime. They include Operation Trident and Trafalgar which deal with fatal and non-fatal shootings across London, Operation Blunt which was initially launched across 12 boroughs in 2004 to tackle knife crime and subsequently rolled out across the forces 32 boroughs in 2005 after early successes.[45] Operation Blunt was re-launched as Operation Blunt II in 2008 with the aim of tackling serious youth violence.[46] In addition to this there is the Specialist Firearms Command formerly known as SO19.

There has been an overall increase of crime rate especially knife stabbings from April 2010 (1093) to November 2018 (1208).[47] Mayor of London, Sadiq Khan said that the knife crime offenders will be tagged with tracking GPS devices for a year upon their release from the prison which will record their movements against the location of reported crimes & revert to police with the information.[48]

RobberyEdit

 
London Robbery Offences (1996–2009)

Recording of robbery offences in England and Wales are sub-divided into Business Robbery (robbery of a business, e.g. a bank robbery) and Personal Robbery (taking an individuals personal belongings with force/threat).[49] Annually business robbery offences in London account for on average 10% of total robbery offences.

Crime Rate 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11
London Robbery Offences[50][51][52][53] 32867 28442 26330 32924 40992 53547 42496 40640 39033 45311 45771 37000 32555 33463 35857
Rate per 1,000 London 4.4 3.8 3.5 4.4 5.5 7.1 5.7 5.4 5.2 6.0 6.1 4.9 4.3 4.5 4.4

Robbery offending across London fell almost 20% between 1996 and 1998 from 32,867 to 26,330 offences. Following changes in counting rules of crimes and the later introduction of the National Crime Recording Standard offences of robbery rose both nationally and within London.[54] In London offences increased by 25% in 1999 compared with 1998. There was a 25% increase between 1999 and 2000/01 and a further 30% increase between 2000/01 and 2001/02 when the robbery rate in London peaked to 7.1 offences per 1,000 population. In March 2002 the government launched the 'Street Crime Initiative' with the aim of reducing robbery in the most affected police forces, including the Metropolitan Police. Nationally the 'Street Crime Initiative' achieved a reduction in robbery of 32% by March 2005.[55] In London during the same period robbery reduced by 27% from 53,547 in 2001/02 to 39,033 in 2004/05. After the initiative had finished robbery offences increased and stayed at a rate of around 6.0 per 1,000 for the next two financial years, however, there has now been a steady annual decline in robbery rates across London since 2006/07.

The increases in robbery were largely attributed to the rise in youth on youth robberies across London with particular focus around schools and transport interchanges and increased usage and ownership of items such as mobile phones, one of the most commonly stolen items. The increases that followed the end of the street crime initiative were thought somewhat to be a result of the increased mobility of young people when the introduction of oyster cards to provide under-16s free travel on London's transport network was introduced.[56]

Race and crimeEdit

In June 2010 The Sunday Telegraph, through a Freedom of Information Act request, obtained statistics on accusations of crime broken down by race from the Metropolitan Police Service.[n 2] The figures showed that the majority of males who were accused of violent crimes in 2009–10 were black. Of the recorded 18,091 such accusations against males, 54 percent accused of street crimes were black; for robbery, 59 percent; and for gun crimes, 67 percent. Between April 2005 and January 2006, figures from the Metropolitan Police Service showed that black people accounted for 46 percent of car-crime arrests generated by automatic number plate recognition cameras.[58]

Street crimes include muggings, assault with intent to rob, and snatching property. Black males accounted for 29 percent of the male victims of gun crime and 24 percent of the male victims of knife crime. Similar statistics were recorded for females. On knife crime, 45 percent of suspected female perpetrators were black; for gun crime, 58 percent; and for robberies, 52 percent.[57]

Operation Trident was set up in March 1998 by the Metropolitan Police to investigate gun crime in London's black community after black-on-black shootings in Lambeth and Brent.[59]

Bicycle theftsEdit

In 2014, the number of bicycles reported stolen to the Metropolitan Police and City of London Police forces came to 17,809.[60] However the true number of bicycle thefts may be much larger as many victims do not report it to the police. According to the British Crime Survey and Transport for London only one in four victims of bicycle thefts actually report the crime.[61]

Metropolitan force comparisonsEdit

Below are crime rate comparisons for London and the metropolitan districts of England in 2007/08 financial year.[62][63]

Offences (per 1,000 of population, except homicides and firearm offences, per 100,000)
Police force Main city Homicides Firearms offences Violence against
the person
Sexual offences Robbery Burglary (residential) Theft of and from
motor vehicles
Foo Foo 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Greater London London 2.0 45.3 23.2 1.2 4.9 8.0 16.0
Greater Manchester Manchester 1.9 44.6 19.3 1.2 2.9 8.3 16.7
West Midlands Birmingham 1.6 37.5 20.5 1.2 2.9 6.9 13.1
Merseyside Liverpool 2.3 29.5 15.4 0.7 1.2 6.2 10.7
South Yorkshire Sheffield 2.1 15.0 18.1 0.9 1.0 6.6 15.4
West Yorkshire Leeds 2.1 15.1 17.7 1.0 1.4 8.5 13.2
Northumbria Police (Tyne and Wear) Newcastle 2.1 5.6 13.9 0.8 0.6 3.6 8.1
England London 1.4 18.9 17.5 1.0 1.6 5.2 11.1

See alsoEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]
  2. ^ The figures relate to those 'proceeded against', including those prosecuted in court, whether convicted or acquitted; those issued with a caution, warning or penalty notice; those the Crown Prosecution Service decided not to charge; and those whose crimes were 'taken into consideration' after a further offence.[57]

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