Chyhyryn (Ukrainian: Чигири́н, pronounced [tʃɪɦɪˈrɪn]) is a city and historic site located in Cherkasy Raion of Cherkasy Oblast of central Ukraine. From 1648 to 1669 the city was a Hetman residence. After a forced relocation of the Ruthenian Orthodox metropolitan see from Kyiv in 1658, it became a full-fledged capital of the Cossack Hetmanate. Chyhyryn also became a traditional place for the appointment to the office of Hetman of Zaporizhian Host. It hosts the administration of Chyhyryn urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine.[1] Population: 8,664 (2021 est.)[2]

Chyhyryn
Чигирин
View of Chyhyryn.
View of Chyhyryn.
Flag of Chyhyryn
Coat of arms of Chyhyryn
Chyhyryn is located in Cherkasy Oblast
Chyhyryn
Chyhyryn
Location of Chyhyryn
Chyhyryn is located in Ukraine
Chyhyryn
Chyhyryn
Chyhyryn (Ukraine)
Coordinates: 49°04′38″N 32°38′57″E / 49.07722°N 32.64917°E / 49.07722; 32.64917Coordinates: 49°04′38″N 32°38′57″E / 49.07722°N 32.64917°E / 49.07722; 32.64917
Country Ukraine
Oblast Cherkasy Oblast
RaionCherkasy Raion
City rights1592
Government
 • MayorSerhiy Oleksiiovych Tymchenko
Area
 • Total14 km2 (5 sq mi)
Elevation
124 m (407 ft)
Population
 (2021)
 • Total8,664
 • Density854/km2 (2,210/sq mi)
Postal code
20900-20906
Area code(s)+380 4730

NamesEdit

Chyhyryn (Ukrainian: Чигирин) or Chigirin (Russian: Чигири́н) Polish: Czehryń, Turkish: Çigirin or Çehrin.

LocationEdit

The city is on the banks of Tiasmyn River and lies at an altitude of 124 metres above mean sea level. Minor industries, such as food and furniture factories, are the basis of the town economy in the 21st century.

HistoryEdit

The area (1320–1569) had been part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It was ceded to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (in the Kijów Voivodeship [Kyiv or Kiev] of the Crown of Poland) before the Union of Lublin. It was granted Magdeburg Rights in 1592 by Sigismund III Vasa.

 
Chyhyryn on the Tiasmyn. A fragment of the Tractus Borysthenis Vulgo Dniepr at Niepr dicti map by Joannii Janssonii (Amsterdam, 1663)

Chyhyryn is first mentioned as a fortified Cossack winter station. In 1638, Bohdan Khmelnytsky became its starosta (regional leader), and in 1648 it became the newly elected Hetman's residence and the capital of the Cossack state, the Zaporozhian Host. During the Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681) it was the center of two bloody campaigns (1675–76 and 1677–78). In 1678 the castle of Chyhyryn was blown up by the retreating Russian garrison that was stationed there, while the Turkish forces sacked the rest of the city. After this, it gradually lost its significance. The city fell under Ottoman occupation but was later recovered by the Cossacks while the Ottomans were busy in the Battle of Vienna. It remained the center of the Chyhyryn regiment until 1712 and upon the final incorporation into the Russian Empire (1793) it became part of the Kyiv region.

In 1917 a congress of Free Cossacks took place in Chyhyryn. At that congress by tradition Pavlo Skoropadsky was elected as the Hetman of the Cossacks (later in 1918 in Kyiv, he was elected the Hetman of Ukraine as well).

During World War II, Chyhyryn was occupied by the German Army from August 7, 1941 to December 12, 1943.

In 1989 the population of the city was 12 853 people.[3]

Until 18 July 2020, Chyhyryn served as an administrative center of Chyhyryn Raion. The raion was abolished in July 2020 as part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Cherkasy Oblast to four. The area of Chyhyryn Raion was merged into Cherkasy Raion.[4][5]

ClimateEdit

Climate data for Chyhyryn (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −0.9
(30.4)
−0.1
(31.8)
5.5
(41.9)
14.4
(57.9)
21.3
(70.3)
24.3
(75.7)
26.3
(79.3)
25.9
(78.6)
20.0
(68.0)
13.0
(55.4)
5.0
(41.0)
0.4
(32.7)
12.9
(55.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.5
(25.7)
−3.1
(26.4)
1.7
(35.1)
9.4
(48.9)
15.9
(60.6)
19.2
(66.6)
21.2
(70.2)
20.4
(68.7)
14.9
(58.8)
8.8
(47.8)
2.3
(36.1)
−2.1
(28.2)
8.8
(47.8)
Average low °C (°F) −6.1
(21.0)
−5.9
(21.4)
−1.5
(29.3)
4.8
(40.6)
10.4
(50.7)
14.3
(57.7)
16.1
(61.0)
15.0
(59.0)
10.4
(50.7)
5.4
(41.7)
−0.2
(31.6)
−4.4
(24.1)
4.9
(40.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 34.4
(1.35)
32.9
(1.30)
35.5
(1.40)
36.7
(1.44)
49.7
(1.96)
77.1
(3.04)
65.2
(2.57)
54.2
(2.13)
55.9
(2.20)
42.1
(1.66)
39.4
(1.55)
37.0
(1.46)
560.1
(22.05)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7.4 7.1 7.3 7.0 7.2 8.5 7.1 6.3 6.5 5.7 6.8 7.4 84.3
Average relative humidity (%) 83.5 80.8 76.6 66.9 63.2 68.0 68.0 66.4 71.9 76.9 84.0 85.1 74.3
Source: World Meteorological Organization[6]


Notable peopleEdit

LandmarksEdit

The Trinity Monastery, built near Chyhyryn in 1627, was later destroyed by the Soviet authorities. Other historical landmarks, such as the town hall and Khmelnytsky's palace, did not survive either. After Ukraine regained independence, Hetman's residence was restored and became a museum.

GalleryEdit

International relationsEdit

Twin towns — Sister citiesEdit

Chyhyryn is twinned with:

City Country Year of Signing
Sebastopol, California  United States 1993

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Чигиринська територіальна громада" (in Ukrainian). decentralization.gov.ua.
  2. ^ Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2021 / Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2021 (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine.
  3. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность городского населения союзных республик, их территориальных единиц, городских поселений и городских районов по полу
  4. ^ "Про утворення та ліквідацію районів. Постанова Верховної Ради України № 807-ІХ". Голос України (in Ukrainian). 2020-07-18. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  5. ^ "Нові райони: карти + склад" (in Ukrainian). Міністерство розвитку громад та територій України.
  6. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.

External linksEdit