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Chortkiv (Ukrainian: Чортків; Polish: Czortków; Yiddish: טשאָרטקאָוו Chortkov) is a city in Chortkiv Raion, Ternopil Oblast (province) in western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Chortkiv Raion (district), housing the district's local administration buildings. Chortkiv hosts the administration of Chortkiv urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Population: 28,279 (2022 est.).
|Coordinates: 49°00′27″N 25°47′26″E / 49.00750°N 25.79056°ECoordinates: 49°00′27″N 25°47′26″E / 49.00750°N 25.79056°E|
|• City Mayor||Volodymyr Shmatko|
|• Total||30 km2 (10 sq mi)|
|Elevation||218 m (715 ft)|
|• Density||940/km2 (2,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|Area code||+380 3552|
Chortkiv is located in the northern part of the historic region of Galician Podolia on the banks of the Seret River.
In the past Chortkiv was the home of many Hasidic Jews; it was a notable shtetl and had a significant number of Jews residing there prior to the Holocaust. Today, Chortkiv is a regional commercial and small-scale manufacturing center. Among its architectural monuments is a fortress built in the 16th and 17th centuries as well as historic wooden churches of the 17th and 18th centuries.
The first historical mention of Chortkiv dates to 1522, when Polish King Sigismund I the Old granted an ownership order for Jerzy Czortkowski over the town and allowed him to name it after himself—Czortków. The small community, numbering at 50 families, were almost all massacred during the Chmielnicki Uprisings of 1648–9. Jewish leadership opposed the resettlement of Jews in Chortkiv until 1705. During that time, the town was also granted Magdeburg rights. However, Chortkiv would later decline in the second half of the 17th century during Ottoman Expansion of central Europe. The town was taken over by Ottoman Empire, whose rule lasted 27 years. It was part of the short-lived Turkish Podolia Eyalet, which lasted from 1672 to 1699. During this period, it was nahiya centre in Yazlofça sanjak as Çortkuv (Spelled as Chortkoov in Turkish). After First Partition of Poland Chortkiv came under Austro-Hungarian rule which lasted from 1772 to 1918, during the time of which it was the center of the Chortkiv Bezirk except brief Russian rule between 1809 and 1815 as part of Tarnopol Governorate. On June 8, 1919 the Ukrainian Galician Army broke for couple months through the Polish front at Chortkiv and began the Chortkiv offensive. Soon afterwards, the town was seized by the Poles. It was ceded to sovereign Poland in the Peace Treaty of Riga between Poland, Soviet Russia (acting also on behalf of Soviet Belarus) and Soviet Ukraine, and remained part of the Tarnopol Voivodeship of the Second Polish Republic until the Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939.
In 1931, the town had 19,037 inhabitants, 10504 were Polish Roman Catholics, 4860 were Ukrainian and Polish Jews, and 3633 were Ukrainian.
Chortkiv was an important garrison of the Polish Border Defence Corps Brigade "Podole", whose commandant from 1935 to 1938 was General Stefan Rowecki. Furthermore, it was home to the 36th Reserve Infantry Division.
The town was annexed by the Soviet Union from September 17, 1939 until June 1941. Its Polish inhabitants, particularly students of the local high school, organized a failed uprising in January 1940, which would serve as the first Polish uprising of World War II. From 1941-1944 it was annexed to Nazi Germany. After the defeat of the Nazis by the Red Army in 1944, the town returned to Soviet control until in 1991 it became part of independent Ukraine. The Jewish residents were persecuted and deported as part of the Holocaust. The surviving Polish residents of the town were transferred to the Recovered Territories in the immediate postwar period (see Polish population transfers (1944–1946)).
Due to heavy destruction of Ternopil, in 1944 Chortkiv served as a regional seat.
In January 1989 the population was 26 681 people.
In January 2013 the population was 29 640 people.
In 2019, at the 40-meter height of the tower of the Saint Stanislaus church in Chortkiv, archaeologist, researcher of fortifications and antiquities Volodymyr Dobrianskyi discovered a detonator of a shrapnel projectile, according to its flight trajectory determined that the 1st, 3rd, 4th and 7th cannon regiments (64 guns) under the command of Ataman Kirill Karas during the Chortkiv offensive (June 7–28, 1919) were stationed in the woods west of the village of Shmankivtsi in the Chortkiv district.
Until 18 July 2020, Chortkiv was designated as a city of oblast significance and did not belong to Chortkiv Raion even though it was the center of the raion. As part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Ternopil Oblast to three, the city was merged into Chortkiv Raion.
The former Chortkiv Air Base is located nearby.
|Climate data for Chortkiv (1981–2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−0.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−3.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−6.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||31.3
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||7.8||8.4||8.6||8.4||10.0||10.1||10.2||8.6||8.3||6.9||8.0||9.4||104.7|
|Average relative humidity (%)||84.1||81.6||76.5||68.2||67.7||72.5||73.0||73.9||77.4||80.2||85.2||86.4||77.2|
|Source: World Meteorological Organization|
People from ChortkivEdit
- Kateryna Rubchakova (1881–1919), Ukrainian actress and singer
- Maria Maciyivska (born 1918), first soprano Leeds Church Toronto, Ontario 1954 - 2008.
- Sacha Blonder (André Blondel [fr]) (1909-1949), Ecole de Paris painter
- Waclaw Czerwinski - Polish engineer and pilot, pioneer of Polish gliding,
- Jerzy Czortkowski, founder of Chortkiv
- Bernard Hausner (1874–1938), rabbi, diplomat and member of the Sejm
- Pinchas Horowitz (1731–1805), rabbi and Talmudist
- Jerzy Janicki (1928-2007) – Polish writer and reporter,
- Edward Kmiecik (born 1928) - Polish painter,
- Ireneusz Opacki (1933-2005) – academic of the Katowice Silesian University, expert on Polish literature,
- Jerzy Przystawa (born 1939) - Polish scientist, physicist,
- Alfred Trawinski - major of the Polish Army, doctor and professor of Medicine Academy of Lviv,
- Tadeusz Wazewski (1896-1972) – Polish scholar, mathematician, professor of Jagiellonian University,
- Shmelke of Nikolsburg (1746–1778), one of the great early Chasidic Rebbes
- Karl Emil Franzos (1848–1904), Austrian novelist
- Leopold Levytskyi (1906–1973), Ukrainian painter
- Perla (Penina) Richter Feldschu (1900-1943), Warsaw musicologist, wife of Zionist activist Ruben Feldschu (Ben Shem)
- Bernard (Berl) Hausner (1874-1938) father of Gideon Hausner. Gideon was the Prosecutor of Adolf Eichmann, and Attorney General of Israel. Bernard was a Rabbi in Lemberg, Polish consul to Palestine, and Zionist. Migrated to Israel in 1927.
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- ^ "Chortkiv (Ternopil Oblast, Chortkiv Raion)". weather.in.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- ^ "Чертковская городская громада" (in Russian). Портал об'єднаних громад України.
- ^ Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2022 [Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2022] (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine.
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- ^ "Jewish History of Chortkiv". Beit Hatfutsot Open Databases Project, The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot.
- ^ http://i.piccy.info/i9/50c7ec080439bb1790d77fec4b180a08/1437042927/139143/831035/The_Eyalet_of_Kamanice.jpg Map of Podolia Eyalet
- ^ Gross, Jan Tomasz (2002). Revolution from Abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland's Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia. Princeton University Press. p. 172. ISBN 0-691-09603-1.
- ^ Snitovsky, O. Five centuries of Ternopil. The city of Hetman Jan and mason Leontiy[permanent dead link]. Ukrinform. 28 August 2015
- ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность городского населения союзных республик, их территориальных единиц, городских поселений и городских районов по полу
- ^ "Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2013 року. Державна служба статистики України. Київ, 2013. стор.96" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2019-07-22.
- ^ Володимир Добрянський, «Чортківська офензива» та домініканський костел святого Станіслава у Чорткові: дослідження свідчень 100-річної давнини // Бережани та Бережанщина в період «Чортківської офензиви»: події, особистості, пам’ять. — Бережани, 2019. — 39—48 с.
- ^ "Про утворення та ліквідацію районів. Постанова Верховної Ради України № 807-ІХ". Голос України (in Ukrainian). 2020-07-18. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
- ^ "Нові райони: карти + склад" (in Ukrainian). Міністерство розвитку громад та територій України.
- ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- ^ Laurence Weinbaum "'Shaking the Dust Off". The Story of the Warsaw Ghetto’s Forgotten Chronicler, Ruben Feldschu (Ben Shem)" Jewish Political Studies Review 22:3-4 (Fall 2010)
8. Czortków KehilaLinks Site - JewishGen http://kehilalinks.jewishgen.org/Suchostaw/sl_czortkow.htm
- "Main - Informational-Entertaining site of Chortkiv". Chortkiv.te.ua. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- Miri Gershoni Shifris, Site dedicated to city Jews