Chetavani ra Chungatya

Chetavani ra Chungatya (Devnagari: चेतावणी रा चूंगटिया; transl: The Pinches of Admonition or Urges to Awake) is a patriotic Dingal poem composed by Thakur Kesari Singh Barhath in 1903 and addressed to Maharana of Mewar, Fateh Singh, exhorting him to uphold the traditions of his lineage and to not attend the Delhi Durbar.[1] The couplets had the desired effect on the Maharana who decided not to attend the durbar despite being present in Delhi.[2][3] The work remains one of the great literary works produced during the freedom struggle.[4] It consists of 13 stanzas or sortha (saurashtra-duha).[5][6]

Chetavani ra Chungatya
by Thakur Kesari Singh Barhath
First published inIndia
LanguageDingal (Rajasthani)
PublisherShodh Patrika
Publication date1953
Media typepaperback

Background Edit


Invitation Edit

Lord and Lady Curzon arriving at the Delhi Durbar, 1903.

The Delhi Durbar of 1903 was held to celebrate the succession of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra as Emperor and Empress of India. At the same time, the capital of British India was shifted from Kolkata to Delhi. Lord Curzon had obtained the consent of almost all the kings, nawabs, feudatories, and vassals, except the Maharana of Udaipur (Mewar), to appear in the Durbar.[7][8][9]

In response, the Maharajas of Jaipur, Jodhpur, Kishangarh, Sirohi, Kota, Bikaner, etc., appreciated the invitation & expressed joy & gratitude. Udaipur, however, received it coldly due to the treaty of 1818[note 1] b/w Mewar State and the British. Lord Curzon went to convince the Maharana to attend the Delhi Durbar, which he eventually agreed to do with conditions: first position among the native rulers of India, exemption from the procession, and a seat in keeping with his status.'[10]

The main concern of Maharana was the potential compromise of his claim to precedence over all other Indian princes. Thus, it was assured that "due consideration would be given to his dignity" and his place would be first in the order of precedence among all the ruling Princes of India.[9]

The Counsel Edit

The general opinion of the nobles and the people in the Mewar State was against the Maharana's decision.[11] Even many nobles and chieftains from outside Mewar State were disheartened at the news. Some of the them gathered and requested Thakur Kesari Singh Barhath to find a solution to this predicament.[7]

Kesari Singh Barhath of Devpura (Shahpura), earlier chief advisor to Fateh Singh, consulted Rao Gopal Singh of Kharwa to dissuade Maharana from going to Delhi. Thakur Hari Singh of Khatu, Thakur Karan Singh of Jobner, Rao Umrao Singh, Sajjan Singh of Khandela and Thakur Bhur Singh from Malsisar joined in. Everyone agreed that to uphold Mewar's pride, Fateh Singh should be reminded of Rana's traditions, pride and honor. These discussions took place at Malsisar thakur's haveli in Jaipur.[7]

Rao Gopal Singh suggested that in critical times such as this in the history of Rajputana, the Charanas have always given the right guidance through their eloquent speech. Hence, Kesari Singh was entrusted with this task, who composed a poem of thirteen sorthas, hearing which, everyone present there were very impressed. They were certain of the effectiveness of these sorthas (couplets) that if conveyed to Maharana in time, he would give up the idea of attending the Durbar.[7]

The purpose of the poem was to convey to the Maharana that it was derogatory to his dignity and beneath his status to attend the Durbar, and would impair the prestige, which he enjoyed among the Rajputs and the Hindus of India.[7]

Delhi Durbar-1903 Edit

Rao Gopal Singh Kharwa had taken the responsibility of delivering these couplets to Fateh Singh in Udaipur, titled Chetavani Ra Chungatia. However, by the time he arrived, Fateh Singh had departed by train. Despite this, Zorawar Singh[8], younger brother of Kesari Singh, was prepared and delivered the couplets in hand to Maharana at Sareri (Bhilwara) or Nasirabad railway station en route to Delhi.[12]

Rao Gopal Singh writes in a letter to his nephew Khet Singh, "Kesari Singhji, a devotee of Kshattra Shakti, composed a couplet addressed to Maharana Saheb. At that time, Maharana Saheb had left for Udaipur by a special train. This couplet was then presented before Shri Darbar at the Nasirabad station, where he stated that if he had received these couplets in Udaipur itself, then he wouldn't have left. However, he would only deliberate on the matter after reaching Delhi."[7]

The deliberation Edit

It is believed that Fateh Singh came to Delhi due to the pressure of the colonial government, but reading the couplets written by Kesari Singh had a profound effect on him. Moreover, his conditions over precedence in seating were not followed.[8] The poet reminded the Maharana of the glorious and heroic traditions of his ancestors, who never submitted to any power nor paid ‘Nazar’[note 2] to anyone but carried on constant struggle to uphold their name and fame. The composition accused the ruler of deviating from the heroic traditions of his dynasty.[14] The couplets had clearly indicated the wishes of the people.

The famous Indian diarist Amar Singh, son of Thakur Narayan Singh of Kanota, attended the Delhi Durbar as an Imperial Cadet. He recounted in his diary that Sir Pratap, Maharaja of Idar & Regent of Jodhpur, was woken up at midnight by him & informed of Maharana's refusal to attend; who, in turn, informed Viceroy's secretary Lawrence of the situation and warned him that if undue pressure was put on Maharana or retaliatory action was taken, the matter would worsen. He reminded that, at the moment, the armed forces of all the princely states were halted in Delhi and their full sympathies remained with the Maharana. Lord Curzon, upon learning of this, reluctantly accepted the outcome.[7]

Since his arrival in Delhi, Fateh Singh had stayed in his camp, the rebuking couplets (Chetavani ra Chungatya) causing him to reconsider his decision and creating turmoil. Thakur Narayan Singh of Kanota and Maharaja Jai Singh of Alwar disguised themselves and came to his camp to show their support. They detailed the arrangements for his travel from Delhi to Chittor, with horses at every mile: his travel from Delhi to Baswa to be handled by Alwar State, from Baswa to Jahazpur by Jaipur State, and from Jahazpur to Chittor by Gopal Singh Kharwa. Sir Pratap of Jodhpur would handle everything back in Delhi.[7]

These words strengthened his resolve. Maharana declared he was ill and returned to Udaipur via a special train.[15][10][note 3]

Chetavani ra Chungatya Edit

Dingal[17] English translation
पग-पग भ्रम्या पहाड़, धरा छोड़ राख्यो धरम,

महाराणा'र मेवाड़, हिरदै बसिया हिन्द रै।

Wandered among the hills giving up their lands, yet they upheld their dharma.

That is why Maharana and Mewar, remain in the heart of India.

घणा घालिया घमसांण, राण सदा रहिया निडर,

पेखंता फ़रमाण, हलचल किम फ़तमल हुवै !

Enduring insurmountable odds and fighting fierce battles, the Maharanas of Mewar were always fearless.

But O Fateh Singh, what kind of stir in your mind was created by this small decree?

गिरद गजां घमसांण, नहचै धर माई नहीं,

मावै किम महाराण, गज दोसे रा गिरद में !

Went into battle with thousands of elephants and innumerable soldiers that the earth fell short for them.

How shall then Maharana fit into 200 yards of the Delhi Durbar?

ओरां ने आसाण, हाँका हरवळ हालणों,

किम हालै कुल राण, हरवळ साहाँ हाँकिया !

Easy it is for other kings to be steered as they are herded into battle.

But how shall thou be steered, whose ancestors had herded and driven back the imperial armies?

नरियंद सह नज़रांण, झुक करसी सरसी जिको,

पसरैलों किम पाण, पाण छतां थारो फ़ता !

While other kings will offer nazrana, bowing down and extending their palms;

but O Fateh Singh, how will you even raise your hand, who till today has not moved nor bowed down in front of anyone?

सिर झुकिया सहसांह, सींहासण जिण साम्हनै,

रळणो पंगत-राह, फ़ाबै किम तोने फ़ता !

Heads of the Maharajas, Rao, Umrao, and Badshah bowed before the Sisodia throne.

But how would it suit you to join the ranks of kings bowing down today?

सकल चढ़ावे सीस, दान धरम जिण रौ दियो,

सो खिताब बखशीश, लैवण किम ललचावसी !

Those Maharanas whose donations and religious charities people accepted by touching their foreheads.

How did that Maharana allow in his mind the greed of accepting titles and awards?

देखेला हिंदवाण, निज सूरज दिश नेह सूं,

पण "तारा" परवाण, निरख निशाण न्हाकशी।

The people of India will look at the Hindua Suraj (Maharana) with affection,

but finding the "star" (the title of Star of India) of the British government adorning your chest, their gaze will turn down with shame.

देखे अंजस दीह, मुळकेलो मन ही मनां,

दम्भी गढ़ दल्लीह, शीश नमंता सीसवद।

It will see and celebrate, and smile deep down;

the conceitful fort of Delhi, when the Sisodia bows his head.

अंत बेर आखीह, पातळ जै लांबा पहल,

राणा सर राखी, जिणारी शाखी शिर जटा।

The injunctions Pratap gave in the end; never to bow, pay tax to the Delhi throne, or cutting hair;

All the Maharanas followed this pledge, proof of which was the long hair on their heads.

"कठिण जमानो" कौल, बाँधे नर हीमत बिना,

बीराँ हंदो बोल, पातल साँगे पेखियो।

Difficult times these are; none can keep his word without courage and a brave heart.

Pratap and Sanga were such braves who were tested.

अब लग सारां आस, राणा रीत कुल राखसी,

रहो सहाय सुख-रास, एकलिंग प्रभु आप रै।

And now all hope is upon you, Rana, that you will carry on the traditions (reet) of your lineage.

May Lord Ekling be with you and give you the strength to succeed.

मान मोद सीसोद, राजनित बळ राखणो,

गवरमिंटरी गोद, फ़ळ मीठा दीठा फ़ता !

Uphold your honour, O Sisodia, and keep with the political will and strength;

O Fateh Singh, were the fruits ever sweet gained by sitting in the lap of the government?

Assessment and reactions Edit

This incident was widely published in newspapers with big headlines of Maharana withdrawing from the durbar. The incident was seen as part of the nationalistic movements gaining momentum across India.[18] According to the poem, the visit would have been a dishonor to the millions of Hindus in the nation who saw the Mewar King as a savior of the Hindu religion. This ideological overtone was unique to Mewar.[19]

Evaluating the impact of Chetavani Ra Chungatya, the eminent historian Raghubir Singh Gehlot writes—

'…….. The British had their sights on Rajasthan. Kesari Singh's opposition to the colonial government finally boiled over. Maharana Fateh Singh, following his predecessors, was reluctant to attend the Delhi Darbar, despite being invited. When he left for Delhi, Kesari Singh then spoke out against the Maharana and the dormant pride was ignited. Even the chief among the Rajput kings and the revered Hindu Suraj, the Maharana, was pinched (chungatya) that day by Kesari Singh, who with a thundering roar, questioned that descendant of Pratap and Raj Singh. Fateh Singh never attended, and his empty chair symbolically represented the defiance of the Rajput kings and their people. Lord Curzon did not challenge the Maharana. This had a huge impact on Rajasthan and the people, inspiring a wave of courage and hope against the harsh rule of the British.[7]

Dr. Kanhaiyalal Rajpurohit writes—

While the Delhi Durbar was being held, the seat of the Maharana of Mewar was lying vacant. Maharana's special train was moving towards Udaipur. This was a huge blow to the imperialist conceit by the Indians. Kesari Singh's poignant deliverances had performed this miracle. The chetavani was really the call of the soul of Rajasthan which was not possible to ignore.[7]

The Nizam of Hyderabad Mir Osman Ali Khan pays homage to the Emperor and Empress at the Delhi Durbar, December 1911

Delhi Durbar-1911 Edit

Even in the Delhi Darbar of 1911, Maharana Fateh Singh did not attend the durbar and the royal procession of George V. He met the emperor at Salimgarh railway station and returned to Udaipur therefrom.[20][8] The testimony of the accused Somdutt during the Nimej Murder Case (Arrah Conspiracy), whose main accused was Zorawar Singh Barhath, revealed the plannings of revolutionaries. It became known that Kesari Singh Barhath and Gopal Singh Kharwa had once again devised ways to prevent Maharana from attending the durbar.[21]

The accused Somdutt alias Trivenidas Lahiri divulged in his statement—'An anonymous letter was prepared addressed to Maharana on behalf of the Sardars of Mewar, whose script was edited by me. It was mentioned in the letter that Maharana belongs to the Suryavansh, he has never bowed his head before the Mughals in the past. It would be better to commit suicide rather than bow before to the Firangi (British) now.'[7]

Kesari-Pratap Charitra Edit

Akshay Singh Ratnu, eminent poet and a trusted confidant of Maharaja of Alwar, has described this historical event in detail in his poem titled "Kesari-Pratap Charitra". This poetic work was published by Charan Sahitya Research Institute (Ajmer) in 1989.[22][23]

Chetavani ra Chungatya (newspaper) Edit

Chetavani ra Chungatya is also the name of a Hindi newspaper being published fortnightly from Kota.[24][25]

See also Edit

Further reading Edit

  • Lakhawat, Onkar Singh (2012) Svātaṃtrya Rājasūya Yajña meṃ Bārahaṭha Parivāra kī mahāna āhūti. First Edition: December 2012. ISBN 978-81-920932-5-3
  • Gupta, Dr Mohan Lal. Revolutionary Thakur Kesari Singh Barhath: क्रांतिकारी ठाकुर केसरीसिंह बारहठ (in Hindi). Shubhda Prakashan. Edition : 2018[7]

Notes Edit

  1. ^ They argued that Maharana's presence was not obligatory as per the Treaty and Alliance of 1818 signed between Mewar and the British.[10]
  2. ^ Nazar is a tribute conventionally presented at a ruler's accession. Jagirdars present nazar to the king and the king may present nazar to the emperor.[13]
  3. ^ Fateh Singh arrived in Delhi from on 31st December 1902. From Delhi, he onboarded the train back to Udaipur at 7pm on 3rd January 1903.[16]

External links Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ "75 Years of Independence A poet family sowed seeds of revolution in Rajasthan". ETV Bharat News. Retrieved 2023-01-05. Kesari Singh surprised the British colonial forces with his Chetavani Ra Chungatya, a famous historical work composed in Raag Sorath. It was a clarion call for revolution and many youths got influenced by his lyrics.
  2. ^ Hindi Chhandolakshan (in Hindi). Vani Prakashan. विषयान्तर होते हुए भी इन सोरठों का ऐतिहासिक महत्व रोचक है । वर्ष १९०३ ई० में सम्राट एडवर्ड सप्तम के राज्यारोहण का दरबार दिल्ली में हुआ । वायसराय लार्ड कर्जन की महत्वाकांक्षा थी कि वे स्वयं सम्राट के प्रतिनिधि स्वरूप दिल्ली दरबार में सिंहासन पर बैठकर सभी देशी राजे रजवाड़ो से नजर कबूल करे और शाही जलूस में उन्हे अपने हाथी के पीछे रखें । शंका केवल उदयपुर के महाराणा फतेहसिंह की अस्वीकृति की थी, जिनके वंश ने कभी मुगल बादशाहों के सामने भी हार नहीं मानी थी । किन्तु कर्जन का कल्पनातीत विनम्रतापूर्ण निमंत्रण पाकर महाराणा ने स्वीकृति दे दी। इधर स्वतंत्रता के पुजारी एक चारण ने अपना धर्म निभाया । उसने महाराणा को कुल मर्यादा और क्षात्रधर्म का स्मरण दिलाते हुए १३ ओजस्वी सौराष्ट्री दोहे (सोरठे) रचे जो महाराणा को तब मिले जब उनकी स्पेशल ट्रेन चित्तौड़ से रवाना हो चुकी थी । चारण के दोहों का वांछित फल हुआ । महाराणा चेत गए । दिल्ली पंहुचकर वे न दरबार में शामिल हुए न जलूस में। डिंगल भाषा के ये दोहे 'चेतावणी का चूँगट्या' के नाम से प्रसिद्ध हैं । 'चाँद' पत्रिका के नवंबर १९२९ अंक में राजस्थान केसरी ठाकुर केशरी सिंह जी ने इनका उल्लेख किया है ।
  3. ^ Datta, Amaresh (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: A-Devo. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1. He is more known in Rajasthani literature for his Chetavani ra Chungatya (13 couplets) addressed to Maharana Fatehsimha on the occasion of the ruler's departure from Udaipur to attend the coronation Darbar of Delhi in 1903. It is said that the couplets had the desired effect on the Maharana and he made up his mind not to attend the function.
  4. ^ Mahotsav, Amrit. "Chetawani ra Chungatia by Kesari Singh Barhath". Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav, Ministry of Culture, Government of India. Retrieved 2023-01-07.
  5. ^ George, K. M. (1992). Modern Indian Literature, an Anthology: Surveys and poems. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-7201-324-0. It was in 1903 that a coronation darbar was held at Delhi on the occasion of the King Emperor ascending the throne of England. Maharana Fateha Singh of Udaipur was also invited to the darbar, but he refused to accept a lower seat and returned without attending. A poet named Kesari Singh Sauda had addressed some couplets to him which were handed over to him when he was heading towards Delhi in a saloon of his special train. The couplets were meant to censure him for his decision to attend.
  6. ^ Pangadiya, b l (1964). Rajasthan Men Savtantrata Sangram. सशस्त्र क्रान्ति की इस लहर में राजस्थान में सबसे बड़ा योग ठाकुर केशरी सिंह बारहट और उनके परिवार का था। सन्‌ 1872 में शाहपुरा (भीलवाड़ा) के निकट अपनी पैतृक जागीर के गाँव देवपुरा में उत्पन्न श्री बारहठ अनेक भारतीय भाषाश्रों के ज्ञाता, डिंगल के उत्कृष्ट कवि और महान्‌ देशभक्त थे। उन्होंने राजस्थात के राजाओं एवं जागीरदारों में राष्ट्रीय भावना भरने का प्रयत्त किया और उन्हें अपने गौरवपुर्ण श्रतीत का स्मरण कराया । सन्‌ 1903 में लॉड कर्जन के दरवार में भाग लेने के लिये मेवाड़ के महाराणा फतहसिंह जब दिल्‍ली के लिये रवाना हुये तो बारहट के "चेतावनी के चूगटिया" से प्रभावित होकर वे दरवार में भाग लिये बिता ही उदयपुर लौट आये ।
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Gupta, Dr Mohan Lal. Revolutionary Thakur Kesari Singh Barhath: क्रांतिकारी ठाकुर केसरीसिंह बारहठ (in Hindi). Shubhda Prakashan.
  8. ^ a b c d e Jain (historien), Phoolchand; Kapoor, Mast Ram (1999). Svatantratā senānī granthamālā (in Hindi). Concept Publishing Company. pp. 76–77. ISBN 978-81-7022-751-9. महाराणा उदयपुर स्पेशल ट्रेन से दिल्ली जा रहे थे तो चित्तौड़ के पास ठाकुर केसरी सिंह के अनुज भ्राता जोरावर सिंह ने वह पत्र फतेह सिंह जी के कर कमलों तक उनके सैलून में पहुंचा दिया।....दिल्ली पहुंचने पर महाराणा फतेह सिंह जी को मालूम हुआ कि दरबार में भेंट करने वालों की सूची में उनको आठवां स्थान दिया है और शोभायात्रा में अगवानी करने वाले हाथियों के जुलूस में तीसरा स्थान होगा।
  9. ^ a b c Saxena, K. S. (1971). The Political Movements and Awakening in Rajasthan, 1857 to 1947. S. Chand. pp. 121–122.
  10. ^ a b c Paliwal, D. L. (1971). Mewar and the British, 1857-1921 A.D.: A History of the Relations of the Mewar State with the British Government of India from 1857 to 1921 A.D. Bafna Prakashan. pp. 229–231. When he started for Delhi the poet Kesari Singh Barahat presented some verses entitled "Chetavani ra Chungatia" (urges to wake) to the Maharana reminding him of the glorious and heroic traditions of his ancestors, who never submitted to any power nor paid 'Nazar' to any king, but carried constant struggle to uphold their glory and fame. The poem created a marked impression on the Maharana's mind and revived the sense of his ancestral glory in the extreme vexation of the G. O. I., the Maharana left Delhi even before the first ceremony of the State Entry was accomplished.
  11. ^ Mathur, K. C. (2004). Struggle for Responsible Government in Jaipur State, 1931-1949 A.D. Books Treasure. p. 46. It seems that Maharana was assured that , the due consideration would be given to his dignity . But the general opinion of the nobles and the people in the state was against the Maharana's decision .
  12. ^ Kaul, Raj Kumar; Jaidev (1993). Social Awareness in Modern Indian Literature. Indian Institute of Advanced Study. ISBN 978-81-85952-01-7. Only the action of one raja upset the British apple cart a little in Delhi . The man behind the actor , behind the raja , was the same : Barhat Kesarisingh . His historic 'Chetavani Ra Chungtiya ' addressed to Maharana Fatehsingh of Udaipur , turned the tide . The Maharana had set out for Delhi by a special train and Kesarisingh handed in his thirteen sorathas titled ' Chetavani Ra Chungtiya ' ( The Pinches of Admonition ) to him at Sareri , a small wayside railway station . They changed his mind and the Maharana returned to Udaipur without attending the durbar. Thus the original sin this House had committed in 1818 was partially washed off after eighty-five years!
  13. ^ Mayaram, Shail (2004). Against History, Against State: Counterperspectives from the Margins. Permanent Black. p. 161. ISBN 978-81-7824-096-1. nazar (prestation conventionally given at a ruler's ac cession)
  14. ^ Jain, Pratibha; Śarmā, Saṅgītā (2004). Honour, Status & Polity. Rawat Publications. ISBN 978-81-7033-859-8. It is widely believed that Maharana Fateh Singh was dissuaded from attending the durbar in 1903 by the stinging verses of a poem " Chetavani ra Chungtia " composed by Barhat Kesari Singh . The poem was presented to him first as he was preparing to leave for the Imperial Assemblage .
  15. ^ Sharma, Nidhi (2000). Transition from Feudalism to Democracy: A Study of the Integration of Princely States of Rajasthan, 1947-50 AD. Aalekh Publishers. ISBN 978-81-87359-06-7. After receiving a verse 'Chetawani Ra Chungatiya' from Kesari Singh Barhat en-route to Delhi rebuking him for surrendering to the British for political gains, Maharana Fateh Singh did not attend the Durbar even after reaching Delhi, feigning illness.
  16. ^ Jain (historien), Phoolchand; Kapoor, Mast Ram (1999). Svatantratā senānī granthamālā (in Hindi). Concept Publishing Company. pp. 76–77. ISBN 978-81-7022-751-9. महाराणा फतेह सिंह 31.12.1902 को दिल्ली सराय रोहल्ला स्टेशन पर पहुंच गए।...3 जनवरी, 1903 को सायंकाल सात बजे वह अपने स्पेशल रेलवे सैलून में बैठकर वापस उदयपुर रवाना हो गए।
  17. ^ Yadav, Kripal Chandra; Arya, Krishan Singh (1988). Arya Samaj and the Freedom Movement: 1875-1918. Manohar Publications. ISBN 978-81-85054-41-4. Kesari Singh Barhat wrote the following 13 couplets (known as Chetawani ra chungatya) which exhorted Maharana Fateh Singh of Udaipur not to attend the Delhi Durbar 1903. They had the desired affect; and the Maharana returned from Delhi without attending the Durbar.
  18. ^ Kamal, K. L. (1969). Party Politics in an Indian State: A Study of the Main Political Parties in Rajasthan. S. Chand. Reference may also be made to other leaders whose consistent efforts led to political and mass awakening. Kesari Singh Bareth was a revolutionary and a poet. His 'Chetavani ka Chungatia' (Pinches to warn and wake) kindled the fire of nationalism in the heart of the ruler of Mewar, Maharaja Fateh Singh, resulting in his refusal to attend the Delhi Durbar.
  19. ^ Bhargava, Naresh Kumar (1995). Democratization in Feudal System: A Sociological Study of Political Parties. Himanshu Publications. p. 27. ISBN 978-81-85167-93-0.
  20. ^ Hooja, Rima (2006). A History of Rajasthan. Rupa & Company. ISBN 978-81-291-0890-6. In the tradition of his Charan ancestors, Kesari Singh had composed stirring verses that evoked the glorious past of the ruling house of Mewar, and of the numerous ancestors of the Guhila-Sisodia clan who had, over the centuries, refused to bow to others.....The moving poetry played its part, and when the Maharana arrived at Delhi, he merely met the King-Emperor at Salimgarh railway station and returned to Udaipur without either joining the royal procession or attending the durbar. However, British predominance over matters was a reality that could not fade by merely ignoring it — as Fateh Singh continued to face over the coming decades!
  21. ^ Gupta, Dr. Mohan Lal (2017). Freedom Struggle and Integration of Rajasthan (in Hindi). Shubhda Prakashan. ई. 1911 में एक बार फिर महाराणा को दिल्ली दरबार में बुलाया गया तो खरवा के ठाकुर राव गोपालसिंह और ठाकुर केसरीसिंह ने उन्हें पत्र लिखकर धिक्कारा। महाराणा एक बार फिर दिल्ली दरबार में शामिल नहीं हुए।
  22. ^ Shekhawat, Madan Singh (2013-09-25). "Shekhawat Madan Singh of Jhajhar: चेतावनी के चूंटक्या -रचना की एतिहासिक पृष्ठ भूमि". Shekhawat Madan Singh of Jhajhar. Retrieved 2022-10-18. महाराजा अलवर के परम विश्वास पात्र अक्षय सिंह जी रत्नू ने इस एतिहासिक प्रसंग का अपने "केसरी-प्रताप चरित्र " नामक काव्य में विस्तार से वर्णन किया है। इस से आम लोगों में प्रचलित तथा कुछ तथाकथित प्रगतिशील लेखकों व अवसरवादियों द्वारा प्रचलित इस भ्रांत धारणा का भी खंडन होगा कि राजस्थान के रजवाड़े राष्ट्रिय विचारधारा से शून्य और अंग्रेजों के हिमायती थे।
  23. ^ Ratnū, Akshayasiṃha (1989). Akshaya kesarī, pratāpa caritra (in Hindi). Cāraṇa Sāhitya Śodha Saṃsthāna.
  24. ^ Annual Report of the Registrar of Newspapers for India. Office of the Registrar of Newspapers. 2003. p. 300.
  25. ^ Newspapers, India Office of the Registrar of (2003). Press in India: Annual Report of the Registrar of Newspapers for India. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 300.