Charles Alexander, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
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Charles Alexander (Karl Alexander August Johann; 24 June 1818 – 5 January 1901) was the ruler of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach as its grand duke from 1853 until his death.
|Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach|
|Reign||8 July 1853 – 5 January 1901|
|Born||24 June 1818|
|Died||5 January 1901 (aged 82)|
|Spouse||Sophie of the Netherlands|
|Issue||Charles Augustus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach |
Marie, Princess Heinrich VII Reuss
Princess Anna Sophia
Elisabeth, Duchess Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg
|Father||Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach|
|Mother||Maria Pavlovna of Russia|
Born in Weimar, he was the second but eldest surviving son of Karl Frederick, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach and Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia. His mother engaged as tutor for Karl the Swiss scholar Frédéric Soret who became a close acquaintance to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
When he was the Hereditary Grand Duke, Karl Alexander established a strong friendship with Fanny Lewald and Hans Christian Andersen, but this close relationship stopped in 1849 for the war against Denmark over the duchies of Schleswig-Holstein (the First German-Danish War). On 8 July 1853 his father died, and Karl Alexander became Grand Duke; but he stopped his constitutional accession until Goethe's birthday, on 28 August 1853.
The Danish author and poet Hans Christian Andersen was reportedly infatuated with Karl Alexander, writing "I quite love the young duke, he is the first of all princes that I really find attractive".
Karl Alexander renovated Wartburg Castle, and left his traces in many places in Eisenach. He was the protector of Richard Wagner and Franz Liszt, retained the tradition of Weimar's classical period, and gave the old part of Weimar a new and better appearance with the establishment of the Herder monument, and the double monument for Goethe and Schiller. In 1860, he founded the Weimar Saxon-Grand Ducal Art School (with Arnold Böcklin, Franz von Lenbach and the plastic artist Reinhold Begas). As Grand Duke he was automatically rector, president of Jena University where he supported especially the collections among them prominently the Oriental Coin Cabinet.
In the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), Karl Alexander participated only in "Samaritan"; stressed, however, for his war entrance in favor of Schleswig in 1849. The Weimar Congress of the Goethe Federation (opposing the Lex Heinze) occurred towards the end of his reign, in November 1900 - that congress described his government as the Silver Age of Weimar.
Family and childrenEdit
At Kneuterdijk Palace in The Hague, on 8 October 1842, Karl Alexander married with his first cousin, Princess Sophie of the Netherlands, daughter of William II and Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna of Russia, sister of his mother. They had four children:
- Karl August Wilhelm Nicolaus Alexander Michael Bernhard Heinrich Frederick Stefan, Hereditary Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (b. Weimar, 31 July 1844 – d. Cap Martin, France, 20 November 1894).
- Marie Anna Alexandrine Sophie Auguste Helene (b. Weimar, 20 January 1849 – d. Trebschen, 6 May 1922), known as Marie; married on 6 February 1876 to Prince Heinrich VII Reuss of Köstritz.
- Maria Anna Sophia Elisabeth Bernhardine Ida Auguste Helene (b. Weimar, 29 March 1851 – d. Weimar, 26 April 1859), known as Anna.
- Elisabeth Sibylle Maria Dorothea Anna Amalie Luise (b. Weimar, 28 February 1854 – d. Wiligrad, 10 July 1908), known as Elisabeth; married on 6 November 1886 to Duke Johann Albrecht of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
Honours and awardsEdit
- German honours
- Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach: Grand Cross of the White Falcon, 7 July 1818; Grand Master, 8 July 1853
- Ernestine duchies: Grand Cross of the Saxe-Ernestine House Order, February 1842
- Saxony: Knight of the Rue Crown, 1841
- Anhalt: Grand Cross of Albert the Bear, 16 March 1852
- Bavaria: Knight of St. Hubert, 1864
- Brunswick: Grand Cross of Henry the Lion, 1859
- Hesse and by Rhine: Grand Cross of the Ludwig Order, 5 August 1840
- Mecklenburg: Grand Cross of the Wendish Crown, with Crown in Ore
- Nassau: Knight of the Gold Lion of Nassau, September 1858
- Oldenburg: Grand Cross of the Order of Duke Peter Friedrich Ludwig, with Golden Crown, 25 April 1844
- Schaumburg-Lippe: Military Merit Medal, with Swords
- Württemberg: Grand Cross of the Württemberg Crown, 1851
- Foreign honours
- Austrian Empire: Grand Cross of St. Stephen, 1843
- Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Royal Order of Leopold
- Empire of Brazil: Grand Cross of the Southern Cross
- Denmark: Knight of the Elephant, 1 July 1878
- French Empire: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, 10 October 1860
- Kingdom of Italy: Knight of the Annunciation, with Collar
- Empire of Japan: Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum
- Kingdom of Portugal: Grand Cross of the Tower and Sword, 1854
- Russian Empire:
- Grand Duchy of Tuscany: Grand Cross of St. Joseph
- His dark materials Archived 2007-03-14 at the Wayback Machine, The Independent, 27 March 2005.
- Staatshandbuch für das Großherzogtum Sachsen / Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1900), "Genealogie" pp. 1-2
- Justus Perthes, Almanach de Gotha (1901) page 84
- Staatshandbuch für das ... Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1851), "Großherzoglicher Hausorden" p. 7
- Staatshandbücher für das Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha (1847), "Herzogliche Sachsen-Ernestinischer Hausorden" p. 26
- Staatshandbuch für den Freistaat Sachsen: 1870. Heinrich. 1870. p. 3.
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Herzogtum Anhalt (1867) "Herzoglicher Haus-orden Albrecht des Bären" p. 17
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Baden (1865), "Großherzogliche Orden" p. 54
- Hof- und Staatshandbuch des Königreichs Bayern: 1877. Landesamt. 1877. p. 8.
- Braunschweigisches Adreßbuch für das Jahr 1896. p. 3
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Hessen (1879), "Großherzogliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen" p. 10
- Staat Hannover (1865). Hof- und Staatshandbuch für das Königreich Hannover: 1865. Berenberg. pp. 38, 76.
- Staats- und Adreß-Handbuch des Herzogthums Nassau (1866), "Herzogliche Orden" p. 8
- Staat Oldenburg (1873). Hof- und Staatshandbuch des Großherzogtums Oldenburg: für ... 1872/73. Schulze. p. 29.
- Liste der Ritter des Königlich Preußischen Hohen Ordens vom Schwarzen Adler (1851), "Von Seiner Majestät dem Könige Friedrich Wilhelm III. ernannte Ritter" p. 20
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Württemberg (1896), "Königliche Orden" p. 27
- "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 469. ISBN 978-87-7674-434-2.
- M. & B. Wattel (2009). Les Grand'Croix de la Légion d'honneur de 1805 à nos jours. Titulaires français et étrangers. Paris: Archives & Culture. p. 523. ISBN 978-2-35077-135-9.
- "Real y distinguida orden de Carlos III", Guía Oficial de España (in Spanish), 1887, p. 158, retrieved 21 March 2019
- "Caballeros de la insigne orden del toisón de oro", Guía Oficial de España (in Spanish), 1887, p. 146, retrieved 21 March 2019
- "Sveriges statskalender (1877) p.369" (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-01-06 – via runeberg.org.
- "Norges Statskalender (1890) pp. 595-596" (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-01-06 – via runeberg.org.
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