Canton 10 (Croatian: Hercegbosanska županija; Bosnian: Kanton 10; Serbian Cyrillic: Кантон 10) is the largest of the cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by area and eighth by population. It mainly covers an area of the historical and geographical region of Tropolje. The local government seat is in Livno, while the assembly is in Tomislavgrad.[2]

Canton 10
Hercegbosanska županija
Kanton 10
Кантон 10
Flag of Herzeg-Bosnia Canton
Flag
Coat of arms of Herzeg-Bosnia Canton
Coat of arms
Location of Herzeg-Bosnia Canton
StatusCanton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
CapitalLivno (executive)
Tomislavgrad (legislative)
Largest cityLivno
Official languagesCroatian and Bosnian
Ethnic groups
(2013[1])
77.05% Croats
13.01% Serbs
9.58% Bosniaks
GovernmentParliamentary system
Ivan Vukadin (HNP)
LegislatureAssembly of Canton 10
Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
• Establishment
12 June 1996
Area
• Total
4,934.9 km2 (1,905.4 sq mi)
Population
• 2013 census
83,844
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Per capita
USD 13.421
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
USD 155.642 Million
• Per capita
USD 4.989
HDI (2019)0.740
high
CurrencyBAM
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideright

Name, symbols and languageEdit

In Croatian, the term županija is used, while in Bosnian and Serbian the term is kanton/кантон. The canton is officially referred by the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina as Canton 10 (Kanton 10 or Županija 10).[3] The local government refers to it as the Herzeg-Bosnia County, in Croatian Hercegbosanska županija, and uses that name in the local constitution.[4][5] This name was declared unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court of the Federation because "neither part of the territory of the canton belongs to Herzegovina as a region".[3] Other names used at the national level include North Herzegovina Canton (Sjevernohercegovački kanton, Sjevernohercegovačka županija) and Livno Canton (Livanjski kanton), after its capital.[6][7][8]

The coat of arms of the canton under its constitution is a variant of the historical Croatian coat of arms. The flag is a horizontal tricolour of red, white and blue, with the coat of arms in the middle.[9] These symbols were used by the former Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. The West Herzegovina Canton also uses this flag and coat of arms. Their use as the official symbols of the canton was deemed unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court of the Federation, because "they only represented one constituent nation".[3] The local government continues to use the flag and the coat of arms at plates at the official institutions.[10][11]

The constitution lists Croatian and Bosnian languages and the Latin script as official in the canton.[9]

HistoryEdit

 
Dalmatae have long resisted the Romans.

Originally occupied by the Dalmatae, the area of Canton 10 was annexed in 15 AD by the Roman Empire and formed part of the Roman province of Dalmatia. After the introduction of Christianity, Delminium (Tomislavgrad) is the seat of the bishopric.

These years also see the creation of the city of Livno. In 892 was recorded the first written appearance of the name of Livno which was the seat of one of counties of the Kingdom of Croatia. The region is attached in the ninth century to the Kingdom of the Croats and later in the 14th century to the Kingdom of Bosnia. After the death of the king of Bosnia, Tvrtko I in 1391, the power of the Kingdom of Bosnia gradually declines and the region is taken over by the Kingdom of Croatia, the state and associated to the Kingdom of Hungary by a personal union.

In the sixteenth century the region was fully integrated for four centuries within the Ottoman Empire. Under the Ottoman Empire, peasants who remained Catholic or Orthodox were hostile to Turkish officials and to islamized landowners.

 
Assault on Livno (15 August 1878) by Julius von Blaas.

In the nineteenth century, several uprisings and rebellions against Muslim authorities erupted in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Suffering under oppression by the authorities and furious after the Muslim authorities had killed the Catholic spiritual leader of this region, Lovro Karaula, Franciscan priest, the Catholics of Livno rose up against Ottoman rule on July 20, 1875. Soon, the Catholics from across the region joined this uprising. The rebel leaders were two Franciscan priests, Stjepan Krešić and Bonaventura Šarić-Drženjak. For three years, the insurgency controlled the mountainous regions of Glamoč, Livno, Kupres and Grahovo. When the Austrian army arrived in the Livno region in 1878, the insurgents handed over their arms to the Austrians. The Austro-Hungarian troops met in this region an opposition, both of the Muslim population and the Orthodox population, fighting battles in the vicinity of Livno. The region is liberated at the end of the summer of 1878.

Austria-Hungary occupied the region militarily and Bosnia and Herzegovina after the 1878 Berlin Congress. This period is marked by industrialization and westernization. Architecturally, many public buildings were built and many Catholic religious buildings were erected that were banned during the Ottoman era.

 
Marshal Tito during the Second World War in Drvar, May 1944

After World War I, the area of Hercegbosna county was in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later Yugoslavia. Most of the present-day area of Hercegbosna County belonged to the then Travnik area in 1922, while the smaller northern parts belonged to the Bišćan area. After the introduction of the January 6 dictatorship and the division of the state into banovinas in 1929, most of the Croatian areas of Hercegbosna county became part of Primorska banovina with headquarters in Split, while the northern Serbian areas were annexed to Vrbas banovina, with headquarters in Banja Luka. With the creation of Croatian Banovina in 1939, all of Primorska Banovina became part of it, including the majority Croat areas of Hercegbosna County.

After the creation of the NDH and its administrative division, most of the area of today's Hercegbosna County was part of the Great Parish of Pliva and Rama with its seat in Jajce, while the smaller northern part belonged to the Great Parish of Krbava and Psata with its seat in Bihać. After the defeat of the Axis powers in 1945, the area of Hercegbosna County became part of the then federal unit of SFR Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Herzegovina. During the democratic process, most of the Croatian municipalities in the county, Kupres, Livno and Tomislavgrad, became part of the Croatian Republic of Herceg-Bosna.

With the independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the northern and western part of Hercegbosna County under the leadership of the SDS, the Serb majority areas sided with the Army of Republika Srpska killing Croats and Bosniaks in Drvar, Grahovo, Glamoc, attacking Kupres and shelling Livno and surrounding settlements. After the formation of HVO military units, first the Kupres area was liberated. Croats and Bosniaks formed the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina through the Washington Agreement, which included the entire area of Hercegbosna County under HVO control, and a little later, in the summer of 1995, HVO and HV defeated Serb forces decisively. They attacked and captured Grahovo, Glamoč and Drvar, which, together with other victories of the HVO, HV and the RBiH Army, created the conditions for the signing of the Dayton Peace Agreement. After the war, in 1996, Herceg-Bosna self-abolished and FBiH was organized into counties, when Hercegbosna County, the largest county in FBiH, was created.

The Constitution of Herzeg-Bosnia Canton was adopted by the Cantonal Assembly on December 19, 1996.

GeographyEdit

 
Đuličan, Canton 10

The total area of the canton is approximately 4,934 square kilometres (1,910 sq mi), a tenth of the surface of Bosnia-Herzegovina and c. 19% of the Federation.[12] The region is located between Dalmatia to the west, Una-Sana Canton to the north, Central Bosnia Canton to the east and West Herzegovina Canton and Herzegovina-Neretva Canton to the south and southeast.

The natural and geographical features of this area are diverse, ranging from fertile and vast fields and vast pastures, rivers and lakes to centuries-old deciduous and evergreen forests, and provide abundant opportunities for life and economic development based on agricultural production, livestock and the timber industry. . The ecologically clean and unspoiled nature, the mild continental climate, the geographical position and the proximity and good transport connections with neighboring Croatia, i.e. its gateway to the world, Central Dalmatia, and the connection with the whole of Herzegovina, are important factors for economic progress in this area.

TopographyEdit

 
Glamoč Field

Mountainous terrain of the region is a part of the Dinaric Alps, linked from a fold and thrust belt dating from the late Jurassic period, itself part of the Alpine orogeny, extending southeast from the southern Alps. The Dinarides form part of a chain of mountains that stretch across southern Europe and isolate Pannonian Basin from the Mediterranean Sea. The highest mountain of the Tropolje Dinarides is Mount Vran, located on the border of the municipalities of Tomislavgrad and Jablanica with the peak called Veliki Vran (Great Vran) at 2,074 metres (6,804 ft).

Highest mountains of Tropolje
Mountain Peak Elevation Coordinates
Vran Veliki Vran 2,074 m (6,804 ft) 43°40′4.8″N 17°30′18″E / 43.668000°N 17.50500°E / 43.668000; 17.50500
Vran Mali Vis 2,014 m (6,608 ft) 43°40′41.34″N 17°29′57.08″E / 43.6781500°N 17.4991889°E / 43.6781500; 17.4991889
Cincar Cincar 2,006 m (6,581 ft) 43°54′08″N 17°03′46″E / 43.90222°N 17.06278°E / 43.90222; 17.06278
Vran Crno Brdo 1,966 m (6,450 ft) 43°40′52.96″N 17°29′37.3″E / 43.6813778°N 17.493694°E / 43.6813778; 17.493694
Vran Mali Vran 1,961 m (6,434 ft) 43°39′8.8″N 17°17′27″E / 43.652444°N 17.29083°E / 43.652444; 17.29083
Vran Bijela Glava 1,949 m (6,394 ft) 43°39′34″N 17°29′56″E / 43.65944°N 17.49889°E / 43.65944; 17.49889
Vitorog Veliki Vitorog 1,907 m (6,257 ft) 44°7′12″N 17°2′45″E / 44.12000°N 17.04583°E / 44.12000; 17.04583
Golija Veliki Vrh 1,886 m (6,188 ft) 43°59′12″N 16°47′21″E / 43.98667°N 16.78917°E / 43.98667; 16.78917
Vran Priorac 1,881 m (6,171 ft) 43°39′37″N 17°28′27″E / 43.66028°N 17.47417°E / 43.66028; 17.47417
Šator Veliki Šator 1,872 m (6,142 ft) 44°9′26″N 13°35′23″E / 44.15722°N 13.58972°E / 44.15722; 13.58972

Political subdivisionsEdit

 
Municipalities of the Canton

Canton 10 includes 6 municipalities: Drvar, Bosansko Grahovo, Glamoč, Kupres, Livno and Tomislavgrad.

Coat of arms Municipality Population[13] Area (km2)[13]
  Bosansko Grahovo 3,091 780.0
  Drvar 7,506 589.3
  Glamoč 4,038 1033.6
  Kupres 5,573 569.8
  Livno 37,487 994.0
  Tomislavgrad 33,032 967.4

GovernanceEdit

The canton is governed by the Government of Canton 10 (Croatian: Vlada Hercegbosanske županije; Bosnian: Vlada Kantona 10; Serbian Cyrillic: Влада Кантона 10). The current government is a coalition of 2 parties led by Croatian Democratic Union.

GovernmentEdit

The Government of the Canton 10 is led by the prime minister who has one deputy and it consists of seven ministries. The ministries have different seats, with two ministries being seated in Tomislavgrad, and the rest in Livno.

Position Portfolio Seat Officeholder Party
Prime Minister Livno Ivan Vukadin HNP
Minister Finance Tomislavgrad Draško Dalić Independent
Minister Internal Affairs Livno Mario Lovrić Independent
Minister Judiciary and Administration Livno Milan Bašić Independent
Minister Economy Livno Dijana Puzigaća Independent
Minister Construction, Urban Development, and Environment Livno Hikmet Hodžić SDA
Minister Science, Education, Culture, and Sports Livno Gordana Nakić Independent
Minister Labour, Healthcare, Social Care, and Refugees Tomislavgrad Momčilo Bajić SDP BiH
Minister Agriculture, Water Management, and Forestry Livno Božo Perić HDZ 1990

Cantonal AssemblyEdit

 
Cantonal Assembly in Tomislavgrad

The Cantonal Assembly (Croatian: Županijska skupština, Bosnian and Serbian: Kantonalna skupština/Кантонална скупштина) is the parliament of the Canton 10. It consists of 25 representatives elected by proportional representation for four-year terms of office.

    Political party Assembly members
2002 2006 2010 2014 2018 currently
  Croatian National Shift (HNP) - - - - -
6 / 25
  Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ 1990) - 6 4 4 4
4 / 25
  Alliance of Independent Social Democrats (SNSD) 3 5 3 3 3
3 / 25
  Croatian Independent List (HNL) - - - 2 3
3 / 25
  Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ BiH) 13 5 9 9 8
2 / 25
  Party of Democratic Action (SDA) 2 2 2 2 2
2 / 25
  Serbian Progressive Party (SNS) - - - - 1
1 / 25
  People's Party For Work And Betterment (NSRzB) 2 1 3 2 1
1 / 25
  Cantonal Independent List (ŽNL) - - - - 1
1 / 25
  Croatian Republican Party (HRS) - - - - 1
1 / 25
  Social Democratic Party (SDP BiH) 1 1 1 1 1
1 / 25
Sources:[14][15][16][17]

DemographicsEdit

 
Church of Saint Nicholas Tavelic, a Croatian Franciscan friar
 
Ethnic composition of Canton 10 in 2013. Serbs in blue, Croats in orange, Bosniaks in green
 
The Serbian National Folk Dance Ensemble Kolo from Glamoč

According to the 1991 census, 115.682 people inhabited the canton. Croats comprised 51.5%, Serbs comprised 35.7% and Bosnian Muslims comprised 10.4% of the population. Croats overwhelmingly lived in the southeastern part of the canton (Livno, Kupres, Tomislavgrad), while Serbs lived in northwestern (Grahovo, Glamoč, Drvar). There was a significant population migration during the war (1992–95). In 1992, Serb forces captured Kupres and the surrounding area, pushing away most of the non-Serb population. Croats returned at the end of 1994, after their forces have retaken Kupres. After Croat forces captured Grahovo, Glamoč and Drvar in the summer and fall of 1995, most of the Serb population fled. Refugee Croats from other parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina (fleeing Serb or Bosniak forces) settled in the abandoned area previously inhabited by the Serbs. After the war, under UN and peace implementation forces' pressure, Serb refugees returned to their homes.

In 2013, Canton's population included approximately 77% Croats, 13% Serbs and 9.6% Bosniaks; all other ethnicities combined made up the remaining <0.4%. Canton 10 had the largest share of ethnic Serbs in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, their number has steadily decreased since the conclusion of the Bosnian War.

1991 CensusEdit

Municipality Nationality Total
Croats % Serbs % Muslims % Other %
Livno 29,324 72.22 3,913 9.63 5,793 14.26 1,570 3.87 40,600
Tomislavgrad 25,976 86.56 576 1.91 3,148 10.49 309 1.02 30,009
Glamoč 184 1.46 9,951 79.02 2,257 17.92 201 1.58 12,593
Kupres 3,812 43.19 4,081 46.23 802 9.08 131 1.47 8,826
Bosansko Grahovo 226 2.71 7,888 94.91 12 0.14 185 2.22 8,311
Drvar 31 0.20 14,846 96.76 29 0.18 437 2.86 15,343
Canton 59,553 51.48 41,255 35.66 12,041 10.41 2,833 2.45 115,682

2013 CensusEdit

Municipality Nationality Total
Croats % Serbs % Bosniaks % Other %
Livno 29,273 85.76 438 1.28 4,047 11.85 216 0.63 34,133
Tomislavgrad 29,006 91.81 22 0.06 2,467 7.80 30 0.09 31,592
Glamoč 906 23.47 1,679 43.49 1,251 32.40 13 0.33 3,860
Kupres 4,474 88.47 318 6.28 255 5.04 5 0.09 5,057
Bosansko Grahovo 393 16.04 2,028 82.80 6 0.24 10 0.40 2,449
Drvar 552 7.08 6,420 91.24 11 0.15 24 0.34 7,036
Canton 64,604 77.05 10,905 13.01 8,037 9.58 298 0.36 83,844

EconomyEdit

 
Tourist map of Canton 10

The canton has significant natural resources, with large reserves of coal and timber, as well as hydro & wind power. Due to economic reasons (insufficient canton revenues compared to expenses) unification with West Herzegovina Canton has been proposed.[18][19]

The pre-war economic recession, and certainly the war in this area, caused significant population fluctuations in the form of emigration to Western European countries or relocation to other areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The natural and geographical features of this area are diverse, from fertile and vast fields and vast pastures, rivers and lakes to centuries-old deciduous and evergreen forests, and provide abundant opportunities for life and economic development based on agricultural production, livestock and the timber industry. The ecologically clean and intact nature, the temperate continental climate, the geographical position and the proximity and good transport connections with other parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina and neighboring Croatia, especially Dalmatia, which traditionally and economically gravitate, are important factors for the economic development of this area. The canton suffered severe damage during the last war and is one of the worst affected areas in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The rebuilding process is slow and difficult, but the economy is already showing signs of recovery, mainly visible in the construction, wood processing industry, small business and handicrafts segment. Although commerce is still the dominant branch of the economy, in terms of the total number of companies (191 or 44.50% of the total of 429 active companies and 30% of total income).

Viewed from the revenue aspect of 1998 and 1999, there was a significant increase in construction, agriculture and forestry, as well as transportation, industry and mining. Commerce registered a decrease in income compared to 1998 by 2 index points, as well as a decrease in the participation in total income at the cantonal level from 44.80% in 1998 to 30% in 1999 in favor of other productive activities, and especially construction agriculture and forestry, especially if we take into account that the total income generated at the cantonal level in 1999 increased by 25% compared to 1998. All these are positive indicators of economic recovery and the basis of the expected future development.

The main economic branches of Canton 10 according to the number of employees are the wholesale and retail trade, the processing industry and agriculture, forestry and fishing.[20]

The average salary in Canton 10 is 840 km (2014). The highest average net salary is paid in Bosanski Grahovo (986 km) and the lowest in Tomislavgrad (766 km).

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Sarajevo, juni 2016. CENZUS OF POPULATION, HOUSEHOLDS AND DWELLINGS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA, 2013 FINAL RESULTS (PDF). BHAS. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  2. ^ www.skupstinahbz.com. "Skupština Hercegbosanske županije". www.skupstinahbz.com. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  3. ^ a b c "U-11/97". Archived from the original on 19 April 2008. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
  4. ^ "hbzup.com". www.hbzup.com. Archived from the original on 16 July 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  5. ^ "Vlada Hercegbosanske županije". www.vladahbz.com. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  6. ^ "Utopio se pijan plivajući u Buškom jezeru". sarajevo-x.com. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  7. ^ "mediainfo.ba - Livanjski kanton: Do 2010. godine biće izgrađene prve vjetrenjače". mediainfo.ba. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  8. ^ "24sata.info - Livanjski kanton: Ministar zdravlja Darko Horvat lomio po kafani!". 24sata.info. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  9. ^ a b "Ustav - Vlada Hercegbosanske županije" (PDF). Vlada Hercegbosanske županije. 12 October 2005. p. 3.
  10. ^ "Naslovna - Ministarstvo unutranjih poslova Kantona 10". www.mupk10.gov.ba (in Croatian and Bosnian). Ministarstvo unutarnjih poslova K10. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  11. ^ "Sporna obilježja na grbovima BiH". Al Jazeera Balkans. 23 April 2015.
  12. ^ "OSNOVNE INFORMACIJE, KANTON 10". Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 8 November 2009.
  13. ^ a b (in Bosnian and Croatian) "PRELIMINARY RESULTS Of the 2013 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Bosnia and Herzegovina" (PDF). www.bhas.ba/. Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 5 November 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2018. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  14. ^ "Verified results of the 2010 general elections: The Cantonal Assemblies in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Canton 10". izbori.ba. Central Election Commission of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Archived from the original on 5 November 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
  15. ^ "210-Skupština kantona 10 (210-Assembly of Canton 10)". izbori.ba (in Bosnian). Central Election Commission of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
  16. ^ "Opći izbori-konačni rezultati (General elections-final results)" (PDF). izbori.ba (in Croatian). Central Election Commission of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
  17. ^ "Opći izbori-konačni rezultati (General elections-final results)". izbori.ba. Central Election Commission of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  18. ^ "Đokoviću pobjeda donosi svjetski tron". Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2009.
  19. ^ Monitor – portal za svaki dan – Offline
  20. ^ "Kanton 10 u brojkama (Canton 10 in numbers)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 July 2018.

External linksEdit