Arthur D'Arcy "Bobby" Locke (20 November 1917 – 9 March 1987) was a South African professional golfer. He won four Open Championships, nine South African Opens, seven South African PGA Championships and 15 PGA Tour events. He was a prolific tournament winner in his native country, eventually accumulating 38 wins on the Southern Africa Tour (now the Sunshine Tour).
Locke in Australia (1938)
|Full name||Arthur D'Arcy Locke|
Old Baggy Pants
|Born||20 November 1917|
Germiston, South Africa
|Died||9 March 1987 (aged 69)|
Johannesburg, South Africa
|Spouse||1. Hester Elizabeth 'Lillian' le Roux (divorced 1952)|
2. Mary Elizabeth Fenton (m. 1958–87, his death)
|Children||Dianne and Carolyn|
|Former tour(s)||PGA Tour|
|Number of wins by tour|
|Sunshine Tour||30 (3rd all time)|
|Best results in major championships|
|Masters Tournament||T10: 1948|
|PGA Championship||T33: 1947|
|U.S. Open||3rd/T3: 1947, 1951|
|The Open Championship||Won: 1949, 1950, 1952, 1957|
|British Amateur||T33: 1937|
|Achievements and awards|
|World Golf Hall of Fame||1977 (member page)|
|Harry Vardon Trophy||1946, 1950, 1954|
Locke was born in Germiston, South Africa the only son of Mr C.J. & Mrs. O. Locke of 70 Nottingham Road, Kensington, Johannesburg. He obtained his Educational Junior Certificate pass at Benoni High School in 1934.
Early professional careerEdit
Locke won the South African Open for the first of nine times in 1935, at the Parkview Golf Club in Johannesburg, with a score of 296, playing as an amateur. He played in his first Open Championship in 1936, when he was eighteen, and finished as low amateur.
He turned professional in March 1938 at the age of 20 and was engaged by the Maccauvlei Country Club as club professional in December 1939. Problems arose when Locke wanted to give lessons to non-members as well as take leave of absence, without advance request, to take part in outside competitions such as the U.S. Open. Locke resigned from the Club, by letter, on 26 July 1940.
Service in World War IIEdit
His golf career was interrupted by service in the South African Air Force during World War II. His Official War Record is held at the South African Department of Defence archives under his Service No: 103940.
|15 October 1940||Voortrekkerhoogte (now Thaba Tshwane)||South African Air Force Headquarters||Applied to join South African Air Force. His occupation is stated as a "Golf Professional" with an address of Maccauvlei Country Club, Vereeniging, Transvaal.|
|15 October 1940||Voortrekkerhoogte||Central Air Force Training Depot||Basic Flying Theory Training. Parade Drill and "Square Bashing"|
|19 November 1940||Lyttelton||Number 75 Air School||Pupil Pilot. Attended "Ground School"|
|1 October 1941||Randfontein||Number 2 Air School||Elementary flying training|
|Nigel, near Johannesburg||Number 24 Air School||Service Flying Training, including navigation, night flying, instrument flying "blind"|
|13 December 1941||Vereeniging||Number 22 Air School||Completion of advanced flying training to qualify as a pilot.|
|10 April 1942 to 4 May 1942||Vereeniging||Number 22 Air School||Received his "Wings" and Officer's Commission as a 2nd/Lieutenant in the South African Air Force, Station Pilot|
|During initial pilot training Bobby Locke flew the following aircraft types:|
|4 May 1942||Pietersburg (now Polokwane)||Number 26 Air School||Station Pilot|
|29 June 1942||Tempe, Bloemfontein||Number 26 Air School||Elementary Pilot Instructors Course. Qualified as "Category C Flying Instructor".|
|10 October 1942||Benoni, Johannesburg||Number 4 Air School||Category C Flying Instructor. Rank of 2nd Lieutenant|
|29 May 1943||Tempe, Bloemfontein||Number 62 Air School||Attended Flying Instructors Course No. 29. Qualified as "Category B Flying Instructor". Received Grade A in: General Flying, Instrument Flying, Navigation, Bombing, and Gunnery|
|1 July 1943||Wonderboom||Number 3 Air School||Flying instructor teaching intake Pupil Pilots|
|31 August 1943||Tempe, Bloemfontein||Number 62 Air School||Attended Multi-Engine Conversion Course and Flight Commander's Course. Qualified as 1st Pilot on twin-engine light bombers|
|29 October 1943||Pretoria||Mobile Air Force Depot (MAFD)||Stationed at MAFD as a member of a stand-by corps prior to deployment to an active squadron|
|12 November 1943||Port Alfred||Number 43 Air School||Station Pilot and Instructor. Attended Sea Navigation Course No 16.|
|11 December 1943||Port Alfred||Number 43 Air School||Staff Pilot and Instructor|
|15 November 1944 to 13 December 1944||Pretoria||Mobile Air Force Depot (MAFD)||Posted Back to MAFD for posting to an operational squadron|
|During Pilot Instructor Qualification, Bobby Locke flew the following aircraft types:|
|13 December 1944||Cairo West, Egypt||SAAF Base Depot Middle East||Emplaned at Zwarktop Air Station, Pretoria for Cairo West|
|22 December 1944||Aqir, Palestine||Number 76 RAF Operational Training Unit (OTU)||Operational Training Conversion on Vickers Wellington bombers (twin engines)|
|29 April 1945 to 7 May 1945||Cairo West||SAAF Base Depot Middle East||Mainly on leave.|
|7 May 1945||SAAF Advanced Transit Centre||Flew to Italy to support post VE day activities.|
|11 May 1945 to 8 August 1945||Celone Airfield, Italy||Number 31 Squadron||Flew Consolidated B-24 Liberators as co-pilot on transport duties ferrying troops, equipment and SAAF personnel from Italy to Cairo and from airfields in Greece back to Italy|
|8 August 1945||Cairo West, Egypt||SAAF Base Depot Middle East||Posted back after last two SAAF Wing "Liberators" were flown back to Cairo West and formally handed over to the RAF|
|12 September 1945||Pretoria||Zwarktop Air Station||Sent on NRSL (North Return Service Leave)|
|11 October 1945||NA||NA||Honourable discharge, 2nd Lieutenant, from the Union Defence force.|
|Received following standard Campaign Stars and Medals for his War Service: Italy Star and 1939-45 War Medal/Africa Service Medal. Locke listed his wife as Mrs "Lilian" Locke and their permanent residential address as 51 Hendon Street, Yeoville, Johannesburg|
Alternate descriptions of Locke’s War RecordEdit
Other descriptions of Bobby Locke's war record suggest he was more active than the transport duties he undertook, with SAAF Number 31 Squadron in Italy, that are described by the official SANDF archives. The descriptions include: he spent twelve months in a Liberator Squadron in Italy :40 he was a bomber pilot who bombed Monte Casino, he fought for Britain as a bomber pilot; he flew over 100 missions over Europe with the SAAF; and 'served with distinction as a Royal Airforce Bomber pilot'. Locke also claims that:
- In a photograph of him and others,:39 he was playing golf at Gizeh Golf & Country Club, in Cairo, in 1943, and
- "My stay in the Air Force lasted five years and three months, in which time I completed 1,800 hours on single-, twin- and four-engined aircraft":39, 40
Success in the United StatesEdit
Following the end of World War II, Locke successfully resumed his career in South Africa in 1946. He hosted Sam Snead, one of the top American golfers of the day, for a series of exhibition matches in South Africa in January/February 1947, winning 12 out of the 16 matches, two were halved and Snead won two.:147 So impressed was Snead that he suggested that Locke come to the United States and give the PGA Tour a try, advice that Locke quickly followed.
Locke arrived in the U.S. for the first time in April 1947, well after the American Tour season had begun. In two-and-a-half years on the PGA Tour, Locke played in 59 events; he won 11, and finished in the top three in 30, just over half. In 1947, despite a late start, Locke dominated the American tour, winning six tournaments (including four in a five-week period), and finishing second to Jimmy Demaret on the money list.
Controversy and PGA Tour banEdit
In 1948, he won the Chicago Victory National by 16 strokes, which remains a PGA Tour record for margin of victory (tied for margin of victory with J. Douglas Edgar's win in the 1919 Canadian Open).
The following year, Locke was banned from the tour, ostensibly because of a dispute over playing commitments. Locke had indeed given several advance commitments to appear at tournaments and exhibitions, then had not turned up nor given adequate notice nor explanations for his absences. However, the 1948 Masters champion Claude Harmon stated, unsolicited, to another golf personality during that era: "Locke was simply too good. They had to ban him." The ban was lifted in 1951, but Locke chose not to return to play in the United States, except for a few isolated appearances.
Locke explains his point of view and events leading up to the banning.:57,58 He had accepted invitations, organised through the PGA to play in two local tournaments, The Inverness Fourball and Western Open. He explained how he had been helped to iron out a putting problem which led to him winning the 1949 British Open. He gives the “Open” win as one of his reasons to breach his contract. The text indicates that he understood the contractual nature of his dealings with the PGA.
After leaving the PGA Tour, Locke continued his career in Europe and Africa, where he felt more comfortable. He won 23 times in Europe, most notably a quartet of successes in The Open Championship, which came in 1949, 1950, 1952 and 1957. He was the first of many South Africans who subsequently won major championships, including Gary Player, Ernie Els, Retief Goosen, Trevor Immelman, Louis Oosthuizen and Charl Schwartzel. His win in the 1957 Open Championship was with some controversy. Locke had failed to properly replace his ball after marking on the 72nd green, and proceeded to putt out. This had been confirmed through newsreel footage provided to the R&A after the trophy presentation. The rules at the time made no provision for a two shot penalty, thus Locke's win could have been overturned through disqualification. However, the Championship committee did not enforce the disqualification rule, citing "equity and spirit of the game" as overriding factors in sustaining the posted result.
During this time Locke also played many other parts of the world. In 1955 he won the Australian Open held at Gailes Golf Club in Queensland; he later rated this as one of the best courses he had ever played. In 1959, Locke was involved in a serious car accident, and subsequently he suffered from migraines and eye problems that put an end to his competitive career, although he continued competing occasionally after that, without much success.
Locke was elected to the World Golf Hall of Fame in 1977. He was only the second member (after Gary Player) who did not come from either the United States or the United Kingdom. He died in Johannesburg, South Africa in 1987.
Locke built his success around his outstanding putting ability, coining the phrase "You drive for show, but putt for dough." Wearing his trademark knickerbockers, white shoes, and stockings, Locke played the game at a slow and deliberate pace, perhaps another reason that American pros were annoyed with him. On the greens, Locke was a bona fide genius, using a very unusual putting style (he would bring the putter back far to the inside on the backstroke, then virtually "trap" the ball with a hooded, closed clubface on the forward stroke, imparting a tremendous amount of overspin), and a great eye for reading breaks, to put on veritable putting clinics every time he played. Locke believed he could put spin on putts (similar to full-swing shots) and make them "hook" and "slice", and used his unorthodox technique to great success.
Locke was not particularly long from the tee, but placed great emphasis on accuracy in hitting fairways and greens; he employed an extreme right-to-left ball flight (one that bordered on a hook) on nearly every full shot.
Australian contemporary pro Jim Ferrier, who played the U.S. Tour during the late 1940s with Locke, described Locke's putting method as being designed to overcome the very heavy grain present on many Bermuda-grass greens of that era, particularly in warm-climate regions such as South Africa and the southern United States. In these regions, greens had to be constructed during that era using Bermuda-grass turf in order to survive the extreme summer heat; turfgrass research eventually developed a wider variety of strains which could be used. Locke's putting method allowed the ball to glide on top of the grass without being affected very much by the grain. Ferrier explained that Locke had apparently learned the technique from an Englishman in Egypt, while he was stationed there during World War II. Locke had in actual fact learned the technique from Walter Hagen during the "Haigs" tour of South Africa with Joe Kirkwood in 1938.
- 1931 South Africa Boys
- 1935 South Africa Amateur, Natal Amateur, Transvaal Amateur
- 1936 Natal Amateur, Lucifer Empire Trophy
- 1937 South Africa Amateur, Transvaal Amateur, Orange Free State Amateur
Professional wins (73)Edit
PGA Tour wins (15)Edit
|Major championships (4)|
|Other PGA Tour (11)|
|No.||Date||Tournament||Winning score||Margin of
|1||May 11, 1947||Houston Open||−11 (71-67-70-69=277)||5 strokes||Johnny Palmer, Ellsworth Vines|
|2||May 25, 1947||Philadelphia Inquirer Open||−11 (68-69-70-70=277)||4 strokes||Matt Kowal, Lloyd Mangrum|
|3||Jun 1, 1947||Goodall Round Robin||+37 points||4 points||Vic Ghezzi|
|4||Jul 8, 1947||All American Open||−12 (66-68-71-71=276)||Playoff||Porky Oliver|
|5||Jul 19, 1947||Canadian Open||−16 (68-66-67-67=268)||2 strokes||Porky Oliver|
|6||Jul 27, 1947||Columbus Invitational||−14 (70-68-67-69=274)||5 strokes||Jimmy Demaret|
|7||Jan 25, 1948||Phoenix Open||−16 (65-69-67-67=268)||1 stroke||Jimmy Demaret|
|8||Jun 20, 1948||Chicago Victory National Open||−18 (65-65-70-66=266)||16 strokes||Ellsworth Vines|
|9||Apr 18, 1949||Cavalier Specialists Invitational||−6 (67-68-66=201)||Playoff||Frank Stranahan (a)|
|10||May 15, 1949||Goodall Round Robin||+66 points||33 points||Herman Barron|
|11||Jul 9, 1949||The Open Championship||−5 (69-76-68-70=283)||Playoff||Harry Bradshaw|
|12||Jul 7, 1950||The Open Championship||−1 (69-72-70-68=279)||2 strokes||Roberto De Vicenzo|
|13||Aug 9, 1950||All American Open||−6 (72-74-69-67=282)||Playoff||Lloyd Mangrum|
|14||Jul 11, 1952||The Open Championship||−1 (69-71-74-73=287)||1 stroke||Peter Thomson|
|15||Jul 5, 1957||The Open Championship||−9 (69-72-68-70=279)||3 strokes||Peter Thomson|
The Open Championship wins were not counted as PGA Tour wins at the time, but were later designated as such.
South Africa wins (41)Edit
- 1935 Natal Open, South African Open (both as an amateur)
- 1936 Natal Open (as an amateur)
- 1937 South African Open, Transvaal Open (both as an amateur)
- 1938 South African Open, South Africa Professional, Transvaal Open
- 1939 South African Open, South Africa Professional, Transvaal Open
- 1940 South African Open, South Africa Professional, Transvaal Open
- 1946 South African Open, South Africa Professional, Transvaal Open
- 1949 Transvaal Open, 1,000 Guineas Tournament
- 1950 South African Open, South Africa Professional, Transvaal Open, 1,000 Guineas Tournament, Western Transvaal Open, Dunlop£1.000 Tournament, Grey Slax £1,000 Tournament
- 1951 South African Open, South Africa Professional, Transvaal Open, Stag £1,000 Matchplay, Stanley Motors 1,000 Guineas Tournament, Dunlop Masters £1.000 Tournament
- 1952 Stanley Motors 1,000 Guineas Tournament
- 1953 Natal Open
- 1954 Transvaal Open, Mills 1,000 Guineas Tournament
- 1955 South African Open, South Africa Professional, Transvaal Open
- 1956 Western Province Open
- 1958 Transvaal Open, Western Province Open, East Rand Open Championship (tie with Eric Moore)
Other wins (29)Edit
- 1938 Irish Open, New Zealand Open
- 1939 Dutch Open
- 1946 Yorkshire Evening News Tournament, Brand-Lochryn Tournament, Dunlop Masters
- 1947 Carolinas Open, Carolinas PGA Championship
- 1948 Carolinas Open
- 1950 Dunlop Tournament, Spalding Tournament, North British-Harrogate Tournament
- 1952 French Open, Mexican Open, Lotus Tournament, Carolinas Open
- 1953 French Open
- 1954 Egyptian Open, German Open, Swiss Open, Dunlop Tournament, Dunlop British Masters (tie with Jimmy Adams), Egyptian Match Play, Swallow-Harrogate Tournament (Stroke play stage)
- 1955 Australian Open
- 1957 Daks Tournament, Bowmaker Tournament (tied with Frank Jowle)
- 1959 New Hampshire Open, Bowmaker Tournament
|Year||Championship||54 holes||Winning score||Margin||Runner-up|
|1949||The Open Championship||Tied for lead||−5 (69-76-68-70=283)||Playoff 1||Harry Bradshaw|
|1950||The Open Championship (2)||Tied for lead||−1 (69-72-70-68=279)||2 strokes||Roberto De Vicenzo|
|1952||The Open Championship (3)||1 shot deficit||−1 (69-71-74-73=287)||1 stroke||Peter Thomson|
|1957||The Open Championship (4)||3 shot lead||−9 (69-72-68-70=279)||3 strokes||Peter Thomson|
1 Defeated Harry Bradshaw in 36-hole playoff: Locke (135), Bradshaw (147)
|The Open Championship||T8 LA||T17 LA||T10||T9|
|The Amateur Championship||R256||R64||–||–|
|The Open Championship||NT||NT||NT||NT||NT||NT||T2||1|
|The Open Championship||1||T6||1||8||T2||4||CUT||1||T16||T29|
|The Open Championship||CUT||CUT||CUT||CUT||CUT|
|The Open Championship||CUT||T49||CUT||CUT||CUT||CUT||WD||CUT|
NT = No tournament
LA = Low amateur
CUT = missed the half-way cut
WD = Withdrew
"T" indicates a tie for a place
|The Open Championship||4||2||0||7||12||14||28||16|
- Most consecutive cuts made – 19 (1936 Open Championship – 1952 Masters)
- Longest streak of top-10s – 5 (1949 U.S. Open – 1951 Open Championship)
- Kelley, Brent. "Bobby Locke". About.com. Retrieved 28 February 2009.
- "1949 Bobby Locke". The Open. Archived from the original on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- "Locke may play in "Open"". The Glasgow Herald. 16 March 1938. p. 6.
- "Maccauvlei Golf Club - Some of the People". Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- Locke, Bobby (1953). Bobby Locke on Golf. Country Life.
- Brian Viner (17 July 2001). "Faulkner's treasure chest of golf jewels". The Independent. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
In interview with Max Faulkner: Locke was my idol, you see. Oh Christ, yes. Wonderful chap. Tough. A bomber pilot. Bombed Monte Casino. Never practised.
- Dobereiner, Peter (15 March 1987), "Bobby of the Green", The Observer, London, p. 49, retrieved 5 May 2018,
All his life he thought of himself as British (both his parents were from Ulster), proudly recounted his achievement of being the first Briton to win the Canadian Open since 1914 and fought for Britain as a bomber pilot in the Middle East during the war.
- Cape Times (5 September 1992) "But Locke was no joke as a man or as a golfer. He fought more than 100 combat missions over Europe with the S.A.A.F. during World War II"
- "The Memorial Tournament Honorees: 2002: Kathy Whitworth & Bobby Locke". Retrieved 22 April 2018.
Locke put his golfing career on hold, however, with the onset of World War II, at which time he served with distinction as a Royal Air Force Bomber pilot.
- Barkow, Al (1974). Golf's Golden Grind: The History of the PGA Tour. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 978-0151908851.
- Kelley, Brent. "Largest Margin of Victory on the PGA Tour". About.com. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
- South African Open television broadcast, 19 December 2010, Golf Channel
- DeNunzio, David. "10 Greatest Putters of All Time". golf.com. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- Sommers, Robert T. (2004). Golf Anecdotes: From the Links of Scotland to Tiger Woods. Oxford University Press. pp. 205–. ISBN 978-0-19-517265-2.
- Barkow, Al (1986). Gettin' To The Dance Floor: An Oral History of American Golf. Atheneum. ISBN 978-0689115172.
- "Transvaal Open". Maryborough Cronicle. 26 January 1937.
- "Bobby Locke in form". Kalgoorlie Miner. 15 March 1950.
- "Bobby Locke wins". The Courier-Mail. 11 February 1950.
- "Locke wins". Advocate. 1 January 1951. p. 10.
- "Easy Victory for Locke". the Singapore Free Press. 15 January 1951.
- "Locke wins £300". The Singapore Free Press. 22 January 1951.
- "Bobby Locke's Victory". Daily advertiser. 2 April 1951.
- "4th Win for Bobby Locke". The Singapore Free Press. 21 January 1952.
- "Bobby Locke Breaks Own Record". The Canberra Times. 22 March 1954.
- "Bobby Locke".
- "Amateur Championship". The Glasgow Herald. 27 May 1936. p. 6.
- "Scot Wins "Classic" Match". The Glasgow Herald. 27 May 1937. p. 12.