Arm Holdings is a British multinational semiconductor and software design company, owned by SoftBank Group and its Vision Fund. With its headquarters in Cambridgeshire, within the United Kingdom, its primary business is in the design of ARM processors (CPUs), although it also designs software development tools under the DS-5, RealView and Keil brands, as well as systems and platforms, system-on-a-chip (SoC) infrastructure and software. As a "Holding" company, it also holds shares of other companies. It is considered to be market dominant for processors in mobile phones (smartphones or otherwise) and tablet computers. The company is one of the best-known "Silicon Fen" companies.
|Founded||27 November 1990|
|Founders||Jamie Urquhart, Mike Muller, Tudor Brown, Lee Smith, John Biggs, Harry Oldham, Dave Howard, Pete Harrod, Harry Meekings, Al Thomas, Andy Merritt, and David Seal|
|Masayoshi Son (Chairman)|
Simon Segars (CEO)
|Products||Microprocessor designs and graphics processing unit (GPU) designs|
|Revenue||JPY ¥152.42 billion (2017)|
|JPY ¥24.29 billion (2017)|
|JPY ¥(31.79) billion (2017)|
|Total assets||US$3.21 billion (2016)|
|Owner||SoftBank Group 75%|
Vision Fund 25%
Number of employees
|Circa 6,250 (2018) |
Processors based on designs licensed from Arm, or designed by licensees of one of the Arm instruction set architectures, are used in all classes of computing devices (including in space). Examples of those processors range from the world's smallest computer to the processors in some supercomputers on the TOP500 list. Processors designed by Arm or by Arm licensees are used as microcontrollers in embedded systems, including real-time safety systems (cars' ABS), biometrics systems (fingerprint sensor), smart TVs (e.g. Android TV), all modern smartwatches (such as Qualcomm Toq), and are used as general-purpose processors in smartphones, tablets, laptops, desktops (even also for running, traditional x86, Microsoft Windows programs), servers and supercomputers/HPC, e.g. a CPU "option" in Cray's supercomputers.
Arm's Mali line of graphics processing units (GPU) are used in laptops, in over 50% of Android tablets by market share, and some versions of Samsung's smartphones and smartwatches (Samsung Galaxy Gear). It is the third most popular GPU in mobile devices.
Systems, including iPhone smartphones, frequently include many chips, from many different providers, that include one or more licensed Arm cores, in addition to those in the main Arm-based processor. Arm's core designs are also used in chips that support many common network related technologies in smartphones: Bluetooth, WiFi and broadband, in addition to corresponding equipment such as Bluetooth headsets, 802.11ac routers, and network providers' cellular LTE.
Arm's main CPU competitors in servers include Intel and AMD. In mobile applications, Intel's x86 Atom is a competitor. AMD also sells Arm-based chips as well as x86; MIPS Technologies offers another RISC design for embedded systems. Arm's main GPU competitors include mobile GPUs from Imagination Technologies (PowerVR), Qualcomm (Adreno) and increasingly Nvidia and Intel. Despite competing within GPUs, Qualcomm and Nvidia have combined their GPUs with an Arm licensed CPU.
Arm had a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It also had a secondary listing on NASDAQ. However Japanese telecommunications company SoftBank Group made an agreed offer for Arm on 18 July 2016, subject to approval by Arm's shareholders, valuing the company at £23.4 billion (short scale). The transaction was completed on 5 September 2016.
The acronym ARM was first used in 1983 and originally stood for "Acorn RISC Machine". Acorn Computers' first RISC processor was used in the original Acorn Archimedes and was one of the first RISC processors used in small computers. However, when the company was incorporated in 1990, the acronym was changed to "Advanced RISC Machines", in light of the company's name "Advanced RISC Machines Ltd." - and according to an interview with Steve Furber the name change was also at the behest of Apple who did not wish to have the name of a former competitor - namely Acorn - in the name of the company. At the time of the IPO in 1998, the company name was changed to "ARM Holdings", often just called ARM like the processors.
On 1 August 2017, the styling and logo were changed. The logo is now all lowercase and other uses of 'ARM' are in sentence case except where the whole sentence is upper case, so, for instance, it is now 'Arm Holdings'.
The company was founded in November 1990 as Advanced RISC Machines Ltd and structured as a joint venture between Acorn Computers, Apple Computer (now Apple Inc.) and VLSI Technology. The new company intended to further the development of the Acorn RISC Machine processor, which was originally used in the Acorn Archimedes and had been selected by Apple for their Newton project. Its first profitable year was 1993. The company's Silicon Valley and Tokyo offices were opened in 1994. Arm invested in Palmchip Corporation in 1997 to provide system on chip platforms and to enter into the disk drive market. In 1998, the company changed its name from Advanced RISC Machines Ltd to ARM Ltd. The company was first listed on the London Stock Exchange and NASDAQ in 1998 and by February 1999, Apple's shareholding had fallen to 14.8%.
In 2010, Arm joined with IBM, Texas Instruments, Samsung, ST-Ericsson (since dissolved) and Freescale Semiconductor (now NXP Semiconductors) in forming a non-profit open source engineering company, Linaro.
- Micrologic Solutions, a software consulting company based in Cambridge
- Allant Software, a developer of debugging software
- Infinite Designs, a design company based in Sheffield
- EuroMIPS a smart card design house in Sophia Antipolis, France
- The engineering team of Noral Micrologics, a debug hardware and software company based in Blackburn, England
- Adelante Technologies of Belgium, creating its OptimoDE data engines business, a form of lightweight DSP engine
- Axys Design Automation, a developer of ESL design tools and Artisan Components, a designer of Physical IP (standard cell libraries, memory compilers, PHYs etc.), the building blocks of integrated circuits
- KEIL Software, a leading developer of software development tools for the microcontroller (MCU) market, including 8051 and C16x platforms. Arm also acquired the engineering team of PowerEscape.
- Falanx (now called Arm Norway), a developer of 3D graphics accelerators and SOISIC, who specialise in developing silicon-on-insulator physical IP
- Obsidian Software Inc., a privately held company that creates processor verification products
- Prolific, a developer of automated layout optimisation software tools, and the Prolific team will join the Arm physical IP team
- Internet of Things startup Sensinode
- Cadence’s PANTA family of high-resolution display processor and scaling coprocessor IP cores
- PolarSSL, a software library implementing the SSL and TLS protocols. (In February 2015, PolarSSL has been rebranded to mbed TLS to better show its fit inside the mbed ecosystem.)
- Duolog Technologies, an electronic design automation company that developed a suite of tools that automate the process of IP configuration and IP integration
- Sansa Security, a provider of hardware security IP and software for advanced system-on-chip components deployed in Internet of Things (IoT) and mobile devices
- Wicentric, a Bluetooth Smart stack and profile provider
- Sunrise Micro Devices, a provider of sub-one volt Bluetooth radio intellectual property (IP).
- Offspark, a provider of IoT security software
- Carbon Design Systems, a provider of cycle-accurate virtual prototyping solutions
- On 19 November, Arm, alongside Cisco Systems, Dell, Intel, Microsoft, and Princeton University, founded the OpenFog Consortium, to promote interests and development in fog computing.
- Apical, a provider of Imaging and Embedded computer vision IP products
- Allinea Software, a leading provider of software tools for HPC
Change of ownershipEdit
|Wikinews has related news: ARM to be bought by SoftBank|
Japanese telecommunications company SoftBank Group made an agreed offer for Arm on 18 July 2016, subject to approval by Arm's shareholders, valuing the company at £23.4 billion (US$32 billion). The transaction was completed on 5 September 2016.
Unlike most traditional microprocessor suppliers, such as Intel, Freescale (the former semiconductor division of Motorola, now NXP Semiconductors) and Renesas (a former joint venture between Hitachi and Mitsubishi Electric), Arm only creates and licenses its technology as intellectual property (IP), rather than manufacturing and selling its own physical CPUs, GPUs, SoCs or microcontrollers. This model is similar to fellow British design houses: ARC International, and Imagination Technologies (that both have stopped competing, at least as such, as both were bought out) who have similarly been designing and licensing GPUs, CPUs, and SoCs, along with supplying tooling and various design and support services to their licensees.
The company has offices and design centres across the world, including San Jose, California, Austin, Texas, Chandler, Arizona and Bellevue, Washington in the United States; Bangalore and Noida in India; Trondheim in Norway; Lund in Sweden; Sophia Antipolis in France; Grasbrunn in Germany; Budapest in Hungary; Sentjernej in Slovenia; Yokohama in Japan; China, Taiwan.
A characteristic feature of Arm processors is their low electric power consumption, which makes them particularly suitable for use in portable devices. In fact, almost all modern mobile phones and personal digital assistants contain Arm CPUs, making them the most widely used 32-bit microprocessor family in the world. As of 2005, Arm processors accounted for over 75% of all 32-bit embedded CPUs.
Arm processors are used as the main CPU for most mobile phones, including those manufactured by Apple, HTC, Nokia, Sony Ericsson and Samsung; many PDAs and handhelds, like the Apple iPod and iPad, Game Boy Advance, Nintendo DS, 3DS and Switch, PlayStation Vita, Game Park GP32 and GamePark Holdings GP2X; as well as many other applications, including GPS navigation devices, digital cameras, digital televisions, network devices and storage. The WLAN processor of Sony's PlayStation Portable is an older Arm9.
Arm offers several microprocessor core designs that have been "publicly licensed" 830 times including 249 times for their newer "application processors" (non-microcontroller) used in such applications as smartphones and tablets. Three of those companies are known to have a licence for one of Arm's most powerful processor core, the 64-bit Cortex-A72 (some including Arm's other 64-bit core the Cortex-A53) and four have a licence to their most powerful 32-bit core, the Cortex-A15.
Cores for 32-bit architectures include Cortex-A32, Cortex-A15, Cortex-A12, Cortex-A17, Cortex-A9, Cortex-A8, Cortex-A7 and Cortex-A5, and older "Classic Arm Processors", as well as variant architectures for microcontrollers that include these cores: Cortex-R7, Cortex R5, Cortex-R4, Cortex-M4, Cortex-M3, Cortex-M1, Cortex-M0+, and Cortex-M0 for licensing; the three most popular licensing models are the "Perpetual (Implementation) License", "Term License" and "Per Use License".
Companies often license these designs from Arm to manufacture and integrate into their own System on chip (SoC) with other components such as GPUs (sometimes Arm's Mali) or radio basebands (for mobile phones).
In addition to licenses for their core designs, Arm offers an "architectural license" for their instruction sets, allowing the licensees to design their own cores that implement one of those instruction sets. An Arm architectural license is more costly than a regular Arm core license, and also requires the necessary engineering power to design a CPU based on the instruction set.
Processors believed to be designed independently from Arm include Apple's (architecture license from March 2008) A6, A6X, A7 and all subsequent Apple processors (used in iPhone 5, iPad and iPhone 5S), Qualcomm's Snapdragon series (used in smartphones such as the US version of the Samsung Galaxy S8) and Samsung's Exynos ("Mongoose" M1 cores). There were around 15 architectural licensees in 2013, including Marvell, Apple, Qualcomm, Broadcom and some others.
Arm core licenseesEdit
Companies that are current licensees of the 64-bit Armv8-A core designs include AMD, AppliedMicro (X-Gene), Broadcom, Calxeda, HiSilicon, Rockchip, Samsung, and STMicroelectronics.
Companies that are current or former licensees of 32-bit Arm core designs include AMD, Broadcom, Freescale (now NXP Semiconductors), Huawei (HiSilicon division), IBM, Infineon Technologies (Infineon XMC 32-bit MCU families), Intel (older "Arm11 MPCore"), LG, Microsemi, NXP Semiconductors, Renesas, Rockchip, Samsung, STMicroelectronics, and Texas Instruments.
Arm architectural licenseesEdit
Companies with a 64-bit Armv8-A architectural license include Applied Micro, Broadcom, Cavium, Huawei, Nvidia, AMD, Qualcomm, Samsung, and Apple.
Companies with a 32-bit Arm architectural license include Broadcom (Armv7), Faraday Technology (Armv4, Armv5), Marvell Technology Group, Microsoft, Qualcomm, Intel, and Apple.
For supercomputers, e.g. Crays and FujitsusEdit
The supercomputer maker Cray has added "ARM Option" (i.e. CPU blade option, using Cavium ThunderX2 CPUs) to their XC50 supercomputers, and Cray claims that ARM is "a third processor architecture for building next-generation supercomputers", for e.g. the US Department of Energy.
Fujitsu (the supercomputer maker of June 2011 world's fastest K computer according to TOP500) announced at the International Supercomputing Conference in June 2016 that its future exascale supercomputer will feature processors of its own design that implement the Armv8 architecture, rather than the SPARC processors used in earlier supercomputers. These processors will also implement extensions to the Armv8 architecture equivalent to HPC-ACE2 that Fujitsu is developing with Arm Holdings. The Fujitsu supercomputer post-K planned, will use 512-bit scalable vector extension (Armv8-A SVE) with "the goal of beginning full operations around 2021. [..] With post-K, Fujitsu and RIKEN aim to create the world's highest-performing supercomputer"; SVE is a new extension for Armv8 allowing "implementation choices for vector lengths that scale from 128 to 2048 bits."
Arm-based CPU market share in 2010: over 95% in smartphone market; 10% in mobile computers; 35% in digital TVs and set-top boxes; however, Arm did not have any market share in servers and desktop PCs. The first mobile phone to use an Arm processor was 1997's Nokia 6110 mobile phone.
In the fourth quarter of 2010, 1.8 billion chips based on an Arm design were manufactured.
In May 2012, Dell announced the Copper platform, a server based on Marvell’s Arm powered devices. In October 2012, Arm announced the first set of early licensees of the 64-bit-capable Cortex-A57 processor.
Arm's goal was to have, by 2015, Arm-based processors in more than half of all tablets, mini-notebooks and other mobile PCs sold.
|Year||Billion units||Relative size|
University of MichiganEdit
In 2011, Arm renewed a five-year, US$5 million research partnership with University of Michigan, which extended their existing research partnership to 2015. This partnership will focus on ultra-low energy and sustainable computing.
- World's smallest computer
In October 2017, Arduino announced its partnership with ARM. The announcement said, in part, "ARM recognized independence as a core value of Arduino ... without any lock-in with the ARM architecture." Arduino intends to continue to work with all technology vendors and architectures.
Warren East was appointed Chief Executive Officer of Arm Holdings in October 2001. In the 2011 financial year, East received a total compensation of £1,187,500 from Arm, comprising a salary of £475,000 and a bonus of £712,500. East said in March 2013 that he would retire from Arm in May, with president Simon Segars taking over as CEO. In March 2014, former Rexam chairman Stuart Chambers succeeded John Buchanan as chairman. Chambers, a non-executive director of Tesco and former chief executive of Nippon Sheet Glass Group, had previously worked at Mars and Royal Dutch Shell.
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Cray claims its ARM compiler demonstrated better performance in two-thirds of 135 benchmarks, and much better performance – 20 percent or more – in one-third of them, compared to open source ARM compilers from LLVM and GNU. The Cray ThunderX2 blades can be mixed with other XC50 blades outfitted with Intel Xeon-SP or Xeon Phi processors and NVIDIA Tesla GPUs. Both air-cooled and liquid-cooled options are available. Cray already has one customer lined up for the ThunderX2-powered XC50: the Great Western 4 (GW4) Alliance, a research consortium of four UK universities (Bristol, Bath, Cardiff and Exeter). In January 2017, the alliance announced it had contracted Cray to build "Isambard," a 10,000-core ARM-based supercomputer, which will provide a Tier 2 HPC service. The UK’s Met Office was also involved on the deal, since it was interested in seeing how its weather and climate codes would run on such a machine. The system will be paid for out of a £3 million award from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). It’s scheduled to be fully deployed by the end of this year.
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