Arm Holdings

(Redirected from ARM Holdings)

Arm Holdings plc (stylised in lowercase as arm, formerly an acronym for Advanced RISC Machines and originally Acorn RISC Machine) is a British semiconductor and software design company based in Cambridge, England, whose primary business is the design of central processing unit (CPU) cores that implement the ARM architecture family of instruction sets. It also designs other chips, provides software development tools under the DS-5, RealView and Keil brands, and provides systems and platforms, system-on-a-chip (SoC) infrastructure and software. As a "holding" company, it also holds shares of other companies. Since 2016, it has been majority owned by Japanese conglomerate SoftBank Group.

Arm Holdings plc
Company typePublic subsidiary
NasdaqARM
IndustrySemiconductors
Founded27 November 1990; 33 years ago (1990-11-27)[1]
FoundersJamie Urquhart, Mike Muller, Tudor Brown, Lee Smith, John Biggs, Harry Oldham, Dave Howard, Pete Harrod, Harry Meekings, Al Thomas, Andy Merritt, David Seal[2]
HeadquartersCambridge, England, UK
Key people
ProductsMicroprocessor designs, graphics processing unit (GPU) designs and neural processing unit (NPU) designs[3]
RevenueIncrease US$2.68 billion (2023)
Increase US$671 million (2023)
Decrease US$524 million (2023)
Total assetsIncrease US$6.87 billion (2023)
Total equityDecrease US$4.05 billion (2023)
Number of employees
5,963 (2023)[4]
ParentSoftBank Group (90%)[5]
Websitewww.arm.com Edit this at Wikidata
Footnotes / references
Financials as of 31 March 2023.[4]

While ARM CPUs first appeared in the Acorn Archimedes, a desktop computer, today's systems include mostly embedded systems, including ARM CPUs used in virtually all modern smartphones. Processors based on designs licensed from Arm, or designed by licensees of one of the ARM instruction set architectures, are used in all classes of computing devices. Arm has two lines of graphics processing units (GPUs), Mali, and the newer Immortalis (which includes hardware-based ray-tracing).[6]

Arm's main CPU competitors in servers include IBM, Intel and AMD.[7] Intel competed with ARM-based chips in mobile but Arm no longer has any competition in that space (however, vendors of actual ARM-based chips compete within that space). Arm's main GPU competitors include mobile GPUs from technology companies Imagination Technologies (PowerVR), Qualcomm (Adreno), and increasingly Nvidia, AMD, Samsung and Intel. While competing in GPUs, Qualcomm, Samsung and Nvidia all have combined their GPUs with Arm-licensed CPUs.

Arm had a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange (LSE) and was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It also had a secondary listing of American depositary receipts on New York's Nasdaq. However Japanese multinational conglomerate SoftBank Group made an agreed offer for Arm on 18 July 2016, subject to approval by Arm's shareholders, valuing the company at £24.3 billion.[8][9] The transaction was completed on 5 September 2016.[10][11] A planned takeover deal by Nvidia, announced in 2020, collapsed in February 2022,[12] with SoftBank subsequently deciding to pursue an initial public offering on the Nasdaq in 2023, valuing Arm at US$54.5 billion.[13]

History edit

Name edit

The acronym ARM was first used in 1983 and originally stood for "Acorn RISC Machine". Acorn Computers' first RISC processor was used in the original Acorn Archimedes and was one of the first RISC processors used in small computers. However, when the company was incorporated in 1990, what 'ARM' stood for changed to "Advanced RISC Machines." According to Steve Furber the name was changed at the behest of Apple, which did not wish to have the name of a competitor in the name of the company. At the time of the IPO in 1998, the company name was changed to "ARM Holdings",[14] often just called ARM like the processors.[15]

On 1 August 2017, the styling and logo were changed. The logo is now all lowercase ('arm') and other uses of the name are in sentence case ('Arm').[15][16]

Founding edit

The company was founded in November 1990 as Advanced RISC Machines Ltd and structured as a joint venture between Acorn Computers, Apple, and VLSI Technology. Acorn provided 12 employees, VLSI provided tools, Apple provided a US$3 million investment (equivalent to $7 million in 2022).[17][18] Larry Tesler, Apple VP was a key person and he helped recruit the first CEO at the joint venture, Robin Saxby.[19][20] The new company intended to further the development of the Acorn RISC Machine processor, which was originally used in the Acorn Archimedes and had been selected by Apple for its Newton project. Its first profitable year was 1993. The company's Silicon Valley and Tokyo offices were opened in 1994. ARM invested in Palmchip Corporation in 1997 to provide system on chip platforms and to enter into the disk drive market.[21][22] In 1998, the company changed its name from Advanced RISC Machines Ltd to ARM Ltd.[23] The company was first listed on the London Stock Exchange (LSE) and Nasdaq in 1998[24] and by February 1999, Apple's shareholding had fallen to 14.8%.[25]

In 2010, ARM joined with IBM, Texas Instruments, Samsung, ST-Ericsson (since dissolved) and Freescale Semiconductor (now NXP Semiconductors) in forming a non-profit open source engineering company, Linaro.[26]

Acquisitions and divestments edit

1999
  • Micrologic Solutions, a software consulting company based in Cambridge[27]
2000
  • Allant Software, a developer of debugging software[28]
  • Infinite Designs, a design company based in Sheffield[29]
  • EuroMIPS a smart card design house in Sophia Antipolis, France[30]
2001
  • The engineering team of Noral Micrologics, a debug hardware and software company based in Blackburn, England[31]
2003
  • Adelante Technologies of Belgium, creating its OptimoDE data engines business, a form of lightweight DSP engine[32]
2004
2005
2006
2008
  • Logipard AB, a public Swedish company spun out of Anoto AB, specialising in graphics processors[39]
2011
  • Obsidian Software Inc., a privately held company that creates processor verification products[40]
  • Prolific, a developer of automated layout optimisation software tools, and the Prolific team will join the ARM physical IP team[41]
2013
  • Internet of Things startup Sensinode[42]
  • Cadence's PANTA family of high-resolution display processor and scaling coprocessor IP cores (formerly developed in Evatronix)[43]
2014
2015
2016
  • Apical, a provider of imaging and embedded computer vision IP products[52]
  • Allinea Software, a leading provider of software tools for HPC[53]
2018
  • Treasure Data ($600 million acquisition), provides enterprise data management software for device-to-data IoT platform[54]
  • Stream Technologies, provides connectivity management platform and GSM connectivity[55]
2019
  • WigWag, an IoT gateway and cloud platform business.[56]
2020
  • In July 2020, Arm announced plans to spin off Treasure Data, together with the other parts of its "IoT Services Group" business, into separate SoftBank-owned entities by the end of September 2020.[57]

Changes of ownership edit

Japanese conglomerate SoftBank Group made an agreed offer for ARM on 18 July 2016, subject to approval by ARM's shareholders, valuing the company at £23.4 billion (US$32 billion).[8][58] The transaction was completed on 5 September 2016.[10][59]

In 2017, a 25% stake of Arm was transferred to the SoftBank Vision Fund, which received investment from the Saudi sovereign fund.[60]

Attempted acquisition by Nvidia and initial public offering edit

American technology company Nvidia announced plans on 13 September 2020 to acquire ARM from SoftBank, pending regulatory approval, for a value of US$40 billion in stock and cash, which would have been the largest semiconductor acquisition to that date. SoftBank Group would acquire slightly less than a 10% stake in Nvidia, and ARM would maintain its headquarters in Cambridge.[61][62][63][64] There was opposition to the deal, including national security concerns from the UK and competition concerns from fellow tech companies such as Google, Microsoft and Qualcomm, whose chips in use or on sale heavily rely on Arm's intellectual property.[65][66][67][68][69] It was also being battled by Arm China, its subsidiary,[70] a majority stake of which was held by Chinese investors.[71][72] The acquisition was initially scheduled to conclude before the end of 2022 per the contract.[73] However, the European Commission, the UK Competition and Markets Authority and the US Federal Trade Commission raised completion concerns focusing on Arm's role within Nvidia, while the UK government also raised concerns about national security. The merger attempt was eventually cancelled in February 2022[74] due to the aforementioned regulatory pressure and hurdles.[75][76]

Arm filed for an IPO on 21 August 2023 on the Nasdaq, rather than the LSE.[77][78] A few days earlier, SoftBank Group bought back the 25% stake from Vision Fund for around $16 billion, valuing Arm at over $64 billion.[79] Arm went public on 14 September 2023 raising $4.87 billion at a $54.5 billion valuation, with SoftBank continuing to own roughly 90% of the company following the offering.[80][81][82]

Dispute over Arm China leadership edit

SoftBank Group sold more than half of Arm China in 2018 to a local consortium consisting of various parties including China Investment Corp. and the Silk Road Fund, effectively relinquishing majority ownership of its Chinese subsidiary to a group of investors with ties to the Chinese state. From 2020, a discord between Arm and the effective owners of Arm China became visible after the British parent company unsuccessfully tried to oust the chief executive of the subsidiary, who, however, managed to retain his position.[83][84] A prevailing view emerged that the matter would negatively affect the pending approval by the Chinese regulators of the Softbank-Nvidia deal, as well as any public offering of Arm.[85][86]

In September 2021, despite Arm's denial, reports stated that the chief executive of Arm China, whom the British parent had tried to dismiss, had publicly declared the "independence" of Arm China.[70][87] In February 2022, Allen Wu, the CEO of Arm China, floated the idea of a public offering of the Chinese subsidiary in 2025.[88]

On 29 April 2022, it was reported that the CEO and legal representative of Arm China had finally been replaced according to legally recognized filings. However, Allen Wu continued to dispute this.[89] Subsequently, in 2023, key staff left to form their own chip design startup Borui Jingxin, which competes with Arm China, particularly for engineers.[90][91]

Operations edit

Unlike most traditional microprocessor suppliers, such as Intel, Freescale (the former semiconductor division of Motorola, now NXP Semiconductors) and Renesas (a former joint venture between Hitachi and Mitsubishi Electric), ARM only creates and licenses its technology as intellectual property (IP),[92] rather than manufacturing and selling its own physical CPUs, GPUs, SoCs or microcontrollers. This model is similar to those of fellow British design houses ARC International and Imagination Technologies, which have similarly been designing and licensing GPUs, CPUs, and SoCs, along with supplying tooling and various design and support services to their licensees.[93]

 
An ARM processor in a Hewlett-Packard PSC-1315 printer, produced for HP by STMicroelectronics

Technology edit

A characteristic feature of Arm processors is their low electric power consumption, which makes them particularly suitable for use in portable devices.[94]

Arm processors are used as the main CPU for most mobile phones[95] many PDAs and handhelds, like the Apple iPod and iPad,[96][97] and computer games and as well as many other applications, including GPS navigation devices, digital cameras and televisions.[98]

Arm supercomputers edit

The world's second fastest supercomputer (previously fastest) in 2022,[99] the Japanese Fugaku is based on Arm AArch64 architecture.[100]

The supercomputer maker Cray has added "ARM Option" (i.e. CPU blade option, using Cavium ThunderX2) to their XC50 supercomputers, and Cray claims that ARM is "a third processor architecture for building next-generation supercomputers", for clients such as the United States Department of Energy.[101]

Fujitsu (the supercomputer maker of June 2011 world's fastest K computer according to TOP500) announced at the International Supercomputing Conference in June 2016 that its future exascale supercomputer will feature processors of its own design that implement the ARMv8 architecture, rather than the SPARC processors used in earlier supercomputers. These processors will also implement extensions to the ARMv8 architecture equivalent to HPC-ACE2 that Fujitsu is developing with ARM Holdings.[102]

The Cray XC50-series supercomputer for the University of Bristol is called Isambard, named after Isambard Kingdom Brunel. The supercomputer is expected to feature around 160 nodes, each with two 32-core ThunderX2 processors running at 2.1 GHz. Peak theoretical performance of the 10,240 cores and 40,960 threads is 172 teraFLOPS.[103]

The Vanguard project by Sandia National Laboratories is to deliver an exascale ARM machine. The first generation was called Hammer, it was based on X-Gene by Applied Micro. The second generation was called Sullivan was based Cavium's ThunderXs processors. The third generation of the Sandia National Laboratories' Vanguard project called Mayer was based on pre-production ThunderX2. The fourth generation also based on ThunderX2 is called Astra and was slated to become operational by November 2018.[104]

Neuromorphic technology edit

ARM968E-S was used to build the neuromorphic supercomputer, SpiNNaker (Spiking Neural Network Architecture).[105]

Products edit

Arm has four lines of central processing units (CPUs)/processors: Neoverse (infrastructure processors), Cortex-A (Application processors), Cortex-R (real-time processors) and Cortex-M (microcontrollers). It also has two lines of graphics processing units (GPUs): Mali, and the newer Immortalis (with hardware-based ray-tracing). In addition, it offers Ethos neural processing units (NPUs), Corelink/CoreSight System/SoC IP, and TrustZone/CryptoCell/SecurCore Security IP.[106]

Arm offers several microprocessor core designs that have been "publicly licensed" for its newer "application processors" (non-microcontroller) used in such applications as smartphones and tablets.[107]

 
ARM Cortex A57 A53

Cores for ARMv8.2-A include the Cortex-A77, Cortex-A65AE, Cortex-A76, Cortex-A75 and Cortex-A55. Cores for ARMv8-A include the Cortex-A73, Cortex-A72, Cortex-A32, Cortex-A35, Cortex-A57 and Cortex-A53. ARM's client roadmap includes Hercules in 2020 and Matterhorn in 2021.[108][109]

Cores for 32-bit architectures include Cortex-A32, Cortex-A15, Cortex-A12, Cortex-A17, Cortex-A9, Cortex-A8, Cortex-A7 and Cortex-A5, and older "Classic ARM Processors", as well as variant architectures for microcontrollers that include these cores: Cortex-R7, Cortex R5, Cortex-R4, Cortex-M35P, Cortex-M33, Cortex-M23 Cortex-M7, Cortex-M4, Cortex-M3, Cortex-M1, Cortex-M0+, and Cortex-M0 for licensing.[110]

Licensees edit

Companies often license these designs from Arm to manufacture and integrate into their own System on chip (SoC) with other components such as GPUs (sometimes Arm's Mali) or modem/radio basebands (for mobile phones). Arm offers multiple licensing programs for their cores.[111] Arm also offers Artisan POP IP, where Arm partners with foundries to provide physical implementation, which allows faster time to market.[112]

In February 2016, Arm announced the Built on Arm Cortex Technology licence often shortened to Built on Cortex (BoC) licence. This licence allows companies to partner with Arm and make modifications to Arm Cortex designs. These design modifications will not be shared with other companies. These semi-custom core designs also have brand freedom, for example Kryo 280.[113]

In addition to licences for their core designs and BoC licence, Arm offers an "architectural licence" for their instruction set architectures, allowing the licensees to design their own cores that implement one of those instruction sets. An Arm architectural licence is more costly than a regular Arm core licence.[114]

The Financial Times reported in March 2023 that Arm had planned to charge the licensees royalties based on the value of the device, instead of the prior model based on the chip's value.[115]

Uses of Arm technology edit

Processors based on designs licensed from Arm, or designed by licensees of one of the ARM instruction set architectures, are used in all classes of computing devices (including in space[116][117]). Processors designed by Arm or by Arm licensees are used as microcontrollers in embedded systems, including real-time safety systems (cars' ABS),[118] biometrics systems (fingerprint sensor[119]), smart TVs (e.g. Android TV), all modern smartwatches (such as Qualcomm Toq), and are used as general-purpose processors in smartphones, tablets, laptops, desktops (even for running traditional x86 Microsoft Windows programs[120][121]),[122] servers[123] and supercomputers/HPC,[124][125][126][101]

Systems, including iPhone smartphones, frequently include many chips, from many different providers, that include one or more licensed Arm cores, in addition to those in the main Arm-based processor.[127] Arm's core designs are also used in chips that support many common network-related technologies in smartphones: Bluetooth, WiFi and broadband,[128] in addition to corresponding equipment such as Bluetooth headsets,[129] 802.11ac routers,[130] and network providers' cellular LTE.[131]

Partnerships edit

University of Michigan edit

In 2011, Arm renewed a five-year, US$5 million research partnership with University of Michigan, which extended their existing research partnership to 2015. This partnership would focus on ultra-low energy and sustainable computing.[132][133]

Arduino edit

In October 2017, Arduino announced its partnership with ARM. The announcement said, in part, "ARM recognized independence as a core value of Arduino ... without any lock-in with the ARM architecture." Arduino intends to continue to work with all technology vendors and architectures.[134]

Intel edit

In October 2018, ARM Holdings partnered with Intel in order to share code for embedded systems through the Yocto Project.[135] On 12 April 2023, ARM Holdings partnered with Intel Foundry Services to bring Arm SoCs to Intel's 18A process.[136]

Mbed OS and Pelion edit

On 20 October 2018, Arm unveiled Arm Mbed OS, an open source operating system for IoT.[137] On 8 October 2019, Arm announced a new Partner Governance model for partners to collaborate on the future roadmap. Partners include: Analog Devices, Cypress, Maxim Integrated, Nuvoton, NXP, Renesas, Realtek, Samsung, Silicon Labs and u-blox.[138] In November 2020, Arm spun out the entire IoT software division as Pelion, a separate but wholly owned subsidiary of Arm.[139] In October 2022 the IoT services of Pelion were purchased by Izuma Networks, an Austin, Texas based startup.[140]

Autonomous Vehicle Computing Consortium (AVCC) edit

On 8 October 2019, Arm announced the Autonomous Vehicle Computing Consortium (AVCC) to collaborate and accelerate development of self-driving cars. Members include Arm, Bosch, Continental, Denso, General Motors, Nvidia, NXP and Toyota.[141]

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) edit

In August 2020, Arm signed a three-year agreement with DARPA, the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, enabling DARPA researchers to use all of Arm's commercially available technology.[142]

Senior management edit

In October 2001, Warren East was appointed chief executive officer (CEO) of Arm Holdings. In the 2011 financial year, East received a total compensation of £1,187,500 from ARM, comprising a salary of £475,000 and a bonus of £712,500.[143][144][145]

In May 2013, president Simon Segars took over as CEO.[146][147]

In March 2014, former Rexam chairman Stuart Chambers succeeded John Buchanan as chairman. Chambers, a non-executive director of Tesco and former chief executive of Nippon Sheet Glass Group, had previously worked at Mars and Royal Dutch Shell.[148]

On 8 February 2022, Rene Haas succeeded Segars as CEO with immediate effect, with Segars leaving Arm.[149]

Current leadership edit

List of former chairpersons edit

List of former chief executives edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "ARM's first press release" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  2. ^ Saxby, Robin (23 November 2006). "Chips With Everything". Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 December 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
  3. ^ "IP Products | Machine Learning". ARM Developer. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  4. ^ a b "Arm Holdings Ltd. Registration Statement (Form F-1)". U.S Securities and Exchange Commission. 21 August 2023. pp. 18–19.
  5. ^ "Arm Holdings shares gain nearly 25% in biggest initial public offering since late 2021". AP News. 14 September 2023.
  6. ^ Schoon, Ben (28 June 2022). "Arm's new Immortalis GPU sets the stage for more Android phones with ray-tracing support". 9to5Google. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  7. ^ Merritt, Rick (30 May 2016). "Cavium Flexes ARM Server Upgrade".
  8. ^ a b "ARM chip designer to be bought by Japan's Softbank". BBC News. 18 July 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  9. ^ "SoftBank Offers to Acquire ARM Holdings for GBP 24.3 Billion (USD 31.4 Billion) in Cash". Business Wire (Press release). 18 July 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2023.
  10. ^ a b "SoftBank finally completes £24bn ARM takeover". Silicon Republic. 5 December 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  11. ^ "Acquisition of ARM Holdings plc. by SoftBank Group Corp". silver.arm.com.
  12. ^ "Nvidia's $40bn takeover of UK chip designer Arm collapses". the Guardian. 8 February 2022. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  13. ^ "Chip giant Arm raises nearly $5 billion in year's largest IPO". Axios. Retrieved 14 September 2023.
  14. ^ "Company Description (as filed with the SEC)". NASDAQ. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  15. ^ a b "Arm Limited". Companies House. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  16. ^ Eric Brown (7 August 2017). "Chip IP designer ARM becomes "Arm" — or is it arm?". LinuxGizmos.com.
  17. ^ Walshe, Ben (21 April 2015). "A Brief History of Arm: Part 1". ARM. Archived from the original on 3 March 2021.
  18. ^ Weber, Jonathan (28 November 1990). "Apple to Join Acorn, VLSI in Chip-Making Venture". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 25 March 2021.
  19. ^ Schofield, Jack (28 February 2020). "Larry Tesler obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  20. ^ "Larry Tesler, Legendary Apple Employee Behind Cut, Copy, And Paste Passes Away Aged 74". The Mac Observer. 19 February 2020. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  21. ^ "PALMCHIP Introduces Fully-Integrated, Low-Power Controller Core for OEM Mass Storage Design". EE Times. 16 May 1997.
  22. ^ "ARM Company Milestones". www.arm.com.
  23. ^ "Advanced RISC Machines Ltd is now ARM Ltd". Findarticles.com. 19 October 1998. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  24. ^ "ARM wins billion dollar valuation in IPO". Findarticles.com. 20 April 1998. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  25. ^ Davis, Jim (3 February 1999). "Short Take: Apple sells ARM shares". CNET. Retrieved 6 February 2012. Apple still holds 14.8 percent of ARM [...]
  26. ^ McGlaun, Shane (3 June 2010). "IBM, Freescale, Samsung Form Linaro to Aid in Developing ARM-compatible Software". Daily Tech. Archived from the original on 1 August 2017.
  27. ^ "Robin Saxby". The Wall Street Transcript. 26 June 2000. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  28. ^ "ARM acquires Allant Software". Design-reuse.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  29. ^ Clarke, Peter (10 April 2000). "ARM acquires privately-held design firm". EE Times. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  30. ^ "Samsung and Incard Launch World's First 32-BitSmart Card for High-Volume SIM Applications". Allbusiness.com. 24 October 2000. Archived from the original on 14 June 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  31. ^ "ARM buys Noral debug design team". Electronicsweekly.com. 5 February 2001. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  32. ^ Yoshida, Junko (28 July 2003). "ARM buys Adelante's design office, leaves core". EE Times.
  33. ^ "ARM Holdings agrees to buy Aachen EDA company". EE Times. 16 August 2004. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  34. ^ Coates, Ron. "ARM to buy designer of systems on a chip". News.cnet.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  35. ^ "ARM Purchases Keil Software". Microcontroller.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  36. ^ Hübert, Heiko (19 May 2009). "Memtrace: A Memory, Performance and Energy Profiler Targeting RISC-Based Embedded Systems for Data-Intensive Applications". Technischen Universität Berlin. p. 28.
  37. ^ Smith, Tony (23 June 2006). "ARM buys Falanx". The Register. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  38. ^ "ARM acquires SOISIC". Channel-e.biz. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  39. ^ "ARM acquires Swedish video processor company, Logipard AB". Design & Reuse. 2 April 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2023.
  40. ^ Peter Clarke (17 June 2011). "ARM buys Texas processor verification firm ARM buys processor verification firm Obsidian". EE Times. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  41. ^ Anton Shilov (1 November 2011). "ARM Acquires Developer of Automated Chip Layout Tools". XbitLabs. Archived from the original on 4 November 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  42. ^ "ARM Acquires Internet Of Things Startup Sensinode To Move Beyond Tablets And Phones". TechCrunch. AOL. 27 August 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  43. ^ "ARM Acquires Advanced Display Technology from Cadence". www.arm.com. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  44. ^ Paul Bakker (24 November 2014). "PolarSSL is now a part of ARM". Polar SSL. Archived from the original on 24 November 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  45. ^ "mbed TLS 1.3.10 released". 8 February 2015. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
  46. ^ "ARM Concludes its Acquisition of Duolog Technologies". www.arm.com. 1 August 2014.
  47. ^ "ARM Expands IoT Security Capability with Acquisition of Sansa Security". www.businesswire.com (Press release). 30 July 2015. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  48. ^ a b "ARM Announces Acquisition of Wicentric and Sunrise Micro". www.arm.com. 16 April 2015.
  49. ^ "ARM buys Leading IoT Security Company Offspark as it Expands its mbed Platform". www.arm.com. 9 February 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
  50. ^ "ARM to Offer Cycle-Accurate Virtual Prototyping for Complex SoCs Through an Asset Acquisition from Carbon Design Systems". www.arm.com. 20 October 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
  51. ^ Janakiram, MSV (18 April 2016). "Is Fog Computing the Next Big Thing in the Internet of Things?". Forbes Magazine. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  52. ^ Andrew (18 May 2016). "ARM Acquires Apical – a Global Leader in Imaging and Embedded Computer Vision". Apical. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  53. ^ "ARM extends HPC offering with acquisition of software tools provider Allinea Software". www.arm.com. 16 December 2016.
  54. ^ "SoftBank-Owned ARM Is Said to Agree to Buy Treasure Data". www.bloomberg.com. 29 July 2018.
  55. ^ "Arm Expands IoT Connectivity and Device Management Capabilities with Stream Technologies Acquisition" (Press release). Arm. 12 June 2018.
  56. ^ "Acquisitions by Arm". tracxn.com. 20 July 2023.[permanent dead link]
  57. ^ Condon, Stephanie (7 July 2020). "Arm proposes spinning off IoT businesses into new Softbank-owned entities". ZDNet. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  58. ^ Stu Woo; Ric Carew; Eva Dou (18 July 2016). "SoftBank to Buy ARM Holdings for $32 Billion". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  59. ^ Erin Griffiths (16 November 2017). "Phone-chip Designer Tackles 'Industrial' Internet of Things". Wired. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  60. ^ "SoftBank to put $8 billion ARM stake into its Vision Fund: FT". Reuters. 8 March 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  61. ^ "NVIDIA to Acquire Arm for $40 Billion, Creating World's Premier Computing Company for the Age of AI". NVIDIA (Press release). 13 September 2020. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  62. ^ Rosoff, Matt (13 September 2020). "Nvidia to buy Arm Holdings from SoftBank for $40 billion". CNBC. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  63. ^ Moorhead, Patrick. "It's Official- NVIDIA Acquires Arm For $40B To Create What Could Be A Computing Juggernaut". Forbes. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  64. ^ Lyons, Kim (13 September 2020). "Nvidia is acquiring Arm for $40 billion". The Verge. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  65. ^ "Peter Mandelson calls on Brussels to block Nvidia-ARM chip merger". POLITICO. 21 October 2020. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  66. ^ Waters, Richard; Pickard, Jim; Vincent, Matthew (18 September 2020). "Nvidia chief pledges 'legally binding' commitments to UK for Arm". Financial Times. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  67. ^ Denton, Lina Saigol, Jack. "Pressure grows for U.K. to intervene in Nvidia's $40 billion Arm takeover". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2 December 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  68. ^ Vedantam, Keerthi. "The cofounder of Arm is trying to block the chip design firm's $40 billion sale to Nvidia, saying it would 'destroy' its business model while making the UK 'collateral damage' in US-China tensions". Business Insider. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  69. ^ "Google, Microsoft, Qualcomm Protest Nvidia's Acquisition of Arm Ltd". Bloomberg.com. 12 February 2021. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  70. ^ a b Field, Matthew (31 August 2021). "Chip company's rogue China boss 'declares independence' from UK owner". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  71. ^ Ryan McMorrow; Qianer Liu (3 November 2020). "Battle at Arm China threatens $40bn Nvidia deal". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 3 November 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  72. ^ Ryan McMorrow; Henny Sender (27 November 2020). "Arm China chief defends move to seize control of unit". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 27 November 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  73. ^ Vincent, James (19 August 2021). "Nvidia admits acquisition of British chip designer Arm may take longer than 18 months". The Verge. Archived from the original on 19 August 2021. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
  74. ^ Sweney, Mark (8 February 2022). "Nvidia's $40bn takeover of UK chip designer Arm collapses". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 25 May 2023.
  75. ^ Waters, Richard; Massoudi, Arash; Fontanella-Khan, James (7 February 2022). "SoftBank's $66bn sale of chip group Arm to Nvidia collapses". Financial Times.
  76. ^ Lee, Jane Lanhee (8 February 2022). "SoftBank's sale of Arm to Nvidia collapses, Arm to IPO - source". Reuters.
  77. ^ Nerkar, Santul; Clark, Don (21 August 2023). "Arm, the Chip Designer, Files for an I.P.O. Expected to Be Among the Largest". The New York Times.
  78. ^ Meredith, Sam (3 March 2023). "British chip giant Arm chooses New York listing in a blow to London". CNBC.
  79. ^ King, Ian; Hytha, Michael (21 August 2023). "SoftBank's Arm Files for IPO That Is Set to Be 2023's Biggest". Bloomberg News.
  80. ^ Wang, Echo; Sen, Anirban (14 September 2023). "How SoftBank played it safe in pricing Arm's IPO". Reuters.
  81. ^ Hansen, Sarah (13 September 2023). "Arm IPO: A Dominant Chip Designer but at a 'Very, Very' Lofty Price". Morningstar.
  82. ^ Giang, Vivian (13 September 2023). "Arm, the Chip Designer, Raises $4.87 Billion in the Year's Largest I.P.O." The New York Times.
  83. ^ "Inside the battle for Arm China". FT.
  84. ^ "How SoftBank's sale of Arm China sowed the seeds of discord". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  85. ^ "Battle at Arm China threatens $40bn Nvidia deal". Nikkei Asia. Archived from the original on 11 June 2021. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  86. ^ Gross, Anna; Bradshaw, Tim; McMorrow, Ryan (11 February 2022). "SoftBank's plans for Arm IPO hit by legal battle over renegade China unit". FT. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  87. ^ Sharwood, Simon. "Arm says it has 'successful working relationship' with Chinese joint venture run by CEO who refuses to leave". www.theregister.com. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  88. ^ "Arm China CEO Allen Wu says IPO likely after 2025 - SCMP". Reuters. 28 February 2022. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  89. ^ Wataru Suzuki (29 April 2022). "SoftBank-owned Arm ousts CEO of Chinese joint venture". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  90. ^ "Key Arm China Staff Quit to Create Government-Backed Startup", Bloomberg 2023-10-12
  91. ^ Anton Shilov (12 October 2023). "Former Arm China Execs Establish New Government-Backed Chip Firm". Tom's Hardware. Retrieved 9 January 2024.
  92. ^ "Processor Licensees". ARM Limited.
  93. ^ "Imagination announces new Apple licence deal". BBC. 2 January 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  94. ^ ARM Processor Overview, Arm company website. Retrieved 5 February 2008
  95. ^ "ARM". Symbian. Archived from the original on 26 January 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2008. ARM is the market-leading architecture in mobile devices worldwide, with 80% of all handsets containing at least one ARM core.
  96. ^ "What processor does the iPod, iPod mini, iPod nano, iPod touch, and iPod shuffle use?". Everymac.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  97. ^ iPhone powered by Samsung, not Intel?, engadget, 11 January 2007
  98. ^ "ARM Powered Products". ARM. Archived from the original on 30 September 2009.
  99. ^ "June 2022 TOP500". top500.org.
  100. ^ Black, Doug (22 June 2020). "ARM-based Fugaku Supercomputer on Summit of New Top500 – Surpasses Exaflops on AI Benchmark". insideHPC. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  101. ^ a b "Cray Adds ARM Option to XC50 Supercomputer | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". www.top500.org. Retrieved 14 November 2017. Cray claims its ARM compiler demonstrated better performance in two-thirds of 135 benchmarks, and much better performance – 20 percent or more – in one-third of them, compared to open source ARM compilers from LLVM and GNU. The Cray ThunderX2 blades can be mixed with other XC50 blades outfitted with Intel Xeon-SP or Xeon Phi processors and NVIDIA Tesla GPUs. Both air-cooled and liquid-cooled options are available. Cray already has one customer lined up for the ThunderX2-powered XC50: the Great Western 4 (GW4) Alliance, a research consortium of four UK universities (Bristol, Bath, Cardiff and Exeter). In January 2017, the alliance announced it had contracted Cray to build "Isambard," a 10,000-core ARM-based supercomputer, which will provide a Tier 2 HPC service. The UK's Met Office was also involved on the deal, since it was interested in seeing how its weather and climate codes would run on such a machine. The system will be paid for out of a £3 million award from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). It's scheduled to be fully deployed by the end of this year.
  102. ^ Morgan, Timothy Prickett (23 June 2016). "Inside Japan's Future Exascale ARM Supecomputer". The Next Platform. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  103. ^ "A Look at Cavium's New High-Performance ARM Microprocessors and the Isambard Supercomputer". WikiChip Fuse. 3 June 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  104. ^ Schor, David (25 August 2018). "Cavium Takes ARM to Petascale with Astra". WikiChip Fuse. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  105. ^ "SpiNNaker Project - The SpiNNaker Chip". apt.cs.manchester.ac.uk. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  106. ^ "Products – Arm®". Arm | The Architecture for the Digital World. Retrieved 17 September 2023.
  107. ^ "Processor Licensees". arm.com. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  108. ^ Nayampally, Nandan. "Arm acquires Treasure Data to set the stage for IoT transformation". Arm | The Architecture for the Digital World (Press release). Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  109. ^ Smith, Ryan. "Arm TechCon 2019 Keynote Live Blog (Starts at 10am PT/17:00 UTC)". www.anandtech.com. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  110. ^ "Cortex-M0 Processor – Fastest Licensing Arm Processor". Electronic Specifier. 3 December 2009. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  111. ^ "How Arm Licensing Works". Arm Holdings. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  112. ^ "Arm and Samsung extend Artisan POP IP collaboration to 7LPP and 5LPE nodes". Anand Tech. 6 July 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  113. ^ Frumusanu, Andrei. "ARM Details Built on ARM Cortex Technology License". www.anandtech.com. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
  114. ^ Shimpi, Anand Lal (28 June 2013). "The ARM Diaries, Part 1: How ARM's Business Model Works". Anandtech. p. 3. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
  115. ^ Gross, Anna; Ting-Fang, Cheng; Inagaki, Kana (23 March 2023). "Arm seeks to raise prices ahead of hotly anticipated IPO". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 23 March 2023.
  116. ^ "VA10820 - Radiation Hardened ARM® Cortex®-M0 MCU | Vorago Technologies | Opening up new possibilities". www.voragotech.com. Archived from the original on 9 November 2018. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  117. ^ "Air Force, NASA to develop radiation-hardened ARM processor for next-generation space computing". www.militaryaerospace.com. 21 June 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  118. ^ "ARMv8-R Architecture". www.arm.com. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  119. ^ Bhargava, Akansha; Ochawar, R.S. (2014). "Biometric Access Control Implementation Using 32 bit Arm Cortex Processor". 2014 International Conference on Electronic Systems, Signal Processing and Computing Technologies. pp. 40–46. doi:10.1109/ICESC.2014.98. ISBN 978-1-4799-2102-7. S2CID 14580013.
  120. ^ Branscombe, Mary. "Windows 10 on ARM: S versus Pro, emulation and 64-bit app support | ZDNet". ZDNet. Retrieved 2 March 2018. only 32-bit x86 applications are supported
  121. ^ Sinofsky, Steven. "Building Windows for the ARM processor architecture". Building Windows 8. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  122. ^ "ARM and Canonical to Bring Full Ubuntu Desktop Experience to Low-Power, ARM Technology-Based Computing Devices". arm.com (Press release). 13 November 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  123. ^ "Red Hat Deploys ARM-Based Servers for Fedora Project". eWEEK. 15 May 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  124. ^ "nCore HPC Rolls Out BrownDwarf ARM DSP Supercomputer". insideHPC. 17 June 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  125. ^ Barak, Sylvie (6 December 2011). "Nvidia: ARM supercomputer to be more efficient than x86". EE Times.
  126. ^ "Smartphone chips may power servers, researchers say". PCWorld. 25 May 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  127. ^ "Apple iPhone Update: Whats changed since the iPhone 4". 6 September 2012.
  128. ^ "802.11a/b/g/n MAC/Baseband/Radio with Integrated Bluetooth 4.0+HS & FM Transceiver". Archived from the original on 10 April 2016.
  129. ^ "Single-Chip Bluetooth® Mono Headset IC". Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
  130. ^ Klug, Brian (5 June 2012). "ARM: Broadcom Announces BCM4708x and BCM5301x SoCs for 802.11ac routers". Retrieved 21 September 2014.
  131. ^ "Marvell Expands its Broad 4G LTE Product Portfolio with the ARMADA Mobile PXA1088LTE Pro Platform to Support the Issuing of 4G TD-LTE Licenses in China and Operators" (Press release). Marvell. 16 December 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  132. ^ Peter Clarke, EE Times. "ARM extends Michigan research deal." 31 August 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  133. ^ Edwards, Chris (31 August 2011). "Low Power Design". Electronics Weekly. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  134. ^ "Arduino reborn partners with ARM". Electronics Weekly. 6 October 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  135. ^ Chirgwin, Richard (18 October 2018). "Arm cozies up to Intel for second time in a week – this time to borrow tools from Yocto Project for Mbed Linux". www.theregister.co.uk.
  136. ^ "Intel Foundry and Arm Announce Multigeneration Collaboration on..." Intel (Press release). Retrieved 17 September 2023.
  137. ^ "Introducing Arm Mbed Linux OS | Mbed". os.mbed.com. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  138. ^ "Arm and silicon partners collaborate on IoT development through new Mbed OS Partner Governance model". Arm | The Architecture for the Digital World (Press release). Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  139. ^ "Arm Spins Out Pelion as a Separate Company, Focusing on IoT Services". EE Times. 20 November 2020. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
  140. ^ "Izuma Networks Acquires SoftBank's Pelion IoT Device Management Business". Forbes. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
  141. ^ "New Consortium to Develop a Common Computing Platform for Autonomous Vehicles". www.businesswire.com (Press release). 8 October 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  142. ^ "Arm and DARPA Sign Partnership Agreement – Arm". Arm | The Architecture for the Digital World (Press release). Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  143. ^ a b "Warren East: Executive Profile & Biography". BusinessWeek. Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
  144. ^ "Warren East profile". Forbes. Archived from the original on 7 May 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2009.
  145. ^ a b "The Bottom Line: Running Rolls Royce on Apple Podcasts". Apple Podcasts. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  146. ^ "ARM CEO Warren East steps down". PC Pro. Archived from the original on 21 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
  147. ^ Bertoni, Steven. "PODCAST: How Arm Holdings Got Into Every Tech Gadget You Own". Forbes. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  148. ^ a b c "Appointment Of New Chairman". ARM Investor Relations (Press release). 27 January 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  149. ^ a b c Moorhead, Patrick (8 February 2022). "Surprise! NVIDIA Deal Off, Arm Is Very Profitable, Has A New CEO, And Rene Haas Is Looking Forward To Its IPO". Forbes. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  150. ^ "Report of Foreign Private Issuer (Form 6-K)". US Securities and Exchange Commission. 5 September 2016.
  151. ^ a b "Q5: Sir Robin Saxby, chairman of ARM". Electronics Weekly. 24 February 2006. Archived from the original on 28 December 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
  152. ^ "ARM Chairman announces departure". Business Weekly. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2022.

External links edit

  • Official website
  • Business data for Arm Holdings plc American Depository Receipts: