2channel (Japanese: 2ちゃんねる, Hepburn: ni channeru), also known as 2ch,[5] Channel 2,[6][7] and sometimes retrospectively as 2ch.net,[8] was an anonymous Japanese textboard[b] founded in 1999 by Hiroyuki Nishimura. Described in 2007 as "Japan's most popular online community",[9] the site had a level of influence comparable to that of traditional mass media such as television, radio, and magazines.[2] At the time, the site drew an annual revenue of around ¥100 million (about US$1 million),[10][11] and was the largest of its kind in the world, with around ten million visitors[9] and 2.5 million posts made per day.[2]

Logo in 2012, featuring a spittoon surrounded by popular memes from the site
Type of site
Available inJapanese
Created byHiroyuki Nishimura
URL2ch.net (historically)
Users10 million monthly (2010)[1]
Launched30 May 1999; 24 years ago (1999-05-30)[2]
Current statusDisputed (since 19 February 2014; 10 years ago (2014-02-19))
Available inJapanese
Founded1 April 2014; 9 years ago (2014-04-01)
OwnerHiroyuki Nishimura
ParentPacket Monster Inc.[3]
Current statusActive
Available inJapanese, with a small minority of boards in English[4]
Founded1 October 2017; 6 years ago (2017-10-01)
OwnerJim Watkins
ParentLoki Technology Inc. via Race Queen Inc.
Current statusActive

The site was hosted and had its domain registration provided by Jim Watkins, based in San Francisco, California.[10][1][12] In 2009, ownership of the site was transferred to Singapore-based Packet Monster Inc., under which Nishimura remained in control.[13][14] In February 2014, Watkins seized the 2ch.net domain, taking full control over the website and assuming the role of site administrator.[12][15] This has resulted in two textboards claiming to be the legitimate 2channel:[15] 2ch.sc,[a] owned by Nishimura through Packet Monster Inc.,[3] and 5channel (5ちゃんねる, go channeru, domain 5ch.net), established in 2017 by redirect from the original domain and owned by Watkins through Philippines-based Loki Technology Inc.

2channel and its successors are more controversial than other social media in Japan;[5] they are extremely popular among Japan's extreme right-wing, known as the netto-uyoku, who post xenophobic comments, often targeting Koreans.[9][6] Defamation is of particular concern; by August 2008, Nishimura had received more than one hundred lawsuits for defamatory comments left on the website.[11] Announcements of crimes also have drawn scrutiny towards 2channel and its successors.[13][17][18][19] In 2012, 2channel was accused by the Tokyo Metropolitan Police of allowing its platform to be used by amphetamine dealers,[20] although no charges were filed.[13]

In September 2007, 2channel averaged over 2.4 million posts per day.[21][c] As of July 2020, 5channel had 1,031 boards receiving around 2.7 million posts per day on weekends,[22] with no growth since March 2016.[23][c] Meanwhile, 2ch.sc then had 826 boards receiving around 5,700 posts daily.[24][c]

History edit

Ayashii World was laid out something like a non-threaded e-mail client without subjects. All messages were sorted chronologically, and to see the post being replied to, a link must be followed.[25]
Meanwhile, Amezou, and 2channel, were laid out in the more familiar textboard format, where threads are ordered by their last post unless the user specifically chooses not to make their post bump the thread.[25]

Predecessors edit

Textboards like 2channel were rooted in two earlier technologies: dial-in bulletin boards, known in Japan as grass roots bulletin boards (草の根BBS),[5] and Usenet.[26] 2channel has two predecessors: Ayashii World created in 1996 by Shiba Masayuki,[26] and Amezou (あめぞう),[25] created in 1997. Ayashii World was the first large anonymous web bulletin board in Japan, while Amezou originated the more familiar "textboard" concept wherein threads are displayed chronologically, with new comments bumping old threads to the top, rather than in a branching tree.[26][25] Ayashii World closed in 1998, leading most of its former users to go to Amezou;[26] Nishimura advertised 2channel in a post on Amezou in May 1999, calling it "Amezou's second channel".[25] From June, Amezou became increasingly unable to handle the load on its servers,[25][27]: 260  until its host shut it down after threats against Amezou's anonymous owner which contained his dox were posted on it.[26][27]: 260 

Hiroyuki Nishimura, above, founded 2channel in 1999 while a student in Arkansas.

Family tree

Various "grass roots"草の根 BBS
Ayashii World
2ch.sc5channelFutaba Channel
outside Japan

Early history edit

2channel was founded on 30 May 1999 in a college apartment in Conway, Arkansas on the campus of University of Central Arkansas[2] by Hiroyuki Nishimura.[1] Success came quickly; many of Amezou's users began using it as soon as it opened.[5] When compared with other bulletin boards, 2channel's technology wasn't much different; what led to its success was instead its being an "outlet for unfettered expression";[10] by being hosted in the United States, 2channel was able to bypass more restrictive Japanese censorship rules, while still being accessible from Japan.[28] The site also enjoyed greater immunity from legal action within Japan due to the location of its servers.[10][29] By 2002, Google said that the most searched word in Japan was "2channel".[30] By 2004, 2channel was already the largest internet forum in Japan.[6]

The name "2channel" is a reference to VHF channel 2, the default setting for the RF modulators used in earlier-generation game consoles (such as Nintendo's Family Computer) when connecting to Japanese television sets.[31] Where Amezou was originally meant to be "channel one", 2channel was meant to be "channel two".[25][27]: 266  The site's iconic jar logo is a reference to deprecatory remarks some former users of Ayashii World would make about 2channel early on in the site's history, likening it to a spittoon (痰壷).[32][27]: 271  Nishimura took this nickname and adopted it as the site's logo by 2002.[27][33]

Jim Watkins, an ex-US army non-commissioned officer (sergeant first class), domain name registrar, and dedicated hosting service provider, hosted 2channel since at least 2004[8] through various corporate identities, including Big-server.com Inc.,[34] Pacific Internet Exchange LLC[35] and N. T. Technology Inc.[36][37] Before 2channel, Watkins' company primarily specialized in using servers and domains in the United States to serve uncensored pornographic content to users in Japan.[29][36]

Ownership transfer and government scrutiny edit

On 2 January 2009, Nishimura claimed to have transferred ownership of 2channel to Packet Monster Inc., a company based in Chinatown, Singapore, and to no longer be involved in the site's management.[38][39] However, Nishimura was charged with violating Japanese narcotic control laws anyway on 20 December 2012.[40][d] As part of their case, the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department (MPD) claimed Nishimura remained involved in 2channel's operations, alleging Packet Monster Inc. is a shell company (ペーパーカンパニー).[13] The main thrust of the complaint was that Nishimura allegedly did not delete posts seeking to purchase illicit amphetamine from other 2channel users online; the Internet Hotline Center [ja], an agency of the MPD, alleged that in 2011 97% of its 5,223 deletion requests did not result in deletion.[20] On 19 March 2013, the Public Prosecutors Office decided not to prosecute the case.[13]

In August 2013, the Tokyo Regional Taxation Bureau declared in a tax audit that Nishimura had failed to declare ¥100 million worth of website revenue which should have been taxed between 2009 and 2012, years in which he financially benefited from Packet Monster Inc.;[13][41] Nishimura settled the matter by paying the owed tax, ¥30 million.[42]

Personal information leak edit

In August 2013, a hacker using the name sassy ecchi (さっしーえっち)[43] leaked [ja] the personal details (including names, addresses, and phone numbers)[37] and credit card numbers of thousands of 2channel users who had used 2channel's paid services into the public domain,[44] exposing the anonymous profiles of various high level personas such as politicians and writers,[45] including an attorney involved in 2channel cases, Takahiro Karasawa (唐澤貴洋),[43] and a staff member of AKB48.[46] More than 74,000 users had their personal information exposed by the leak.[47]

The paid service involved in the leak was known as the "2channel viewer" (2ちゃんねるビューア),[43] or maru ().[48][e] Its main utility was that it allowed users to read old threads; if a thread on 2channel received 1,000 posts, it would become part of the kako rogu (過去ログ, lit. past log) by a process of ".dat omission" (dat落ち)[f] of such threads, after which time a thread was no longer freely accessible.[50][1] 2channel charged ¥3,600 per year for the service, which was typically paid by credit card; logs of these payments were the source of the data leak.[51]

At the time of the leak, Watkins apologized on behalf of N. T. Technology, Inc., saying he was the victim of a "cyber attack" and that "some data [of my] customers was compromised."[37][52]

Domain seizure and split edit

On 19 February 2014, Jim Watkins, as chairman of N.T. Technology, Inc., 2channel's domain registrar, seized 2channel's domain. He took full control over the website, relieved Nishimura of all power, and assumed the role of website administrator.[15] Watkins made the kako rogu free to all users shortly after assuming control.[53]

Watkins claimed that Nishimura had failed to pay him money owed which led to the seizure as a way to cover Nishimura's debts,[54][55] while Nishimura claimed that he had in fact paid everything owed and that the domain transfer was an illegal domain hijacking.[56] In response, Nishimura created his own clone of 2channel at 2ch.sc [ja],[57] scraping the contents of the entire 2channel website and updating 2ch.sc as new posts appeared on 2ch.net. In a Q&A session on 4chan shortly after becoming the site's owner, Nishimura claimed that 2channel was stolen by Watkins.[58]

Nishimura has attempted to repossess the domain both through WIPO's Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy[59] and through the Japanese court system.[8] Through the Japan Patent Office, Nishimura owns the trademark "2channel",[60] though the WIPO refused to intervene on his behalf on account of that, suggesting the parties go to court instead as it was not, in its view, a case of "cybersquatting" but rather a "business dispute".[59]

Ron Watkins, Jim's son, in 2016 registered the trademark "5channel" in Japan.[61] On 1 October 2017, 2ch.net began redirecting to 5ch.net, a domain owned by Loki Technology, Inc.[62] The chairman of Loki Technology Inc. is also Jim Watkins;[63] his wife, Liziel, is the treasurer and majority shareholder.[36] According to a press release, the name was changed to 5channel to avoid potential legal issues due to Nishimura's ownership of the "2channel" trademark.[64]

Culture edit

A Nintendo DS browsing a thread on 2channel's automobile board as it appeared in 2008 via the Nintendo DS Browser

Due to its large number of boards, the types of information exchanged on 2channel are very diverse.[2] There are boards for topics as diverse as sports, sex, celebrity gossip, computer programming[10] and ongoing earthquakes;[65] even some academic research has gotten its start on 2channel.[66]

Anonymous posting edit

One of the most distinctive features of 2channel is its use of anonymous posting.[2] Nishimura explained his reasons for preferring anonymity online to USC Annenberg's Japan Media Review thus:[7]

If there is a user ID attached to a user, a discussion tends to become a criticizing game. On the other hand, under the anonymous system, even though your opinion/information is criticized, you don't know with whom to be upset. Also with a user ID, those who participate in the site for a long time tend to have authority, and it becomes difficult for a user to disagree with them. Under a perfectly anonymous system, you can say, "it's boring," if it is actually boring. All information is treated equally; only an accurate argument will work.

However, a frequent criticism directed toward anonymous textboards like 2channel, most notably by Kazuhiko Nishi, is that their anonymous nature make them mere "toilet graffiti" (便所の落書き).[67][32] 2channel's anonymity is a departure from most English language internet forums which require some form of registration, usually coupled with email verification for further identification of an individual;[9] its anonymity in part inspired the creation of 4chan.[68] On 2channel, a name field is available, but it is seldom used.[69]: PT26  However, as open proxies such as the Tor network are banned from posting on 2channel, the administrators have some degree of ability to help law enforcement unmask users if necessary.[70][1]

Revenue edit

While 2channel and its successors are commercial, 2channel was moderated by volunteers.[5] 2channel relied on advertisements from "obscure" companies.[6] In 2007, it had an annual revenue of around ¥100 million.[10][11] Between 2009 and 2012, ¥200 million in ad profits were transferred to Nishimura's Singaporean shell company.[41][42]

As early as 2004, companies such as Dentsu were data mining the website for their clients, keeping them informed of how they were being portrayed by 2channel users;[6][g][71] by 2006, 75% of the content Dentsu analyzed on behalf of its customers was posted to 2channel.[14]

2channel also received revenue from subscription services like the aforementioned maru.[51] For its part, 5channel has a subscription service, "Premium Rōnin" (プレミアム浪人), that allows people outside Japan to post on it; this service also hides ads from its subscribers.[72][73]

Matome edit

2channel historically allowed anyone to use its data,[74] providing it in an easily parsable format;[f] this made it simple to create third party "dedicated browsers" (専用ブラウザ, sen'yō burauza) for posting on and using 2channel. The openness of the data allowed for the proliferation of matome saito (まとめサイト, summary websites) and afi burogu (アフィブログ, affiliate blogs), which summarize 2channel threads and attempt to collect what they see as the "best of" 2channel.[15] In 2007, due to growing discontentment towards such sites, Nishimura added a board, /poverty/,[h] which marked every post on it with the phrase tensai kinshi (転載禁止, transl. reproduction [of this post is] prohibited).[75] This caused many users to abandon other boards for that board.[76]

Watkins made it a priority to combat "piracy" of 5channel by third-party matome sites in March 2014,[77] adding tensai kinshi to many popular boards.[15] Such sites siphon users from 2channel itself, with some receiving in excess of 100 million monthly pageviews;[15] in one case a matome site earned its owner ¥300,000 per month.[77] Watkins followed up the rule change by restricting access to 2channel's data in March 2015, by requiring that dedicated browser authors use a special API to access 2channel's, and later 5channel's, thread data.[72][78][79] On 10 July 2023, Jane, a company that provided a 5channel API server, terminated its 5channel API service, thus ending several applications' support for the site. Some browsers, including Jane's, replaced their support for 5channel with another anonymous textboard site named Talk.[80][81]

Phenomena edit

Densha Otoko edit

Densha Otoko is a Japanese franchise consisting of a movie, television series, manga, and other media, all based on the purportedly true story of a 23-year-old man who intervened when a drunk man started to harass several women on a train. The man ultimately begins dating one of the women. The event and the man's subsequent dates with the woman, chronicled on 2channel, directly inspired the franchise.[82] Whether or not the original 2channel story is actually true is debated.[83]: 27 

Shift_JIS art edit

2channel and its successors, being textboards, cannot have images posted to them. Users get around this, however, by posting a more expressive form of ASCII art: Shift_JIS art.[84][i] Below is a small sample:

Gikoneko predated 2channel, yet was used on it as well. It frequently appears with the tagline itte yoshi (逝ってよし, fuck off).[26]
Mona, an early example, appeared first in 2000. Derives its name from its frequent tagline, omae mo na (お前もな, I know you are, but what am I?).[84]

Political activism edit

2channel and other websites with "chan" in their name have been known for activism done by their users for a variety of causes.[85]

Controversies edit

Debito Arudou, above, won a ¥1,100,000 libel judgment against 2channel in 2006 after Nishimura refused to delete posts calling Arudou a white supremacist.[86]

Slander and legal issues edit

During Hiroyuki's administration, he was often openly defiant of Japanese law, especially around libel, and his duty to follow it, telling Yomiuri Shimbun in March 2007:[2]

I don't have any intention of paying up to a country whose laws I don't respect. As long as they're not handing me the death sentence, I'm not backing down.

By May 2008, Nishimura had lost more than fifty libel lawsuits in Japanese civil courts, and had been assessed millions of dollars in penalties;[10] by August, according to him, he'd received more than one hundred lawsuits.[11] While according to the official pages of the website, slander was prohibited,[87] activists such as Debito Arudou claimed that the site did not actually respond to requests to delete posts in his case, returning mail unopened.[88] After the transfer to Packet Monster Inc., Arudou, who had still not received any of the court ordered penalty, wrote in an op-ed that Nishimura had only transferred his assets to increase his "unaccountability".[89] While Nishimura at that point had never paid any of the compensation courts ordered in his cases, in 2010 one of his plaintiffs was successful in getting compensated through the publisher of one of Nishimura's books.[1]

Crime announcements edit

Crime announcements (犯行予告) were a regular occurrence on 2channel, including of mass suicides and murders.[13] After the 2000 Neomugicha incident, in which a bus was hijacked by a man who posted on 2channel, police officers started regularly policing 2channel;[2] such surveillance only increased after the Akihabara massacre announced his 2008 attack on 2channel as well.[90][17] Former superintendent of the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Tateshi Higuchi called the site a "den of iniquity".[91] According to The Japan Times, however, 2channel cooperated with police in the past to aid them in catching criminals using 2channel by giving police their IP addresses, from which their locations were determined.[1]

Such crime announcements have continued to be a problem on 5channel:[18][19] it was speculated that the man who carried out the Kyoto Animation arson attack posted an advance warning of the crime on 5channel.[92]

Far-right nationalism and anti-Korean hate speech edit

2channel, with its massive size and anonymous posting, is abundant with slander, hate speech[6][93] and defamation against public figures, institutions, and minority ethnic groups.[94][95] Far-right users of 2channel are referred to as netto-uyoku, a term roughly analogous to "alt-right". Though the site has rules against posts illegal under Japanese law, the scale and anonymous nature of the site makes prompt deletions difficult to realize in practice. Furthermore, on occasion, 2channel has been accused of being reluctant to remove defamatory posts.[96][97]: 676  The discussion boards are also often used to coordinate real-life demonstrations; as an example, 2channel users organized an August 2011 rally against Fuji Television, their complaint being that the channel was broadcasting too many Korean television shows.[98] Sankei Shimbun reported in 2018 that 5channel, which received most of 2channel's users, has the same reputation for attracting netto-uyoku.[99]

2channel netto-uyoku frequently make racist comments against Koreans.[9][95] In 2009, it was even discovered that an Asahi Shimbun employee had posted racist remarks towards Koreans on 2channel.[100] After the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, fake news proliferated on 2channel, falsely accusing Chinese and Korean people of "plundering" evacuation centers.[101]

Technology edit

2channel operated on forum software that was considered innovative at the time of its founding, originally written by Hiroyuki himself,[102] but later replaced through the collective effort of his Unix-savvy users; the software is known as read.cgi.[2] It was a major departure from Usenet; however, when compared to other Japanese textboards at the time, such as Amezou, 2channel's format was not much different.[25][10]

Boards in the textboard software have their threads sorted by the time of their last post, so making a post would "bump" (上げ, age) the thread to the top of the board index. However, when posting in a thread, users may use a function known as sage (下げ, lit. lowering) to avoid bumping a thread in this way.[5][103] Often, posters will use sage on purpose, to avoid unwanted attention.[5]

Major outages edit

2010–2011 Korean DDoS edit

In response to racism towards Koreans by 2channel users, especially against Yuna Kim, an athlete who defeated Japan in the 2010 Vancouver Olympics, the site suffered an extended outage in March 2010 due to a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack conducted by a Korean hacking group.[90] The attack against Jim Watkins' Pacific Internet Exchange LLC affected other sites on the shared network as well, including some belonging to US government agencies; it is estimated to have cost US$2.5 million.[104] Watkins requested the American government investigate the event as an instance of "cyberterrorism";[34] according to him, sporadic DDoS attacks by Koreans continued into 2011.[105]

2015 8chan DDoS edit

Beginning on 8 January 2015, 8chan, also owned by Jim Watkins and hosted on the network of N. T. Technology, Inc., suffered an outage due to a DDoS attack. Due to the attack, 2ch.net, then owned by Watkins but not yet operated under the name 5channel, went down as well.[106] The attacks against the messageboards lasted until at least 13 January, leading "many 2channel users to become angry with the management".[107]

Societal impact edit

The 2channel forum is a Japanese internet phenomenon. This single site has more influence on Japanese popular opinion than the prime minister, the emperor and the traditional media combined. On one level, it serves as a fun, informative place for people to read product reviews, download software and compare everything from the size of their poop to quiz show answers. But conversations hosted here have also influenced stock prices, rallied support for philanthropic causes, organized massive synchronized dance routines, prevented terrorism and driven people to their deathbeds.

Lisa Katayama, Wired (2008)[2]

In September 2007, 2channel averaged over 2.4 million posts per day.[21][c] As of July 2020, 5channel had 1,031 boards receiving around 2.7 million posts per day on weekends,[22] with no growth since March 2016.[23][c] Meanwhile, 2ch.sc then had 826 boards receiving around 5,700 posts daily.[24][c] Due to its popularity, 2channel and its successors have had considerable influence on Japanese society.[2]

Children's use of 2channel edit

Use of sites like 2channel by minors is a major concern in Japan.[5] Some children's search sites, such as the now-defunct Kids Goo (キッズgoo), filtered textboards like 2channel.[108] In Tokyo, a local ordinance requires that internet service providers develop filters to prevent minors from accessing sites which could harm the "sound and wholesome fostering [of their youth]"; they must also confirm before installing a connection if any minors live in the household.[5]

Despite this, however, web filter provider Net Star in February 2007 released the results of a survey which showed that the utilization rate of 2channel for primary and secondary students was 12.2%.[109] In response to threads on 2channel about certain schools which were leading to cyberbullying, the Ministry of Education in 2008 released a 65-page manual for teachers and parents on how to handle the issue.[110] Concerned about the popularity of 2channel among children and teenagers, a team of childhood education professors at the University of the Ryukyus in 2009 published a paper making recommendations to lawmakers on how to curb such use.[111]

In February 2020, Nishimura himself wrote an op-ed in Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun warning parents about the dangers of allowing their children unfettered access to social media sites like YouTube and 2channel.[112]

Politicians and 2channel edit

Naoto Kan, a future Prime Minister who was then a member of the National Diet, sent a legal notice on 10 May 2000 demanding that 2channel delete a post by someone falsely claiming to be him.[113]

After the Liberal Democratic Party presidential election in 2007, Prime Minister Tarō Asō stated in a Fuji TV interview that he sometimes posts on 2channel.[114] During each election season, supporting posts for perennial candidates Matayoshi Jesus and Mac Akasaka were frequently made on 2channel, turning them into something of a meme,[115][116] similar to the repeated candidacies of Vermin Supreme in the United States. After more than ten failed candidacies for various political offices, including Governor of Tokyo, Akasaka was eventually elected to the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly, representing Minato, in April 2019.[115] Asahi Shimbun credited Akasaka's online fame with helping him win the surprise victory.[115]

2channel in the media edit

Japanese news organizations often relied on 2channel to determine the issues the public was thinking about, and for leads.[6] However, the mass media often reports on it negatively,[83]: 23  similar to how it reported on otaku culture a decade ago, before it went more mainstream, even though internet trends nowadays routinely slip through into other media.[117] The phrase "the online bulletin board says" (インターネットの掲示板で),[b] when used in reporting, may refer either to 2channel or to other forums. Movements spawned on 2channel often receive media attention, noting how the methods of 2channel activists break socially normative behavior and bring pressure to bear through sheer numbers.[83]: 25  Beyond this, though, 2channel posts were often a basis for media reports in Japan.[83]: 25, 32, 35 

TV programs have even featured 2channel's moderators and users;[13][118] comedian Hikari Ōta, for example, criticized Nishimura during a discussion on the Tokyo Broadcasting System's Sandējapon on the ideal limits of free expression as applied to social networks.[119]

Shokun! magazine, during its operation, ran a column known as Kōjimachi Denmō Sokkōjo (麹町電網測候所, lit. Kōjimachi internet weather station) which shared "patriotic" 2channel posts.[120] Weekly Bunshun (週刊文春, published by Bungeishunjū), meanwhile, has been criticized for being seen as overly pro-2channel and relying on its posts too much in its reporting.[121]

See also edit

Footnotes edit

Explanatory notes edit

  1. ^ a b 2ch.sc calls itself 2ちゃんねる, just as the former 2ch.net did. When it is necessary to differentiate 2ch.net from 2ch.sc in Japanese, the form 2ちゃんねる (2ch.sc) is often used.[16]
  2. ^ a b 2channel, and other sites like it, are called keijiban (掲示板) in Japanese. This word literally translates to "bulletin board", but in English, that word only refers to older text-based systems, not web bulletin boards like 2channel. Therefore, the correct translation is "textboard" in English.
  3. ^ a b c d e f These statistics are self-reported.
  4. ^ The full name of the law, Act No. 94 of 1991, is An Act Concerning Special Provisions for the Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Act, etc. and Other Matters for the Prevention of Activities Encouraging Illicit Conducts and Other Activities Involving Controlled Substances through International Cooperation (国際的な協力の下に規制薬物に係る不正行為を助長する行為等の防止を図るための麻薬及び向精神薬取締法等の特例等に関する法律).
  5. ^ The service received the nickname maru (lit. circle) on account of the fact that users of it could signal their support of 2channel by attaching a "●" to their post in the name field, which other users could not do.[49]
  6. ^ a b 2channel threads were encoded in a quasi-open standard known as ".dat". 5channel's official documentation includes examples.
  7. ^ Gala is a division of Dentsu.
  8. ^ Similar to the boards on the sites it inspired, like 4chan's /pol/, boards on 2channel are, by convention, referred to by the ends of their URLs.
  9. ^ "More expressive", here, is used in the sense that more art is possible with Shift_JIS art than would be possible with ASCII art due to the larger character set of the Shift_JIS encoding.

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Matsutani, Minoru (6 April 2010). "2channel's success rests on anonymity". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on 9 April 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Katayama, Lisa (19 April 2007). "2-Channel Gives Japan's Famously Quiet People a Mighty Voice". Wired. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  3. ^ a b Nishimura, Hiroyuki. "2ちゃんねるガイド:基本" [2channel FAQ]. 2ch.sc. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 18 May 2020. 2ch.sc is managed and operated by PACKET MONSTER INC. and more.
  4. ^ "5ちゃんねる掲示板リスト" [5channel board list]. 5channel (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 4 October 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2020. 【大使館 (Embassy)】Anime & Manga / Books / Comics & Cartoons / Computers / [...]
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kaigo, Muneo; Watanabe, Isao (1 July 2007). "Ethos in Chaos? Reaction to Video Files Depicting Socially Harmful Images in the Channel 2 Japanese Internet Forum". Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 12 (4): 1248–1268. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00372.x.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Ōnishi, Norimitsu (9 May 2004). "Japanese Find a Forum to Vent Most-Secret Feelings". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  7. ^ a b Furukawa, Hideki (22 August 2003). "Q&A With the Founder of Channel 2". Japan Media Review. USC Annenberg. Archived from the original on 22 December 2003. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  8. ^ a b c In re: Race Queen Inc., 平成29年(ワ)第3428号 (Tokyo District Court) ("被告は,平成16年から平成29年9月30日まで,継続して本件電子掲示板を管理・運営し [From 2004 to at least September 30, 2017, the defendants operated the textboard.]"), Text.
  9. ^ a b c d e Sakamoto, Rumi (7 March 2011). "'Koreans, Go Home!' Internet Nationalism in Contemporary Japan as a Digitally Mediated Subculture". The Asia-Pacific Journal. 9 (10). Archived from the original on 11 March 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Katayama, Lisa (19 May 2008). "Meet Hiroyuki Nishimura, the Bad Boy of the Japanese Internet". Wired. Archived from the original on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  11. ^ a b c d Shibui, Tetsuya (26 August 2008). "2channel founder says don't blame him for criminals' posts". Shūkan Gendai. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2020 – via Japan Today.
  12. ^ a b McLaughlin, Timothy (6 August 2019). "The Weird, Dark History of 8chan". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Adelstein, Jake (26 September 2015). "Will 4Chan's Shady New Owner Weaponize It?". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  14. ^ a b Martin, Alex (24 January 2009). "2channel founder ponders next step after forum's sale". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2020. Speculation abounds, however, that the move may be a legal trick to deflect further lawsuits filed against Nishimura for the site's frequently libelous content.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Akimoto, Akky (20 March 2014). "Who holds the deeds to gossip bulletin board 2channel?". The Japan Times Online. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  16. ^ For an example, see "「2ちゃんねる」と「5ちゃんねる」は何が違うのか" [What's the difference between 2channel and 5channel?]. Monolith Law Office (in Japanese). 8 May 2020. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  17. ^ a b "Four people arrested in Japan for copycat threats". The Canadian Press. 17 June 2008. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2020 – via CTV News.
  18. ^ a b "兵庫県警、5ちゃんねるに大量殺人予告の書き込みをした男を逮捕" [Hyogo Prefecture Police arrests man who wrote of his plan to commit mass murder on 5channel]. Zaikei Shimbun (in Japanese). 17 May 2019. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  19. ^ a b "ネット掲示板でテロ予告 容疑で大学生の男逮捕" [Terrorist plot posted to online textboard, suspect, a university student, is arrested]. Kobe Shimbun (in Japanese). 15 May 2019. Archived from the original on 16 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  20. ^ a b "Prosecution of 2channel founder draws flak". The Japan Times. 26 December 2012. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  21. ^ a b "suzume graph". 19 October 2007. Archived from the original on 19 October 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  22. ^ a b "SPARROW5ch". 5ch Officially Reported Statistics. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  23. ^ a b "SPARROW5ch". 5ch Officially Reported Statistics. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  24. ^ a b "投稿数統計@2ch掲示板". 2ch.sc Officially Reported Statistics. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h Tanahashi, Gō (1 December 2007). "イマジナリー・コミュニケーションI ~顧客間インタラクションと2 ちゃんねる~" [Imaginary Communication I ~Customer interaction and 2channel~]. Nara Sangyo University Journal of Industrial Economics (in Japanese). Nara Sangyo University. 22 (3): 141–160. OCLC 1059584274. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021 – via CiNii.
  26. ^ a b c d e f Stryker, Cole (2011). Epic Win for Anonymous: How 4chan's Army Conquered the Web. New York: The Overlook Press. pp. 133–134. ISBN 9781590207383. 2channel was based on a previous text board called Ayashii World, the first big anonymous text board in Japan... Ayashii World, like many anonymous chan boards, experienced so much downtime that its owner began to receive death threats, prompting him to shut down the board in 1998.
  27. ^ a b c d e Barubora (ばるぼら) (10 May 2005). 教科書には載らないニッポンのインターネットの歴史教科書 [The history of the Japanese internet you won't find in any textbook] (in Japanese). Shōeisha. p. 271. ISBN 978-4798106571. (260) 「内部告発」板は企業の裏事情や差別問題などを扱う板で、ここが6月19日に突如消減したのだ。[...] ただ他のスレッドでもあやうい告発が続いており、例えば暴力団の資金源に関するスレッドてでは、あめぞう氏の本名など個人情報をちらつかせ脅迫するような書きさ込みもあったりと、いつ閉鎖しても不思議ではない状態にあった。¶夏ごろ(一説には6月には既にちらほら見られたそうだ)に増殖を繰り返し、設置されたほとんどの掲示板を壊減的状態に追いやった。[...] そして管理されない姿を見かねたのか、はたまた苦情が相次いどだのか、「まいたいねっと」側がか掲示板のパーミッションを落としはじめ、10月14日にメイン板の「@広場」が停止。[The "whistleblowing board" was suddenly shut down on June 19 [1999]. [...] In a thread on the sources of money of organized crime gangs, a threat was implied against Amezou's owner, and he was doxed. It was not strange to close it. Around summer (one source says it began in June), most of the boards were in a broken state. [...] ¶And, either due to not being able to countenance the unmaintained state of Amezou, or because the complaints were coming one after another, the host, Maitai Net, started returning 403 errors upon visits to the bulletin board. On October 14, "@Square", the main board, stopped functioning.]
  28. ^ Machkovech, Sam (21 September 2015). "Imageboard sites 4chan, 8chan announce new ownership arrangements". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  29. ^ a b Chiel, Ethan (19 April 2016). "Meet the man keeping 8chan, the world's most vile website, alive". Splinter News. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2020. They figured out a loophole in Japanese censorship rules," [...] Adult material in Japan has to be censored, but…Japanese people could access content that resides outside of Japan. Bingo. The work we did in the following years was really just marketing uncensored Japanese content to users in Japan.
  30. ^ Matsumura, Naohiro; Miura, Asako; Shibanai, Yasufumi; Ohsawa, Yukio; Nishida, Toyoaki (1 January 2005). "The dynamism of 2channel". AI & Society. 19: 84–92. doi:10.1007/s00146-004-0302-5. S2CID 15396920. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021.
  31. ^ Tetsuya, Ozaki (11 November 2004). "Interview with Nishimura Hiroyuki at Kuwasawa Design School". Redesigning Tokyo. 4 (1). Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2020 – via RealTokyo.
  32. ^ a b Gotō, Masayuki (1 June 2015). 「2ちゃんねる」との対話—―新しい世論集団の可能性と問題点 [Conversation with "2channel," a Huge Japanese Internet Bulletin Board Service : Possibilities and Problems of a New-type Public Opinion Group]. Seijō Bungei (in Japanese). Seijo University Literature Department: 1. ISSN 0286-5718. 筆者がはじめて、インターネット巨大掲示板「2ちゃんねる」に触れたのは、9・11テロがまさに進行中の時だった。[⋯]この時点で、ネット検索に出てきたのが、当時から「便所の落書き」「痰壷」などと露悪的に自称していた(それゆえに筆者は接触しないようにしていた)「2ch」の書き込みだった。 [I first touched the huge internet bulletin board "2channel" when the 9/11 terror attacks were in progress. Up to then, I had no interest in 2ch as online searches only brought up results deprecating it a "spittoon" and home of "toilet graffiti".]
  33. ^ Nishimura, Hiroyuki (5 June 2002). "2ちゃんねるへようこそ" [Welcome to 2channel] (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 5 June 2002. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  34. ^ a b "2chサーバのデータセンター、「サイバーテロ」として米機関に調査依頼へ" [2ch data center requests American government investigate "cyber terrorism" against it]. ITmedia NEWS (in Japanese). 2 March 2010. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  35. ^ Watkins, Jim (10 April 2007). 2ちゃんねるのサーバ事情 前編 [2channel server update] (Niconico Douga) (in English and Japanese). 14:13 minutes in. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Ni channel will be right here and the next one over. Alright, now we have two facilities, and this is the new facility. This whole area here, about tennis court-sized, is Pacific Internet Exchange, our area. We're going to do it in sections, that's why we moved from the other side where it's all...many different companies. This is our section.
  36. ^ a b c Harwell, Drew; McLaughlin, Timothy (12 September 2019). "From helicopter repairman to leader of the Internet's 'darkest reaches': The life and times of 8chan owner Jim Watkins". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 13 September 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  37. ^ a b c "「2ちゃんねるビューア」に不正アクセス--個人情報が流出" [2channel viewer users' personal information leaked]. CNET Japan (in Japanese). 26 August 2013. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 23 May 2020. N.T.Technologyは8月26日、不正アクセスによって同社の提供する「2ちゃんねるビューア」の顧客情報が流出したことを発表し、謝罪した。流出した情報の範囲とその原因については「現在調査中」としているが、約3万件のクレジットカード番号や氏名、住所、電話番号などの情報が流出したと見られる。[On August 26, N.T. Technology announced that the customer information of the '2channel viewer' stored by the company was leaked due to unauthorized access and apologized. Although the range of information leaked and the cause of the leak are said to be 'under investigation,' about 30,000 credit card numbers, names, addresses, telephone numbers, and other information are thought to have leaked.]
  38. ^ Tachikawa, Yū (2 January 2009). "2ちゃんねる、"言論の自由なき日本"を見捨てた?" [2channel, have you abandoned Japan, "land with no freedom of speech"?]. Sankei Shimbun (in Japanese). MSN. Archived from the original on 21 January 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2009.
  39. ^ Nagai, Michiko (2 January 2009). "西村博之氏、2ちゃんねるを企業に譲渡" [Hiroyuki Nishimura transfers 2channel to a company]. CNET Japan (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  40. ^ 警察庁長官:悪質管理者「検挙も」…掲示板の違法情報放置 [Commissioner General of the National Police Agency: "Arrest" malicious administrators too... They left illegal content online.]. Mainichi Shimbun (in Japanese). 27 December 2012. Archived from the original on 1 January 2013 – via Livedoor. Alt URL
  41. ^ a b Ōta, Seiichi (24 August 2013). 申告漏れ:2ちゃんねる元管理人が1億円 広告収入の一部、譲渡後も関与裏付け [2channel's former administrator failed to declare 100 million yen of advertising revenue and participation in BBS even management after transfer]. Mainichi Shimbun (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 18 September 2013. 2ちゃんねるの広告収入は東京プラスなどを経由して、09〜12年の4年間に約3億5000万円がシンガポールの会社に送金された。[...] 残る約2億円も、この会社がペーパーカンパニーとみられることから、国税当局は西村氏の個人所得と認定。[Through Tokyo Plus KK, among others, in the four years between 2009 and 2012, ¥≈350 million was transferred to the Singaporean company. Since it is considered a shell company, the National Tax Agency has determined the profit of ¥200 million to be personal income of Nishimura.]
  42. ^ a b "「2ちゃんねる」創始者"ひろゆき"氏、東京国税局から1億円の申告漏れを指摘される" [2channel creator "Hiroyuki" failed to declare 100 million yen of his income, Tokyo office of the National Tax Agency points out]. NHK News Web (in Japanese). 24 August 2013. Archived from the original on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2020. 過少申告加算税などを含む追徴税額は3000万円に上り、すでに納付されたと見られます。[The additional amount assessed by the National Tax Agency, 30 million yen, has already been paid.] (To view the archive, JavaScript must be disabled in your browser. Alternate convenience link)
  43. ^ a b c 作家は暴言謝罪、不倫もバレる? 2ちゃん情報流出騒動 [The 2channel information leak]. AERA dot (in Japanese). Asahi Shimbun. 20 September 2013. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021.
  44. ^ Akimoto, Akky (17 September 2013). "Accidental leak IDs over 30,000 'anonymous' 2channel users". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013.
  45. ^ Tabuchi, Yoshirō (25 September 2013). "あの人が書き込みを……2ch情報流出の波紋" ["That person wrote this..."—the ripples of the 2channel leak]. PRESIDENT Online (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 23 May 2020. この件で1番怖いのは、匿名を盾に誰がどんなことを書き込んでいたかが明らかになってしまったことだ。2ちゃんねるが最も封印せねばならない部分が、白日の下に晒されたのだ。有名なライトノベル作家が他の作家を数百回にわたって誹謗中傷した事実が明らかになり、本人がホームページで謝罪に追い込まれた。某2ちゃんねるまとめサイトの管理人はあらし行為を謝罪、サイトの閉鎖を発表した。流出したメールアドレスからは、某政治家、某大学准教授の名前、中央省庁、マスコミ各社、商社、通信会社、国内外の有名大学まで驚くような名前が並ぶ。[The scariest thing about this matter is that it became clear who was writing what behind the shield of anonymity. What 2channel was most expected to keep secret was instead exposed in broad daylight. It was revealed that a famous light novel writer slandered other writers hundreds of times, and he was forced to apologize on his website. A certain 2channel matome site owner apologized for trolling and announced that his site would close. You can see the names of politicians, an associate professor at a university, central government agency staff, media company staff, trading company staff, telecommunications company staff, and staff of famous universities in Japan and abroad from the leaked list of emails.]
  46. ^ Sato, Yuma (27 August 2013). "「2ちゃんねる」個人情報漏えい事件、AKB関係者のアカウント流出で大騒動に!?". BIGLOBEニュース (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 30 August 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2020. 2channel personal information leak incident: AKB staff member account leaked? What's all the fuss about!?
  47. ^ <個人情報流出余波>書き込みバレて"公開処刑" [[Personal information leak aftermath] The leak of posts is like a "public execution"]. Tokyo Sports (in Japanese). 29 August 2013. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. 巨大ネット掲示板「2ちゃんねる」の有料サービス会員の個人情報約7万4000件が流出した件で [About 74,000 customers of giant internet bulletin board '2channel' had their personal information exposed online.]
  48. ^ "「サーバーを確保しました」 「2ちゃんねる」に何が起きたのか 運営費がひっ迫?" [2channel: "I've secured the servers"...what happened? Is the site in financial trouble?]. ITmedia NEWS (in Japanese). 19 February 2014. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 23 May 2020. 「●」こと「2ちゃんねるビューア」で昨年8月に発覚したユーザー情報流出だ。[The user information leak that happened in August of last year had its source in "●", also known as the "2channel viewer".]
  49. ^ Shinjō, Masaaki (4 March 2002). "2ちゃんねる、専用ビューワーを使った有料サービスをスタート" [2channel launches paid service for users of dedicated viewers]. Windows Forest (in Japanese). Impress KK. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 23 May 2020. このほか有料サービスに登録すると、名前欄に"●"を使って書き込むことができるとのこと。なお、有料サービスがスタートした1日以降、一般ユーザーが名前欄に"●"を使おとしても、サーバー側で"○"に置換されて書き込まれるようになった。 [Those who subscribe to the service can also write a «●» in the name field of their posts. It should be noted that when those who are not subscribed put a «●» in the name field, the server replaces it with a «○».]
  50. ^ "5ちゃんねる(旧2ちゃんねる)の過去ログを閲覧する方法とは?" [How can I read threads in the "past log" on 5channel (formerly 2channel)?]. 誹謗中傷ドットネット (in Japanese). ATB Law Corporation (弁護士法人ATB). 1 June 2018. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  51. ^ a b Sudō, Tatsuya (9 September 2013). "2ちゃんねる会員情報流出 約3万件、カード番号など" [Around 30,000 members of 2channel have had their card numbers and other information leaked]. Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2020. While anyone can read 2channel for free, only members who pay 3600 yen per month can search the archive of old threads.
  52. ^ Watkins, Jim (26 August 2013). "不正アクセスによるお客様情報流出に関するお詫びとご報告" [Apology and report regarding leak of customer information due to unauthorized access]. 2channel Viewer (in Japanese and English). Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2020. N.T.Technology, inc was a victim of a cyber attack earlier today. Some data for customers was compromised. Your data may have been compromised.
  53. ^ Koyama, Morio. "2ch埋め立てと逆SEO" [2ch "landfill" (posting up to 1000 posts to get a thread moved into the kako rogu) and reverse SEO]. 株式会社WEB広報 [Web Public Relations KK]. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  54. ^ Watkins, Jim (19 February 2014). "Let's talk with Jim-san. Part21". BBSPink. Archived from the original on 8 May 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2020. The previous management was not able to generate enough income to pay the bills for the expenses of running 2ch.
  55. ^ Beran, Dale (30 July 2019). It Came From Something Awful (eBook ed.). New York. ¶21.48. ISBN 978-1-250-18974-5. OCLC 1048938602. When 2channel began having financial trouble as a result of the controversy, Watkins used the opportunity to seize control of the site, citing its failure to pay its outstanding bills.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  56. ^ Nishimura, Hiroyuki (1 April 2014). "昨今の2ちゃんねるの現状に関して。" [Regarding the current status of 2channel]. 2ch.sc (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  57. ^ "現2chは「違法な乗っ取り」状態──ひろゆき氏?が新サイト「2ch.sc」開設を予告" [2ch is now in a state of "illegal takeover", says Hiroyuki (?); announces opening of "2ch.sc"]. ITmedia ニュース (in Japanese). 1 April 2014. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  58. ^ Nishimura, Hiroyuki (22 September 2015). "Q&A Session with Hiroyuki Nishimura". 4chan. Bibliotheca Anonoma. Retrieved 28 June 2020 – via Desu Archive.
  59. ^ a b Gabriela Kennedy; et al. (28 July 2016). "WIPO Domain Name Decision: D2016-1025 (2ch.net)". World Intellectual Property Organization. Retrieved 17 May 2020. The Panel finds it prudent to note that the Policy is intended to handle cases of cybersquatting. Any potential business dispute between the Parties may be more appropriately addressed through court proceedings rather than through the Policy.
  60. ^ In re trademark registration T5843569, 無効2017-890013 (Invalidity case 2017-890013) (Japan Patent Office 26 July 2019) ("本件電子掲示板の事業が請求人(レースクイーン社)に適法に譲渡されたことを示す証拠はない [There is no evidence that the electronic BBS business was legally transferred to the plaintiff (Race Queen Inc).]").
  61. ^ Kurihara, Kiyoshi (10 October 2017). "2ちゃんねる名称変更事件に関する知財関係状況整理(栗原潔)" [Sorting out the intellectual property situation which has led to the 2channel name change incident]. Yahoo! News Japan (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  62. ^ Ishizuka, Fumito (2 October 2017). "「5ちゃんねる」に名称変更 ネット掲示板、権利紛争か" [Following a dispute over rights to bulletin board, name changes to "5channel"]. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  63. ^ Office of the Solicitor General vs. James Arthur Watkins, in re: Petition for Naturalization, R-PSG-18-03091-SP, Petition by James Arthur Watkins (Pasig Regional Trial Court Branch 166) ("[James Arthur Watkins] married Liziel O. Watkins ("Liziel"), of legal age and a Filipina, on 20 November 2001. [...] He is currently the Chairman of Race Queen Inc., Emerald Pedistal Properties Inc., and Loki Technology Incorporated."), Text.—via The Manila Times.
  64. ^ "5ちゃんねる掲示板へようこそ" [Welcome to 5channel]. 6 October 2017. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2017. 権利関係に関する無用な紛争を生じさせず「・・・」掲示板の名称を新たに「5ちゃんねる」へと変更しました。[The name of the textboard has been changed to 5channel to help avoid future unnecessary disputes regarding our rights to operate it.]
  65. ^ "ネット地震情報震源地はやはり2ちゃんねる!" [The earthquake information epicenter is 2channel!]. ITmedia News (in Japanese). 7 November 2003. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  66. ^ Tanaka, Kazuo (2015). "インターネットにおける論文不正発覚史" [A history of academic research on the internet which wasn't officially sanctioned] (PDF). Journal of the Japan Skeptics (24): 4–9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 September 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  67. ^ 「“2ちゃんねる”には欠陥がある!」西和彦アスキー特別顧問――“2ちゃんねる西スレッドオフ会”開催(アスキー、2001.08、ウェブアーカイブ)("2channel is flawed!" Kazuhiko Nishi, Special Advisor to ASCII - "2channel held Nishi Kick-off Party" (originally published on ASCII dated August 2001; archived on WebArchive.))
  68. ^ Robertson, Adi (21 September 2015). "The man whose site inspired 4chan is now running 4chan". The Verge. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  69. ^ Olson, Parmy (5 June 2012). We Are Anonymous: Inside the Hacker World of LulzSec, Anonymous, and the Global Cyber Insurgency. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0-316-21353-0.
  70. ^ "プロキシサーバ利用でTor拒否サイトを突破する" [Using proxy servers to break through website security mechanisms that block Tor]. ラジオライフ [Radio Life] (in Japanese). SansaiBooks KK. 18 December 2015. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2020. Tor経由では、2ちゃんねるにはアクセスできません。[2channel blocks access from those who use Tor.]
  71. ^ Goggin, Gerard; McLelland, Mark (17 February 2017). The Routledge Companion to Global Internet Histories. Taylor & Francis. p. 418. ISBN 978-1-317-60765-6.
  72. ^ a b "【悲報】2ちゃんまとめ大ピンチ!2ちゃんがdatアクセス禁止でツールが使えなくなる!" [[Sad news] 2channel has put matome sites in a big pinch! They've developed a way to forbid access to 2channel .dat files!]. 秒刊SUNDAY (in Japanese). 13 March 2015. Archived from the original on 13 March 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  73. ^ "よくある質問 | プレミアムRonin (浪人)" [FAQ | Premium service Ronin]. 5channel. Zero KK. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  74. ^ Nishimura, Hiroyuki (15 August 2007). "2ちゃんねる掲示板へようこそ" [Welcome to the 2channel forum!]. 2channel. Archived from the original on 15 August 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2020. 2ちゃんねるのデータの利用に関して、原則的に自由ですが、 2ちゃんねるのデータ自体を利用して対価を取る行為はご遠慮下さい。[As a general rule, you are free to use 2channel's data. However, please refrain from profiting from it.]
  75. ^ "なぜ2ちゃんねるは「転載禁止」を選んだのか――「まとめサイトVS住民」繰り返す歴史" [Why did 2channel choose to implement tensai kinshi? A lookback at the battle between matome sites and 2channel's users]. ITmediaニュース. Netlab (in Japanese). 6 March 2014. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 11 August 2020. 2007年末には、営利目的への無断転載を禁止する「ニュース速報(嫌儲)」板が設けられた。[At the end of 2007, the /poverty/ board ("Newsoku – Poverty") was set up, which prohibited unauthorized reproduction of its contents for profit.]
  76. ^ "2ch「ステマ」戦争 人気板が住民大移動で一気に縮小、その背景の事情と心情" [2ch's "stealth marketing" war: Popular board shrinks due to mass migration, why?]. ITmedia NEWS (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  77. ^ a b "創設者の西村博之氏と現管理人が対立。騒動をきっかけに様々な「疑惑」が噴出している。" [Hiroyuki Nishimura is in conflict with [2channel's] current manager. Suspicions are coming to the surface in the chaos.]. FACTA ONLINE (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  78. ^ Ichikawa, Yūkichi (9 March 2015). ""2ちゃんねる"の新APIに対応した2ちゃんビューワー「Live2ch」v1.34" [Live2ch v1.34 released with support for new 2channel API]. Windows Forest (in Japanese). Impress KK. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2020. 今月3日以降、2ちゃんねる専用ブラウザーの開発・公開には「Jane Style」の開発元であるジェーン社などから許諾を受けたうえで新しいAPIを利用する必要が生じている。[Since the 3rd of this month, it is necessary to use the new API. Dedicated browser developers must get permission from the developer of JaneStyle to publish a 2channel dedicated browser.]
  79. ^ "開発者の皆さまへ" [To all developers]. 5channel. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2020. 5ch.net 専用ブラウザ(以下「専用ブラウザ」)を開発、公開するには、5ch.net の所有者である Loki Technology, Inc. の許諾を得て、5ch.net が提供する API(以下「API」)を用いる必要があります。ウェブスクレイピングを用いた専用ブラウザの開発、公開は禁止されています。株式会社ジェーンは Loki Technology, Inc. との契約で 5ch.net 専用ブラウザ開発者に対し API の使用許諾を出す権限を受けていますが、これは排他的な権限ではありません。[To develop and publish a 5ch.net dedicated browser, the API we provide must be used. The development of dedicated browsers that work via parsing HTML is prohibited. Loki Technology Inc. has granted Jane KK the non-exclusive privilege of granting licenses to our API.]
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  87. ^ "2ちゃんねるガイド:基本" [2channel FAQ]. 2ch.net. 9 February 2007. Archived from the original on 9 February 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2020. また、一般人の誹謗中傷・私生活情報暴露は禁止します。[Further, to slander or expose the personal information of an ordinary member of the public is forbidden.]
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  99. ^ Endō, Kaoru (29 July 2018). "ネトウヨ ユーチューブ「大量削除」の波紋 遠藤薫氏" [The repercussions of YouTube's mass banning of netto-uyoku]. iRONNA (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2020 – via Sankei Shimbun. そもそも今回の「運動」は、2ちゃんねる(現5ちゃんねる)から「ネトウヨ」に対するカウンターとして始まった。2ちゃんねるが「ネトウヨ」の活動場所とみなされることが多い現状から考えると、この「運動」を不思議に思う人もいるのではないか。[In the first place, this 'exercise' started as a way to counter netto-uyoku users from 2channel (5channel). Considering the current situation where 2channel is often regarded as the activity place of the netto-uyoku, there are surely some who find this 'exercise' perplexing.]
  100. ^ "朝日新聞編集局員が2chで荒らし 差別表現投稿で「厳正処分」" [Asahi Shimbun editor trolls on 2channel; newspaper promises to strictly dispose of any employee who posts racist comments]. ITmedia NEWS (in Japanese). 1 April 2009. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
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  103. ^ Kawaguchi, Masaki (2009). "sage とは" [What is sage?]. Infoseek Dictionary Japan. Heibonsha KK. Archived from the original on 14 September 2020. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  104. ^ サービス妨害攻撃の対策等調査 [Survey on countermeasures against denial of service attacks] (PDF). Information Technology Promotion Agency Security Center, Government of Japan. 1 December 2010. p. 29. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 September 2020. Retrieved 23 May 2020. ただし、米国政府機関など複数のサイトに被害が発生したことから、FBI等が捜査に乗り出し、把握されている被害額は約250万ドルに上るとされている。[However, due to damage to multiple sites including those of US government agencies, the FBI and others have launched an investigation and it is estimated that the amount of damage is about $2.5 million.]
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  115. ^ a b c "マック赤坂氏、港区議選に初当選 奇抜な政見放送で話題" [Mac Akasaka wins Minato City election for the first time—received attention from unusual political broadcasts]. Asahi Shinbun (in Japanese). 22 April 2019. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2020. マック赤坂氏は「スマイル党」を立ち上げ、2016年の東京都知事選や国政選挙など、過去に10回以上立候補。政見放送に奇抜な服装で臨むなどして、ネット上で話題を呼んできた。[Mac Akasaka, founder of the "Smile Party", has run for various offices, including national offices, more than ten times, such as in 2016 when he was a candidate for governor of Tokyo. The eccentric garments he wears during his political broadcasts, among other things he does online, have given him considerable attention.]
  116. ^ Murakami, Kōsuke (22 April 2019). "初当選マック赤坂氏「又吉イエスさんに報告したい」" [Elected for first time, Mac Akasaka says: "I wish I could share this news with the late Matayoshi Jesus."]. Nikkan Sports (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
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  119. ^ "太田光、SNSで人を叩くユーザーを「表現の自由を履き違えてる」と批判 賛同の声が続々" [Hikari Ōta, critical of abusive social media users, says that they "miss the point of freedom of expression"]. Excite (in Japanese). Sirabee (NEWSY KK). Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 23 May 2020. 太田光はSNSの炎上について、「こういう問題の最初が2ちゃんねるだからさ、一番悪いのは博之くんだよ」とジャブ。[Ōta responded with a jab: "Because this problem got its start on 2channel, Hiroyuki-kun is the number one worst offender," he said, regarding flame wars on social media.]
  120. ^ Ichirō, Okada (20 April 2006). "政治としてのインターネット 掲示板とブログから見えるもの" [Observations on the political impacts of bulletin boards and blogs]. Alter Magazine (in Japanese). No. 28. Retrieved 22 May 2020. 保守系論壇誌『諸君!』では2ちゃんねる上における愛国的言説を紹介するコーナー(「麹町電網(インターネット)測候所」)まで存在するという。[There is even a column of the conservative magazine Shokun!, Kōjimachi Denmō Sokkōjo, that shares patriotic posts from 2channel.]
  121. ^ "片山さつき氏、文春記者の刑事告訴も「ジャーナリズムではなく2ちゃんねる」" [Satsuki Katayama lodges criminal complaint against Weekly Bunshun reporter, saying "Bunshun is more like 2channel than journalism"]. The Sankei News (in Japanese). 8 February 2019. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2020.

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