2019–2020 dengue fever epidemic
The 2019–2020 dengue fever epidemic is an epidemic of the infectious disease dengue fever in several countries of Southeast Asia, including the Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam, and Bangladesh, Pakistan, Thailand, Singapore, and Laos. The spread of the disease has been exacerbated by falling vaccination levels in certain areas, and by a growing population of mosquitoes, which are the primary carriers of the disease, and which are able to reproduce in larger numbers where humans have littered the environment with plastic containers, which provide an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes. Affected countries have sought to control the epidemic through increased vaccination efforts, and through efforts to control the mosquito population.
Course in specific countriesEdit
In Bangladesh, the Communicable Disease Control (CDC) unit of the Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) carried out a survey in Dhaka city in January 2019, where they found both larva and adult Aedes mosquitoes in different parts of the city. Based on the outcome of the survey, in March 2019, warned of a potential outbreak DGHS alerted both city corporations about a possible outbreak in upcoming months. According to CDC director Sanya Tahmina, they also started training the doctors and nurses from February considering the possibility of a future outbreak. The 2019 outbreak in Bangladesh began primarily in April 2019. According to Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS), 14 people had died and 19,513 people had been affected by August 2019, a majority of whom were children, with other sources reporting that the death toll had already passed 50. DGHS confirmed the outbreak affecting all districts of the country, with Dhaka being the worst-hit city in the country and districts in Dhaka Division among the most affected regions. The Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR) expected the outbreak to continue until September 2019. In August 2019, Bangladesh government withdrew all tariffs on dengue test kits imports.
The Malaysian Ministry of Health reported that by 3 August 2019, the number of cases in Malaysia had reached a record 80,000 on the year, with 113 deaths reported. The highest incidences were in the states of Selangor, the Johor, Kelantan, Sabah, Penang, Sarawak, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang, as well as the Federal territories. The Malaysian government sought to counter the epidemic by releasing mosquitoes of the genus Aedes infected with the Wolbachia bacteria, which was expected to reduce the mosquito population.
In Pakistan, in the summer of 2019, more than 47 people died and more than 30,000 were infected by dengue fever, the worst outbreak of the disease in the history of the country. In October 2019, Prime Minister Imran Khan took notice of the outbreak and sought a report from the Special Assistant to Prime Minister on National Health Services Zafar Mirza. On 10 October 2019, a Peshawar High Court bench sent summons to the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's provincial health secretary to explain the situation related to dengue outbreak in parts of the province.
The Philippines Department of Health reported that there were over 146,000 dengue fever cases from the beginning of 2019 to 20 July, which was "a 98% increase from the same time period last year". The epidemic occurred in the regions of Calabarzon, Mimaropa, Bicol, Western Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Zamboanga Peninsula, and Northern Mindanao. The epidemic was largely blamed on falling vaccination rates, following a series of issues with the Dengvaxia vaccine manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur. In 2017, Sanofi warned of possible adverse effects, and in 2018 the vaccine was blamed for the deaths of children during a national vaccination program.
In Vietnam, dengue fever cases tripled from the previous year, to 88,000 by mid-July, with six deaths. By 19 November, Vietnam had recorded 250,000 cases with 50 deaths. The epidemic is most prevalent in the southern region of the country, where locals store rainwater in containers for use in farming, providing a breeding ground for mosquitoes. In neighboring Laos, dengue fever cases exceeded 11,000 by mid-year, with 27 deaths, prompting the Lao Ministry of Health to recommend that likely mosquito breeding sites should be drained.
In the summer of 2019 an outbreak was confirmed in Oceania. 276 cases and one death were reported in the Marshall Islands, resulting in the government halting travel between the urban centers of Ebeye and Majuro to the outer islands. Outbreakers were also reported in Palau, Federated States of Micronesia, the Cook Islands, Tuvalu, and the Philippines.
The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control reported that the epidemic had affected the French island of Réunion, off the coast of Africa, with "over 15,000 autochthonous confirmed cases" being reported as of mid-2019, including nine deaths. The ECDC expressed concern that Réunion's European tourism industry could provide a vector for the transmission of the virus to Europe. A systematic review that was done by Ahmed et al. revealed the appearance of autochthonous dengue in Europe along with the increase in imported dengue and dengue severity. Therefore, health authorities pay more attention and update the protocols in order to catch dengue infection among travelers coming from and to Europe.
|Country and territories||2019
|Antigua and Barbuda||1,223||0||341||0||1,564||0|
|Trinidad and Tobago||416||0||20||0||436||0|
- "Philippines declares epidemic after dengue fever kills more than 600". The Guardian. 2019-08-07.
- "Dengue cases surpass all-time record in the country". Dawn. 2019-10-15.
- "Lao gov't issues nationwide dengue warning". Xinhua. 2019-07-09.
- Khayer, Abul (2019-07-30). "ডেঙ্গু নিয়ে আগাম বার্তা আমলে নেয়নি কর্তৃপক্ষ". The Daily Ittefaq (in Bengali). Dhaka. Archived from the original on 2019-08-02. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
- "ডেঙ্গু: নতুন আক্রান্ত ১৭১২ জন". Bdnews24.com (in Bengali). Dhaka. 2019-08-01. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
- Dayaram, Sareena; Pokharel, Sugam (2019-07-30). "Bangladesh hit by worst dengue outbreak on record". CNN. Retrieved 2019-07-30.
- Azeem, Masud (2019-08-01). "৬৪ জেলায়ই ডেঙ্গু, ঘণ্টায় ভর্তি ৭১ জন". Banglanews24.com (in Bengali). Dhaka. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
- "সেপ্টেম্বর পর্যন্ত বাড়তে পারে ডেঙ্গুর প্রকোপ". Banglanews24.com (in Bengali). Dhaka. 2019-07-31. Retrieved 2019-07-31.
- "Govt withdraws all tariffs on dengue test kits imports". Barta24. 2019-08-05. Retrieved 2019-08-19.
- "Dengue cases in Malaysia climb to nearly 80,000". The Straits Times. 2019-08-11.
- "Official says deadly dengue outbreak in Pakistan is among worst ever". The Japan Times. 2019-10-04.
- "PM Imran takes strict notice of dengue outbreak". Dunya News. 2019-10-01.
- "PHC summons health secy over dengue outbreak". Dawn. 2019-10-11.
- Yeung, Jessie; Faidell, Sarah. "Philippines declares a national dengue epidemic after 622 deaths". CNN.
- Villamor, Felipe (2017-12-01). "Philippines Suspends Dengue Shots After Drug Firm's Warning". New York Times.
- "Dengue fever infections treble in Vietnam since January - Xinhua | English.news.cn". www.xinhuanet.com. 2019-07-12.
- "WHO Region of the Americas records highest number of dengue cases in history- cases spike in other regions". 2019-11-21.
- "Why Dengue Fever Cases Are Hitting Record Highs In Latin America". 2019-12-19.
- Johnson, Giff (2019-09-04). "Marshalls confirms first dengue death". Radio New Zealand. Retrieved 2019-09-04.
- "WHO says 2019 'worse than usual' for dengue in Pacific". Radio New Zealand. 2019-08-26. Retrieved 2019-09-04.
- "Rapid risk assessment: Dengue outbreak in Réunion, France, and associated risk of autochthonous outbreak in the EU/EEA". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. 2019-06-18.
- Ahmed, Ali Mahmoud; Mohammed, Abdelrahman Tarek; Vu, Thao T.; Khattab, Mohammed; Doheim, Mohamed Fahmy; Ashraf Mohamed, Ahmed; Abdelhamed, Mai Mahmoud; Shamandy, Bahaa Eldin; Dawod, Mahmoud Tamer; Alesaei, Wafaa Ali; Kassem, Mahmoud Attia; Mattar, Omar Mohamed; Smith, Chris; Hirayama, Kenji; Huy, Nguyen Tien (2019-12-13). "Prevalence and burden of dengue infection in Europe: A systematic review and meta‐analysis". Reviews in Medical Virology. doi:10.1002/rmv.2093.
- Lederer, Edith M. (2019-11-25). "Red Cross reports new outbreak of dengue fever in Yemen". Associated Press.
- "Casos de dengue". OPS/OMS. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
- "Casos y muertes dengue grave". OPS/OMS. Retrieved 2020-03-18.
- Update on the Dengue situation in the Western Pacific Region (PDF). WPR/OMS. 2019-12-19.
- Update on the Dengue situation in the Western Pacific Region (PDF). WPR/OMS. 2020-01-02.
- Update on the Dengue situation in the Western Pacific Region (PDF). WPR/OMS. Retrieved 2020-03-30.
- "Dengue worldwide overview". ECDC. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
- "Fin de la epidemia de Dengue más grande de las últimas dos décadas". Ministerio de Salud Pública y Bienestar Social. 2020-03-27. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
- Dengue/DHF Situation in India. Programa Nacional de Control de Enfermedades transmitidas por Vectores. Retrieved 2020-03-27.
- "Dengue cases on the rise". The New Indian Express. 2020-02-04. Retrieved 2020-03-27.
- "Dengue Cases reported". Weekly Epidemiological Monitor. Ministry of Health, Nutrition and Indigenous Medicine. 2020-03-20. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
- "90 dead, over 99,000 affected by dengue in Sri Lanka in 2019". The Star. 2020-01-01. Retrieved 2020-03-27.
- Dengue (PDF). Weekly Disease Forecast. Departamento de Control de Enfermedades. 2019-10-19. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
- Dengue fever (PDF) (in Thai). Departamento de Control de Enfermedades. 2020-02-12. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
- Mamun, Mohammed A; Misti, Jannatul Mawa; Griffiths, Mark D; Gozal, David (2019-12-14). The dengue epidemic in Bangladesh: risk factors and actionable items. The Lancet. 394. p. 2149-50. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32524-3. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
- "2 new dengue patients detected in 24hrs: DGHS". New Age. 2020-03-23. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
- Dengue situation in Pakistan (PDF). Weekly Epidemiological Monitor. 13. ROEM/OMS. 2020-01-19. ISSN 2224-4220. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
- Weekly Field Epidemiological Report (PDF). Weekly Epidemiological Monitor. 2. Ministry of National Health Services, Regulation and Coordination. 2020-02-12. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
- "Boletín Integrado de Vigilancia" (PDF). Dirección Nacional de Epidemiología y Análisis de la Información. Ministry of Health. 2020-04-02. Retrieved 2020-04-05.
- "Dengue Cases". National Environment Agency. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
- "Dengue fever death toll surges to 123 across Myanmar". Xinhua. 2019-12-02. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
- Point sur la dengue à La Réunion (PDF) (in French). Saint-Denis: Préfecture de La Réunion/ARS. 2019-12-31. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
- Dengue à la Réunion - Reprise de la circulation épidémique (in French). Santé publique France. 2020-03-17. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
- Adhikari, Niran; Subedi, Dinesh (2020-02-07). The alarming outbreaks of dengue in Nepal. Tropical Medicine and Health. 48. Retrieved 2020-03-27.
- Dhakal, Sabitri (2020-03-15). "Dengue cases reported across country". The Himalayan Times. Retrieved 2020-03-27.
- @HPA_MV (2019-12-31). "ޑެންގީ އާއި އިންފްލުއެންޒާ އަދި ބޭރަށް ހިންގުމުގެ ހަފްތާ ރިޕޯޓު - 31 ޑިސެމްބަރ 2019" (Tweet) (in Divehi). Retrieved 2020-03-27 – via Twitter.
- @HPA_MV (2020-04-30). "Weekly report: Dengue and Chikungunya" (Tweet) (in Divehi). Retrieved 2020-03-27 – via Twitter.
- Communicable Disease Threats Report, 15-21 December 2019, week 51 (PDF) (in French). ECDC. 2019-12-20. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
- "Dengue – Chile". OMS. 2020-02-22. Retrieved 2020-03-27.