2018 Armenian parliamentary election
Snap parliamentary elections were held in Armenia on 9 December 2018, as none of the parties in the National Assembly were able to put forward and then elect a candidate for Prime Minister in the two-week period following the resignation of incumbent Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan on 16 October. They were the first elections after the 2018 revolution and the country's first-ever snap elections.
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
The result was a landslide victory for Pashinyan's My Step Alliance, which received 70% of the vote and won 88 of the 132 seats in the National Assembly.
The 101 members of the National Assembly are elected by party-list proportional representation. Seats are allocated using the d'Hondt method with an election threshold of 5% for parties and 7% for multi-party alliances. However at least three political forces will pass into parliament regardless of the performance of the third best performing party or alliance.
The ballot paper has two sections; one of which is a closed list of candidates for the party at the national level and the other an open list of candidates for the constituency (of which there are 13) that the voter is voting in. Voters vote for a party at the national level and can also give a preference vote to any of the candidates for the same party in a district list. Seats are allocated to parties using their national share of the vote, with half awarded to those on the national list and half to those who receive the most preference votes on the district lists. Four seats are reserved for national minorities (Assyrians, Kurds, Russians and Yazidis), with parties having separate lists for the four groups. A gender quota requires at least 25% of a list to be male or female, and nationwide lists can't include more than three consecutive members of the same gender.
If a party receives a majority of the vote but wins less than 54% of the seats, they will be awarded additional seats to give them 54% of the total. If one party wins over two-thirds of the seats, the losing parties will be given extra seats reducing the share of seats of winning party to two-thirds. If a government is not formed within six days of the preliminary results being released, a run-off round between the top two parties must be held within 28 days. The party that wins the run-off will be given the additional seats required for a 54% majority, with all seats allocated in the first round preserved.
Before its resignation, the government submitted a bill to the National Assembly proposing modifications to the electoral system. These included lowering the thresholds for parties and electoral alliances to 4% and 6%, respectively, minimum representation of four political forces in the parliament (provided the fourth strongest receives at least 2% of the votes), abolition of open lists of candidates from 13 regional constituencies leaving only nationwide closed lists and introduction of TV debates. The bill sought to raise the minimum representation of each gender from 25% to 30% of the seats on a party list. On 22 October, a vote was held on the bill. Most members of the Republican Party (RPA) boycotted the vote; this meant that there were not enough MPs present to pass the bill into law (63). The final vote was 56 in favour, three against. RPA deputy chairman Armen Ashotian insisted that the electoral system must not be changed less than two months before the elections, as this would amount to "building democracy in the country with undemocratic methods". The Pashinyan government submitted the bill to parliament a second time, and it was discussed on 29 October. Once again, the bill failed to receive enough votes, and as a result the election will take place according to the legislation created by the RPA-era government.
List of participating parties and alliancesEdit
Parties and electoral alliances were required to inform the CEC of their participation in the election and submit the corresponding documents by 6:00 pm on November 14. Nine parties and two alliances (listed below in accordance with their number on the ballot paper) participated in the election:
Declined participation or failed to registerEdit
The following parties declined to participate in the election or failed to register: Armenian Communist Party, Armenian Democratic Liberal Party (Ramgavar), Armenian National Congress, Dignified Future, Democratic Party of Armenia, European Party of Armenia, For Social Justice, Green Party of Armenia, Heritage, Social Justice Party, Liberal Democratic Union of Armenia, National Agenda Party, National Democratic Union, People's Party of Armenia, Unified Armenians Party, Union for National Self-Determination, Yerkir Tsirani (Apricot Country Party).
Some politicians and analysts criticized the date of the election based on the fact that an amended Electoral Code was not passed by the parliament. Paruyr Hayrikyan, the leader of Union for National Self-Determination, expects the elections to be "antidemocratic".
Vazgen Manukyan, the leader of National Democratic Union, said while they were preparing for elections in spring, elections in December were too close prepare for. He also said that they "do not consider that the hasty elections will promote the establishment of stable political field".
Aram Gaspar Sargsyan, leader of the Democratic Party of Armenia, has declared that the DPA is abstaining from participation in the election, amidst concerns that, because of Pashinyan's failure to rewrite the RPA-era electoral code, new authorities will likely exploit the current version over the electoral code with amendments. He also stated, that "this election will be the same charade as in 2017".
Some critics believed that the current legislation favored the Republican Party of Armenia in the previous parliamentary election. The country's former ruling party, commanded a majority in the National Assembly prior to the elections, initially called for elections to take place in summer 2019 in order to give the parties time to prepare for elections and make amendments to Armenia's electoral code.
Campaigning began on 26 November 2018.
Former Ombudsman Larisa Alaverdyan said that black PR has been used from the first days of the campaign, and called on all participants to move to a positive field. Also she mentioned that unlike in previous years, the early start of campaign is not regarded as a violation of law by the CEC.
Claimed by campaign participantsEdit
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2018)
- My Step Alliance
- Sasna Tsrer
- We Alliance
|Poller||Date of Polling||My Step
|Bright Armenia||Yelk||RPA||PAP||ARF||Sasna Tsrer||Heritage|
|Gallup International/MPG||December 1–4, 2018||3.8||—||1.3||5.7||1.2||1.4||—|
|Gallup International/MPG||November 17–21, 2018||1.2||—||1.5||6.7||1||0.9||—|
|IRI||October 9–29, 2018||10||—||2||9||2||3||<1|
|IRI||July 23–August 15, 2018||with Yelk||4||13||2||—||1|
|Gallup International/MPG||May 4–9, 2018||with Yelk||3.8||3.2||1.9||—||0.4|
In response to a formal request from the Government of Armenia, the European Union as well as the Governments of Germany, the United Kingdom, and Sweden agreed to provide financial and electoral assistance prior to and during the election.
The US Embassy in Armenia also announced that the United States and USAID would provide financial assistance and collaboration with the Government of Armenia ahead of the parliamentary elections, including the September 2018 signing of an $8.6 million, four-year agreement to support the integrity of Armenian elections.
OSCE/ODIHR will conduct a large-scale observation mission. Observers from the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly and the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) will join the observation mission later. There will be over 200 short-term observers.
Voting at 1,500 polling stations (where over 90% of voters are registered) out of 2010 will be broadcast live.
Head of the European Union permanent delegation to Armenia, ambassador Piotr Switalski has declared that Armenia has managed to achieve the highest standards of freedom of speech following the Velvet Revolution. According to the diplomat, the country now ensures freedom of expression and assembly. Switalski said he hopes it will be possible to minimize hate speech during the election campaign.
Turnout was 48.62%, 12 percent lower than the 2017 elections.
All the four seats reserved for national minorities (Assyrians, Kurds, Russians and Yazidis) were won by My Step Alliance.
The result was somewhat ironic for the Republican Party, as even though they would have lost seats regardless, if the electoral reform law they had boycotted earlier in the year had been allowed to move forward, they would have successfully exceeded the new 4% threshold for parties and obtained seats. Instead, they failed to reach the current 5% threshold, and received no seats.
|My Step Alliance||884,864||70.44||88||+83|
|Armenian Revolutionary Federation||48,816||3.89||0||–7|
|Christian-Democratic Rebirth Party||6,458||0.51||0||New|
|National Progress Party||4,121||0.33||0||New|
By electoral districtEdit
|Electoral district||RPA||CDP||ARF||My Step||BAP||CDRP||NPP||WE||OY||ST||PAP|
|1 - Yerevan Districts Avan, Nor Nork & Kanaker-Zeytun||6.96%||0.91%||2.24%||70.16%||7.94%||0.81%||0.42%||1.48%||1.04%||2.35%||5.70%|
|2 - Yerevan Districts Ajapnyak, Arabkir & Davtashen||7.99%||1.12%||2.61%||70.28%||7.32%||0.66%||0.32%||1.99%||0.93%||2.58%||4.21%|
|3 - Yerevan Districts Malatia-Sebastia & Shengavit||4.37%||1.07%||1.50%||76.83%||7.39%||0.62%||0.38%||1.62%||1.11%||1.87%||3.24%|
|4 - Yerevan Districts Erebuni, Kentron, Nork-Marash & Nubarashen||6.47%||0.95%||2.17%||71.10%||7.53%||0.70%||0.34%||1.93%||0.70%||2.49%||5.62%|
|5 - Ararat||6.40%||0.35%||2.45%||72.60%||3.91%||0.33%||0.23%||2.47%||1.42%||1.68%||8.15%|
|6 - Armavir||2.56%||0.37%||3.91%||67.11%||8.45%||0.39%||0.24%||3.25%||0.48%||1.69%||11.55%|
|7 - Aragatsotn||2.09%||0.82%||6.32%||68.97%||6.69%||0.25%||0.23%||1.16%||1.82%||1.45%||10.20%|
|8 - Gegharkunik||2.76%||0.27%||7.05%||70.75%||4.74%||0.26%||0.36%||2.14%||1.46%||1.60%||8.61%|
|9 - Lori||7.07%||0.29%||2.53%||69.33%||8.14%||0.33%||0.20%||0.83%||1.26%||1.79%||8.23%|
|10 - Kotayk||3.54%||0.43%||4.16%||67.71%||3.55%||0.66%||0.58%||1.19%||0.48%||1.23%||16.47%|
|11 - Shirak||2.93%||0.30%||6.47%||65.86%||8.13%||0.64%||0.12%||1.79%||0.89%||2.09%||10.78%|
|12 - Vayots Dzor and Syunik||3.22%||0.70%||4.70%||72.60%||4.64%||0.55%||0.38%||3.63%||0.52%||1.17%||7.88%|
|13 - Tavush||2.38%||1.94%||7.27%||73.92%||3.50%||0.31%||0.49%||3.02%||1.06%||1.43%||4.68%|
- European Union: The EU stated that, "These elections were held with respect for fundamental freedoms and enjoyed broad public trust that needs to be preserved through further electoral reforms. The European Union is committed to a stable, democratic and prosperous future of Armenia. The early parliamentary elections were important in terms of enhancing public trust towards the electoral process in Armenia. We expect all stakeholders to continue concerted efforts towards further democratisation and modernisation of the country."
- Council of Europe: The Council of Europe commented that, "As a result of the democratic elections held in Armenia, the Government and the Parliament of Armenia won the citizens’ full confidence and mandate." The CoE further welcomed the steps taken by the Government of Armenia to implement radical reforms in the judicial-legal sphere and went on to note that they expect Armenia and the CoE to discuss further steps and actions of bilateral cooperation.
- Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe: "The early parliamentary elections in Armenia were held with respect for fundamental freedoms and enjoyed broad public trust that needs to be preserved through further electoral reforms, the OSCE international observers concluded. The media environment is diverse and the freedom of expression, guaranteed by the Constitution, was respected."
- United Nations: The United Nations praised this year’s peaceful transition of power following the elections and urged the country’s new leadership to stay the course in pursuing a strengthened democratic system based on human rights, a culture of dialogue and strong independent institutions.
- "Armenia Parliament Dissolved, Early Elections Set For December". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Exclusive: Armenian PM Pashinyan to resign for early election, he tells FRANCE 24 - France 24". France 24. 2018-10-10. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
- "Armenia to hold snap parliamentary elections in December". Public Radio of Armenia. 2018-10-02. Retrieved 2018-10-02.
- "Armenian PM announces resignation". News.am. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Armenians head to polls in first ever snap parliamentary election (PHOTOS)". News.am. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- All Change in Armenia Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 8 December 2015
- Parliamentary elections 2 April 2017: OSCE/ODIHR needs assessment mission report Osce.org
- "Խորհրդարանում հայտնվելու համար չորրորդ ուժը պետք է ստանա ձայների գոնե 2 տոկոսը". News.am (in Armenian). Retrieved 2018-10-19.
- "Правительство приняло решение о внесении изменений в..." Hetq.am (in Russian). Retrieved 2018-10-20.
- "Пашинян объявил об уходе с поста премьер-министра Армении". РБК. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Armenian PM Accuses Outgoing Lawmakers Of 'Sabotaging' Electoral Changes". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2018-10-23.
- "Armenia's Parliament fails to adopt Electoral Code amendments". News.am. Retrieved 2018-10-23.
- "Parliament Fails to Pass Government-Backed Bill to Modify Electoral Code; Pashinyan Accuses His Opponents of Sabotage". Hetq.am. Retrieved 2018-10-23.
- "Armenia Parliament committee approves election law amendment bill for 2nd time". News.am. Retrieved 2018-10-26.
- "Armenian lawmakers fail to adopt amendments to Electoral Code yet again". News.am. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
- "Campaign for Armenia snap parliamentary elections to start on November 26". News.am. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
- "TIMETABLE FOR THE PREPARATION AND CONDUCT OF THE MAIN ACTIVITIES FOR THE EARLY ELECTIONS TO THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY OF DECEMBER 9, 2018" (PDF). Res.elections.am. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "CEC decides under what number political forces to participate in snap parliamentary elections - aysor.am - Hot news from Armenia". Aysor.am. Retrieved 2018-11-20.
- "11 political forces are running in Armenia early elections". News.am. Retrieved 2018-11-14.
- "Armenia's Central Electoral Commission registers proportional lists of all 11 political forces". News.am. Retrieved 2018-11-20.
- "Eleven Political Parties Register For Armenia's Parliamentary Elections". Rferl.org. Retrieved 2018-11-15.
- "Կուսակցության ղեկավարը Հայաստանում սոցիալական-շուկայական տնտեսության ձևավորման անհրաժեշտություն է տեսնում". Armenpress.am. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-12-09. Retrieved 2018-12-07.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Armenian communists boycott early elections". News.am. Retrieved 2018-11-14.
- "ՌԱԿ-ն իր անդամներին և համակիրներին կոչ է անում իրենց ձայնը տալ "Իմ քայլը" դաշինքին". Aravot.am. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Լևոն Տեր-Պետրոսյանի ՀԱԿ-ը և Ստեփան Դեմիրճյանի ՀԺԿ-ն չեն մասնակցի դեկտեմբերի 9-ի ընտրությանը | Aniarc". Aniarc.am. Retrieved 2018-11-14.
- "Երկրի զարգացման այս հանգրվանում որոշում է կայացվել չմասնակցել արտահերթ խորհրդարանական ընտրություններին․ Արժանապատիվ ապագա կուսակցություն". Aravot.am. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "ՀԴԿ-ն հնարավոր է բոյկոտի արտահերթը. Արամ Սարգսյանը "ուրիշ խաղեր ու հաշվարկներ" է տեսնում". News.am (in Armenian). Retrieved 2018-11-13.
- "Հայաստանի դեմոկրատական կուսակցությունը որոշել է բոյկոտել ընտրությունները". News.am (in Armenian). Retrieved 2018-11-13.
- "Партия "Во имя социальной справедливости" не примет участие во внеочередных выборах в НС Армении". Panorama.am. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
- ""Ժառանգություն" կուսակցության վարչությունը որոշել է չմասնակցել խորհրդարանական արտահերթ ընտրություններին | Առավոտ - Լուրեր Հայաստանից". Aravot.am. 2015-01-19. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
- ""Արդարություն" կուսակցության քաղխորհուրդը որոշեց՝ առանձին ցուցակով կամ դաշինքով չմասնակցել ընտրություններին". Factor.am. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "National Democratic party not to participate in snap parliamentary elections in Armenia - aysor.am - Hot news from Armenia". Aysor.am. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
- "Union for National Self-Determination to participate in Armenia early elections". News.am. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
- ""Երկիր Ծիրանին" մերժում է "ՀՀ խորհրդարանական ընտրություններ" անվանումով կեղծ նախաձեռնությունը". News.am (in Armenian). Retrieved 2018-11-14.
- "National Democratic party not to participate in snap parliamentary elections in Armenia - aysor.am - Hot news from Armenia". Aysor.am. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
- "In Setback For Pashinian, Armenian Parliament Again Fails To Pass Election Bill". Rferl.org. Retrieved 2018-11-06.
- "RPA: Prime MInister broke his promise". News.am. Retrieved 2018-10-04.
- "Pashinyan and Parliament At Odds Over Early Snap Elections as ARF Loses Ministerial Footing". The Armenian Weekly. 2018-10-03. Retrieved 2018-10-04.
- ""We" alliance kicks off its election campaign in Noyemberyan". News.am. Retrieved 2018-11-27.
- "Pashinyan proposes to set pre-election debate on live broadcast by legislation". Armenpress.am. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
- "Vigen Sargsyan invites acting PM Nikol Pashinyan to debate - aysor.am - Hot news from Armenia". Aysor.am. Retrieved 2018-11-28.
- "Pashinian Refuses TV Debate With Republican Leader". Azatutyun.am (in Armenian). Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- "Leaders of 11 political forces take part in exclusive election debate live on Public Television". News.am. Retrieved 2018-12-06.
- "Օմբուդսմենը նախընտրական քարոզչության ընթացքում մի շարք խախտումներ է արձանագրել". News.am. Retrieved 2018-11-28.
- "Election campaign rather tough and negative: ex Ombudsman - aysor.am - Hot news from Armenia". Aysor.am. Retrieved 2018-11-28.
- "Newspaper: My Step alliance tears down Bright Armenia Party posters, posts its own instead". News.am. Retrieved 2018-11-28.
- "Republic party chairman's son involved in car crash, transported to hospital - aysor.am - Hot news from Armenia". Aysor.am. Retrieved 2018-11-28.
- "Nikol Pashinyan / Նիկոլ Փաշինյան". Facebook.com. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Ես չեմ կարող չհավատալ իրենց ազնվությանը. Հասմիկ Պապյանը՝ Սասնա Ծռերի մասին". YouTube. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Hasmik Papian". Facebook.com. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Ես սատարելու եմ Սասնա ծռեր կուսակցությանը, ցավոք, չեմ կարող առաջադրվել. Արա Պապյան". Politik.am. 13 November 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Իմ անհատական ընտրությունը | Առավոտ - Լուրեր Հայաստանից". Aravot.am. 2015-01-19. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
- "69.4% of voters say will vote in favor of My Step alliance during upcoming elections – GALLUP poll". Armenpress.am. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Հարցվածների 68,3%-ը պատրաստ է քվեարկել "Իմ քայլը" դաշինքի օգտին". Mediamax.am. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Public Opinion Survey : Residents of Armenia" (PDF). Iri.org. October 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Public Opinion Survey : Residents of Armenia : July to August 2018" (PDF). Iri.org. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Pashinyan's Yelk would get 75% of votes if snap elections were held next Sunday, poll says". ARKA News Agency. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "International Community Supports Electoral Processes in Armenia". www.am.undp.org. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
- "U.S. Embassy Officials Discuss Elections Assistance with Armenia's Central Electoral Commission". am.usembassy.gov. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
- "OSCE/ODIHR plans large-scale observation mission in Armenia". News.am. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
- "OSCE/ODIHR plans large-scale observation mission in Armenia". news.am. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
- "Members of Russian State Duma to observe early parliamentary elections in Armenia". News.am. Retrieved 2018-11-20.
- "Voting process in 1500 polling stations out of 2010 to be broadcast live during Armenia's early elections". News.am. Retrieved 2018-11-16.
- "PanARMENIAN.Net - Mobile". Panarmenian.net. Retrieved 2018-11-24.
- "Armenia elections: Final voter turnout was less than 50%". News.am. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "CEC announces final results of early parliamentary elections". news.am. Retrieved 2018-12-16.
- "Parliamentary election in Armenia a milestone, Catholicos says". Armradio.am. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-07-07. Retrieved 2019-06-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Council of Europe pledges full support to justice system reforms in Armenia". ARKA News Agency. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
- "Armenia elections respected fundamental freedoms: OSCE". PanARMENIAN.Net. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
- "Armenia: UN human rights expert lauds peaceful transition". ohchr.org/. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
- "Press Releases". Retrieved 26 June 2019.