1989 Giro d'Italia

The 1989 Giro d'Italia was the 72nd edition of the Giro d'Italia, one of cycling's Grand Tours. The Giro started off in Taormina on 21 May with a 123 km (76.4 mi) flat stage that ended in Catania. The race concluded in Florence with a 53 km (32.9 mi) individual time trial on 11 June. Twenty-two teams entered the race, which was won by the Frenchman Laurent Fignon of the Super U team. Second and third respectively were the Italian Flavio Giupponi and the American rider, Andrew Hampsten.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

1989 Giro d'Italia
Overall winner Laurent Fignon taking victory on stage 20
Overall winner Laurent Fignon taking victory on stage 20
Race details
Dates21 May – 11 June
Stages22, including one split stage
Distance3,418 km (2,124 mi)
Winning time93h 30' 16"
Results
Winner  Laurent Fignon (FRA) (Système U)
  Second  Flavio Giupponi (ITA) (Malvor-Sidi)
  Third  Andrew Hampsten (USA) (7-Eleven)

Points  Giovanni Fidanza (ITA) (Chateau d'Ax-Salotti)
Mountains  Luis Herrera (COL) (Café de Colombia-Mavic)
Youth  Vladimir Poulnikov (URS) (Alfa Lum-STM)
  Sprints  Luigi Bielli (ITA) (Del Tongo)
Intergiro  Jure Pavlič (YUG) (Carrera Jeans–Vagabond)
  Team Fagor - MBK
← 1988
1990 →

In the race's other classifications, Vladimir Poulnikov of the Alfa Lum-STM finished the Giro as the best neo-professional in the general classification, finishing in eleventh place overall; Café de Colombia rider Luis Herrera won the mountains classification, Giovanni Fidanza of the Chateau d'Ax-Salotti team won the points classification, and Carrera Jeans–Vagabond rider Jure Pavlič won the inaugural intergiro classification. Fagor - MBK finished as the winners of the Trofeo Fast Team classification, ranking each of the twenty-two teams contesting the race by lowest cumulative time.

TeamsEdit

There were 22 teams that were invited to compete in the 1989 Giro d'Italia. Each team consisted of nine riders, so the Giro started with 198 riders. Of the 198 riders that started the race, 141 of them reached the finish line in Florence. The peloton featured for the first time Soviet riders as a ban on cyclists becoming professional.[8] These Soviet cyclists competed for Alfa Lum, a team of nine Soviets.[8]

The teams entering the race were:[9][10]

Pre-race favoritesEdit

Many expected the winner of the race to be a foreign, non-Italian rider.[11][12][13] Several riders were seen as contenders for the overall crown.[13] La Liberté named the following contenders: Hampsten, Greg LeMond, Luis Herrera, Erik Breukink, Laurent Fignon, Phil Anderson, Urs Zimmermann, and Claude Criquielion.[13] De Telegraaf listed the three favorites to be Breukink, Hampsten, and Roche.[11] Former winner Stephen Roche returned to the Giro following a year absence and recently visited a doctor in Munich to treat one of his knees.[13] Roche was anticipated to receive a poor welcome due to how he won the Giro in 1987 by taking the lead from Italian and teammate Roberto Visentini.[11] Reigning champion Hampsten entered the Giro after showing good forming in the early calendar races.[13] Hampsten himself stated he felt good entering the race and stated the route did not offer many opportunities to recover.[11] In addition, Hampsten had been specifically training for the individual time trial in his home in Boulder, Colorado in the weeks preceding the race's start.[11] When asked about the inclusion of the Passo di Gavia – which was crossed the previous year in blizzard conditions on a day where Hampsten secured the race lead – Hampsten hoped to "... cross that mountain when the sun shines."[11] Breukink was seen as the best hope for a Dutch rider to win the Giro due to third and second-place finishes in 1987 and 1988, respectively.[14] Fignon and Zimmmermann were seen as strong contenders to compete for the victory following their joint attack on the Col de la Croix in the Tour de Romandie.[13] Fignon, a two-time winner of the Tour de France, entered the Giro for the first time since his controversial loss to Francesco Moser in 1984.[8] In the years after his first Tour victory in 1984, Fignon's seasons were plagued by poor performances due to a variety of injuries.[8] He had returned to form starting in 1988 with a win in Milan–San Remo, which he repeated as champion in 1989.[8] Fignon's teammates were regarded as a weak point for his title hopes as they were felt to be weaker than his previous teams in the early 1980s.[8] Urs Freuler was seen as a rider to contend for his fourteenth Giro stage win, while Dutch sprinter Jean-Paul van Poppel was seen as a prominent challenger for Freuler in the sprint stages.[13] Zimmermann was seen as a candidate to win if he could limit his losses in the time trials.[13] Herrera, Criquielion, and Maurizio Fondriest all rode their first Giro.[15] Limburgsch dagblad felt the race attracted most top tier riders to participate except for Pedro Delgado, Charly Mottet, and Steven Rooks, among others.[15] Luis Gómez of El País felt the main novelty of the race was the presence of the Alfa Lum team rostered with Soviet riders, including the likes of 23-year old Dimitri Konyshev whom they hoped would finish high overall.[16] He also felt LeMond's form was poor.[16] Herrera came to the Giro hoping for success as the stages were shorter than the Tour's and the general pace of the Giro is slower than the Tour.[16] Lejaretta hoped to challenge for stage wins in the mountains due to the toughness climbs.[16] Fondriest was seen as the main Italian hope as he was an all-rounder who was only 24-years of age.[16]

Route and stagesEdit

 
Mount Etna hosted the end of the 132 km (82 mi) second stage that began in the nearby city of Catania.

The route for the 1989 edition of the Giro d'Italia was revealed to the public on television by head organizer Vincenzo Torriani, on 21 January 1989.[17][18][19] It contained four time trial events, three of which were individual and one a team event. There were fourteen stages containing thirty-five categorized climbs, of which three had summit finishes: stage 2, to Mount Etna; stage 8, to Gran Sasso d'Italia; and stage 13, to Tre Cime di Lavaredo.[20] Another stage with a mountain-top finish was stage 18, which consisted of a climbing time trial to Monte Generoso.[20] The organizers chose to not include any rest days. When compared to the previous year's race, the race was 161 km (100 mi) shorter, contained the number of rest days and time trials, and had one more stage. In addition, this race contained one less set of half stages. After the route had been announced in January, former winner Francesco Moser – who joined the race organizing staff – received criticism as the route was thought to be very difficult and "heavy."[21] This criticism was due to Moser's history of complaining routes were too difficult in the past, when many viewed them not as such.[21]

The sixteenth day of racing was thought to be the queen stage of the race as it featured several categorized climbs, including the Cima Coppi, the Passo di Gavia.[22] Due to harsh weather the day of the sixteenth stage and beforehand, lots of snow had been deposited along the roads that were to be used.[22][23] Organizers made the choice to cancel the stage because of the conditions that also included sub-freezing temperatures.[22][23] Riders primarily agreed with the decision as it was best for rider safety, but Hampsten believed that the stage could have provided some chances to attack then race leader Fignon.[23] A L'Impartial writer described how race organizer Torriani had been creating race routes that favored sprinters and average climbers like Francesco Moser and Giuseppe Saronni in the early 1980s and late 1970s, but had made the race more exciting as of late.[24]

Stage characteristics and winners[9][20][25][26]
Stage Date Course Distance Type Winner
1 21 May Taormina to Catania 123 km (76 mi)   Plain stage   Jean-Paul van Poppel (NED)
2 22 May Catania to Mount Etna 132 km (82 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Acácio da Silva (POR)
3 23 May Villafranca Tirrena to Messina 32.5 km (20 mi)   Team time trial Ariostea
4 24 May Scilla to Cosenza 204 km (127 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Rolf Järmann (SUI)
5 25 May Cosenza to Potenza 275 km (171 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Stefano Giuliani (ITA)
6 26 May Potenza to Campobasso 223 km (139 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Stefan Joho (SUI)
7 27 May Isernia to Rome 208 km (129 mi)   Plain stage   Urs Freuler (SUI)
8 28 May Rome to Gran Sasso d'Italia 179 km (111 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   John Carlsen (DEN)
9 29 May L'Aquila to Gubbio 221 km (137 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Bjarne Riis (DEN)
10 30 May Pesaro to Riccione 36.8 km (23 mi)   Individual time trial   Lech Piasecki (POL)
11 31 May Riccione to Mantua 244 km (152 mi)   Plain stage   Urs Freuler (SUI)
12 1 June Mantua to Mira 148 km (92 mi)   Plain stage   Mario Cipollini (ITA)
13 2 June Padua to Auronzo di Cadore 207 km (129 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Luis Herrera (COL)
14 3 June Auronzo di Cadore to Corvara 131 km (81 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Flavio Giupponi (ITA)
15a 4 June Corvara to Trento 131 km (81 mi)   Plain stage   Jean-Paul van Poppel (NED)
15b Trento to Trento 83.2 km (52 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Lech Piasecki (POL)
16 5 June Trento to Santa Caterina di Valfurva 208 km (129 mi)   Stage with mountain(s) Stage Cancelled
17 6 June Sondrio to Meda 137 km (85 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Phil Anderson (AUS)
18 7 June Mendrisio (Switzerland) to Monte Generoso (Switzerland) 10.7 km (7 mi)   Individual time trial   Luis Herrera (COL)
19 8 June Meda to Tortona 198 km (123 mi)   Plain stage   Jesper Skibby (DEN)
20 9 June Voghera to La Spezia 220 km (137 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Laurent Fignon (FRA)
21 10 June La Spezia to Prato 216 km (134 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Gianni Bugno (ITA)
22 11 June Prato to Florence 53 km (33 mi)   Individual time trial   Lech Piasecki (POL)
Total 3,418 km (2,124 mi)

Classification leadershipEdit

Four different jerseys were worn during the 1989 Giro d'Italia. The leader of the general classification – calculated by adding the stage finish times of each rider, and allowing time bonuses for the first three finishers on mass-start stages – wore a pink jersey. This classification is the most important of the race, and its winner is considered as the winner of the Giro.[27] There were no time bonuses awarded for stage placings.[21]

 
The Passo di Gavia was the Cima Coppi for the 1989 Giro d'Italia.

For the points classification, which awarded a purple (or cyclamen) jersey to its leader, cyclists were given points for finishing a stage in the top 15; additional points could also be won in intermediate sprints. The green jersey was awarded to the mountains classification leader. In this ranking, points were won by reaching the summit of a climb ahead of other cyclists. Each climb was ranked as either first, second or third category, with more points available for higher category climbs. The Cima Coppi, the race's highest point of elevation, awarded more points than the other first category climbs.[27] The Cima Coppi for this Giro was the Passo di Gavia, but due to inclement weather, the stage containing the Gavia was cancelled. The white jersey was worn by the leader of young rider classification, a ranking decided the same way as the general classification, but considering only neo-professional cyclists (in their first three years of professional racing).

The intergiro classification was introduced as a means of making the race more interesting and its leader was denoted by a blue jersey.[28] The calculation for the intergiro is similar to that of the general classification, in each stage there is a midway point that the riders pass through a point and where their time is stopped.[28] As the race goes on, their times compiled and the person with the lowest time is the leader of the intergiro classification and wears the blue jersey.[28] The first three to cross the sprint line would receive five, three, and two second time bonuses towards the general classification.[28] Although no jersey was awarded, there was also one classification for the teams, in which the stage finish times of the best three cyclists per team were added; the leading team was the one with the lowest total time.[27]

The rows in the following table correspond to the jerseys awarded after that stage was run.

Classification leadership by stage
Stage Winner General classification
 
Points classification
 
Mountains classification
 
Young rider classification
 
Team classification
1 Jean-Paul van Poppel Jean-Paul van Poppel Jean-Paul van Poppel not awarded ? Atala
2 Acácio da Silva Acácio da Silva Acácio da Silva Acácio da Silva Piotr Ugrumov Chateau d'Ax
3 Ariostea Silvino Contini
4 Rolf Järmann ?
5 Stefano Giuliani
6 Stefan Joho
7 Urs Freuler Giovanni Fidanza
8 John Carlsen Erik Breukink Fagor
9 Bjarne Riis Acácio da Silva Acácio da Silva
10 Lech Piasecki Erik Breukink Rolf Sörensen Alfa Lum
11 Urs Freuler
12 Mario Cipollini
13 Luis Herrera Giovanni Fidanza Fagor
14 Flavio Giupponi Laurent Fignon Vladimir Poulnikov
15a Jean-Paul van Poppel Luis Herrera Piotr Ugrumov
15b Lech Piasecki
16 Stage Cancelled
17 Phil Anderson
18 Luis Herrera Vladimir Poulnikov
19 Jesper Skibby
20 Laurent Fignon
21 Gianni Bugno
22 Lech Piasecki
Final Laurent Fignon Giovanni Fidanza Luis Herrera Vladimir Poulnikov Fagor

Final standingsEdit

Legend
      Denotes the winner of the General classification[29]       Denotes the winner of the Mountains classification[29]
      Denotes the winner of the Points classification[29]       Denotes the winner of the Young rider classification[29]
      Denotes the winner of the Intergiro classification

General classificationEdit

Final general classification (1–10)[29]
Rank Name Team Time
1   Laurent Fignon (FRA)   Système U 93h 30' 16"
2   Flavio Giupponi (ITA) Malvor + 1' 15"
3   Andrew Hampsten (USA) 7 Eleven-American Airlines + 2' 46"
4   Erik Breukink (NED) Panasonic–Isostar–Colnago–Agu + 5' 02"
5   Franco Chioccioli (ITA) Del Tongo + 5' 43"
6   Urs Zimmermann (SUI) Carrera Jeans–Vagabond + 6' 28"
7   Claude Criquielion (BEL) Hitachi + 6' 34"
8   Marco Giovannetti (ITA) Seur + 7' 44"
9   Stephen Roche (IRL) Fagor + 8' 09"
10   Marino Lejarreta (ESP) Caja Rural + 8' 09"

Points classificationEdit

Final points classification (1–5)[8][30]
Rider Team Points
1   Giovanni Fidanza (ITA)   Chateau d'Ax 172
2   Laurent Fignon (FRA)   Système U 139
3   Erik Breukink (NED) Panasonic–Isostar–Colnago–Agu 128
4   Claudio Chiappucci (ITA) Carrera Jeans–Vagabond 116
5   Acácio da Silva (POR) Carrera Jeans–Vagabond 111

Mountains classificationEdit

Final mountains classification (1–5)[8][30]
Rider Team Points
1   Luis Herrera (COL)   Café de Colombia 70
2   Stefano Giuliani (ITA) Jolly 38
3   Henry Cardenas (COL) Café de Colombia 34
  Jure Pavlič (YUG)   Carrera Jeans–Vagabond
5   Flavio Giupponi (ITA) Malvor 28

Young rider classificationEdit

Final young rider classification (1–5)[8][30]
Rider Team Time
1   Vladimir Poulnikov (URS)   Alfa Lum 93h 40' 06"
2   Piotr Ugrumov (URS) Alfa Lum + 4' 37"
3   Luca Gelfi (ITA) Del Tongo + 27' 49"
4   Jos van Aert (NED) Hitachi + 31' 00"
5   Jure Pavlič (YUG)   Carrera Jeans–Vagabond + 39' 24"

Intergiro classificationEdit

Final intergiro classification (1–3)[30]
Rider Team Time
1   Jure Pavlič (YUG)   Carrera Jeans–Vagabond 49h 50' 00"
2   Laurent Fignon (FRA)   Système U + 4' 07"
3   Claude Criquielion (BEL) Hitachi + 4' 24"
4   Flavio Giupponi (ITA) Malvor + 4' 32"
5   Jesper Skibby (DEN) TVM + 4' 54"

Combativity classificationEdit

Final combativity classification (1–5)[30]
Rider Team Points
1   Stefano Giuliani (ITA) Jolly 98
2   Peter Winnen (NED) Panasonic–Isostar–Colnago–Agu 54
3   Phil Anderson (AUS) TVM 48
4   Jesper Worre (DEN) Café de Colombia 28
5   John Carlsen (DEN) Fagor 24

Intermediate sprints classificationEdit

Final intermediate sprints classification (1–5)[30]
Rider Team Points
1   Luigi Bielli (ITA) Del Tongo 35
2   Alessio Di Basco (ITA) Fanini-Seven Up 31
3   Stefanino Cecini (ITA) Jolly 21
4   Danilo Gioia (ITA) Atala 18
4   Andrei Tchmil (URS) Alfa Lum 12

Final kilometer classificationEdit

Final final kilometer classification (1–5)[30]
Rider Team Points
1   Laurent Fignon (FRA)   Système U 14
2   Gianni Bugno (ITA) Chateau d'Ax 10
3   Rolf Järmann (SUI) Frank
4   Stefano Giuliani (ITA) Jolly 9
4   Luis Herrera (COL)   Café de Colombia 8

Team classificationEdit

Final team classification (1–4)[8][30]
Team Time
1 Fagor 279h 59' 13"
2 Caja Rural + 13' 27"
3 Alfa Lum + 16' 11"
4 Seur + 16' 37"
5 Del Tongo + 20' 35"

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Dario Ceccarelli (21 May 1989). "<<C'e del doping nel regno del pedale>>" [<< There is doping in the realm of the pedal >>] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. p. 29. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  2. ^ Dario Ceccarelli (20 May 1989). "Polvere, sudore, montagne: e ancora Giro" [Dust, sweat, mountains: and again Giro] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. p. 28. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  3. ^ Dario Ceccarelli (15 May 1989). "<<Finalmente un Giro come si deve Avrei voluto io frane uno cosi>>" [<< Finally a Giro as it should have been>>] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. p. 25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 May 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  4. ^ Dario Ceccarelli (15 May 1989). "Fondriest-Bugno: ormai e finito il <<tempo delle mele>>" [Fondriest-Bugno: the time for apples is over now >>] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. p. 26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  5. ^ Emile Besson (15 May 1989). "Solo buono per un giorno?" [Only good for a day?] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. p. 27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  6. ^ Oreste Pivetti (15 May 1989). "Freddo, duro, maledetto Gavia" [Cold, hard, damn Gavia] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. p. 28. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  7. ^ Sertino Bertini (15 May 1989). "L'incerto identikit dell'atleta perfetto" [The uncertain identikit of the perfect athlete] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. p. 30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol. "1989 Giro d'Italia". Bike Race Info. Dog Ear Publishing. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  9. ^ a b "Gira il Giro" [Turn the Tour] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). El Mundo Deportivo S.A. 21 May 1989. p. 47. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  10. ^ "I magnifici 22" [The magnificent 22] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. 15 May 1989. p. 29. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Bert Schaap (19 May 1989). "Roche Niet Geliefd" [Roche not Beloveed]. De Telegraaf (in Dutch). p. 33 – via Delpher.
  12. ^ Gino Sala (15 May 1989). "Ma che bella sorpresa se vincesse un italiano" [But what a surprise if an Italian won] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. p. 23. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h "Zimmermann parmi les favoris" [Zimmermann among the Favorites] (PDF). La Liberté (in French). 20 May 1989. p. 31 – via RERO.
  14. ^ "Breukink best Nederlander" [Breukink best Dutchman]. De Telegraaf (in Dutch). 19 May 1989. p. 33 – via Delpher.
  15. ^ a b "Cracks als debutanten" [Cracks as Debutants]. Limburgsch dagblad (in Dutch). 20 May 1989. p. 24 – via Delpher.
  16. ^ a b c d e Luis Gómez (21 May 1989). "El Giro se inicia hoy con una de las mejores participaciones de los últimos años" [The Giro starts today with one of the best participations in recent years]. El País (in Spanish). Ediciones El País. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  17. ^ "Un Giro d'Italia per gli scalatori" [A Tour of Italy for climbers] (PDF). La Stampa (in Italian). Editrice La Stampa. 21 January 1989. p. 30. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  18. ^ Gian Paolo Ormezzano (22 January 1989). "Un Giro che fara soffrire" [A tour that will do suffer] (PDF). La Stampa (in Italian). Editrice La Stampa. p. 21. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  19. ^ "El Giro-89 Tambien Pidio Paso" [The Giro-89 also requested paso] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). El Mundo Deportivo S.A. 22 January 1989. p. 51. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  20. ^ a b c "Il passo di Gavia è anche cima Coppi" [The Gavia Pass is also top Coppi] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. 15 May 1989. p. 24. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
  21. ^ a b c "'Aan zo'n Giro was Moser nooit begonnen'" ['Moser had never started such a Giro']. Het vrije volk (in Dutch). 20 May 1989. p. 11 – via Delpher.
  22. ^ a b c "La etapa reina del Giro se suspendió por el mal tiempo" [The queen stage of the Giro was suspended by bad weather]. El País (in Spanish). Ediciones El País. EFE. 6 June 1989. Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  23. ^ a b c "Snow halts cycling race". Eugene Register-Guard. Associated Press. 6 June 1989. p. 3D. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
  24. ^ "Un long pèlerinage en péninsule" [A long pilgrimage to the peninsula] (PDF). L'Impartial (in French). 18 May 1989. p. 19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 October 2019 – via RERO.
  25. ^ "Giro 89: Una Tentacion Para Los Escaladores" [Giro 89: A Temptation For Climbers] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). El Mundo Deportivo S.A. 23 January 1989. p. 64. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  26. ^ "Ventidue tappe, nessun riposo" [Twenty-two stages, no rest] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. 15 May 1989. p. 24. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
  27. ^ a b c Laura Weislo (13 May 2008). "Giro d'Italia classifications demystified". Cycling News. Future Publishing Limited. Archived from the original on 17 June 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  28. ^ a b c d "Ci sara anche una <<squadra ecologica>> al Giro d'Italia" [There will also be a << ecological team >> at the Giro d'Italia] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. 12 May 1989. p. 27. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
  29. ^ a b c d e "A Golpe de Fignon" [A Fignon Coup] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). El Mundo Deportivo S.A. 12 June 1989. p. 72. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h "Il 1989 in cifre Ecco tutte le classifiche" [1989 Here are the charts in figures] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. 13 May 1990. p. 27. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2012.