The 1984 Giro d'Italia was the 67th running of the Giro. It started in Lucca, on 17 May, with a 5 km (3.1 mi) prologue and concluded in Verona, on 10 June, with a 42 km (26.1 mi) individual time trial. A total of 171 riders from nineteen teams entered the 22-stage race, that was won by Italian Francesco Moser of the Gis Gelati–Tuc Lu team. The second and third places were taken by Frenchman Laurent Fignon and Italian Moreno Argentin, respectively.
|Dates||17 May – 10 June 1984|
|Stages||22 + Prologue|
|Distance||3,808 km (2,366 mi)|
|Winning time||98h 32' 20"|
Amongst the other classifications that the race awarded, Urs Freuler of Atala–Campagnolo won the points classification, Fignon of Renault–Elf won the mountains classification, and Renault–Elf's Charly Mottet completed the Giro as the best neo-professional in the general classification, finishing twenty-first overall. Renault–Elf finishing as the winners of the team classification, ranking each of the twenty teams contesting the race by lowest cumulative time. The team points classification was won by Metauro Mobili–Pinarello.
A total of nineteen teams were invited to participate in the 1984 Giro d'Italia. Each team sent a squad of nine riders, which meant that the race started with a peloton of 171 cyclists. Riders represented a total of 18 countries. The presentation of the teams – where each team's roster and manager are introduced in front the media and local dignitaries – took place at the Piazza San Marco in Lucca on 16 May. Robin Morton, the team manager of the Gianna-Motta-Linea MD team, was the first female team manager ever in the Giro d'Italia. From the riders that began this edition, 143 made it to the finish in Merano.
The teams entering the race were:
Team managers when asked about the favorite entering the race felt there was no clear favorite to win. La Gazzetta dello Sport felt four riders – Francesco Moser (Gis Gelati–Tuc Lu), Laurent Fignon (Renault–Elf), Giuseppe Saronni (Del Tongo–Colnago), and Roberto Visentini (Carrera–Inoxpran) – had the best chances to win, but "there is no man who knows how to dominate." When asked about his biggest challenge, Moser stated: "First, Visentini, because last year he was second, he has a very homogeneous squad and is the Italian runner in better shape..." Ángel Ruocco of El País felt that the race would be between 1983 Tour de France champion Fignon and Saronni, the winner of the Giro the previous year. He added that Silvano Contini, Mario Beccia, and Fignon as other challengers. Marino Lejarreta (Alfa Lum–Olmo) who rode the 1984 Vuelta a España to prepare, as well as Alberto Fernández (Zor–Gemeaz Cusin) who displayed great results when the race reached the Apennines last year.
Route and stagesEdit
The route for the 1984 edition of the Giro d'Italia was revealed to the public by head organizer Vincenzo Torriani on 18 February 1984. Covering a total of 3,808 km (2,366 mi), it included four time trials (three individual and one for teams), and eleven stages with categorized climbs that awarded mountains classification points. Five of these eleven stages had summit finishes: stage 3, to Madonna di San Luca; stage 5, to Blockhaus; stage 16, to Bardonecchia; stage 19, to Selva di Val Gardena; and stage 20, to Arabba. The organizers chose to include two rest days. When compared to the previous year's race, the race was 114 km (71 mi) shorter and contained the same number of time trials and rest days. In addition, this race contained the same number of stages.
|P||17 May||Lucca||5 km (3 mi)||Individual time trial||Francesco Moser (ITA)|
|1||18 May||Lucca to Marina di Pietrasanta||55 km (34 mi)||Team time trial||Renault–Elf[N 1]|
|2||19 May||Marina di Pietrasanta to Firenze||127 km (79 mi)||Plain stage||Urs Freuler (SUI)|
|3||20 May||Bologna to Madonna di San Luca||110 km (68 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Moreno Argentin (ITA)|
|4||21 May||Bologna to Numana||238 km (148 mi)||Plain stage||Stefan Mutter (SUI)|
|5||22 May||Numana to Blockhaus||194 km (121 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Moreno Argentin (ITA)|
|6||23 May||Chieti to Foggia||193 km (120 mi)||Plain stage||Francesco Moser (ITA)|
|7||24 May||Foggia to Marconia di Pisticci||226 km (140 mi)||Plain stage||Urs Freuler (SUI)|
|8||25 May||Policoro to Agropoli||228 km (142 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Urs Freuler (SUI)|
|9||26 May||Agropoli to Cava de' Tirreni||104 km (65 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Dag Erik Pedersen (NOR)|
|27 May||Rest day|
|10||28 May||Cava de' Tirreni to Isernia||209 km (130 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Martial Gayant (FRA)|
|11||29 May||Isernia to Rieti||243 km (151 mi)||Plain stage||Urs Freuler (SUI)|
|12||30 May||Rieti to Città di Castello||175 km (109 mi)||Plain stage||Paolo Rosola (ITA)|
|13||31 May||Città di Castello to Lerici||269 km (167 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Roberto Visentini (ITA)|
|14||1 June||Lerici to Alessandria||204 km (127 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Sergio Santimaria (ITA)|
|15||2 June||Certosa di Pavia to Milan||38 km (24 mi)||Individual time trial||Francesco Moser (ITA)|
|3 June||Rest day|
|16||4 June||Alessandria to Bardonecchia||198 km (123 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Dag Erik Pedersen (NOR)|
|17||5 June||Bardonecchia to Lecco||249 km (155 mi)||Plain stage||Jürg Bruggmann (SUI)|
|18||6 June||Lecco to Merano||252 km (157 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Bruno Leali (ITA)|
|19||7 June||Merano to Selva di Val Gardena||74 km (46 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Marino Lejarreta (ESP)|
|20||8 June||Selva di Val Gardena to Arabba||169 km (105 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Laurent Fignon (FRA)|
|21||9 June||Arabba to Treviso||208 km (129 mi)||Plain stage||Guido Bontempi (ITA)|
|22||10 June||Soave to Verona||42 km (26 mi)||Individual time trial||Francesco Moser (ITA)|
|Total||3,808 km (2,366 mi)|
Four different jerseys were worn during the 1984 Giro d'Italia. The leader of the general classification – calculated by adding the stage finish times of each rider, and allowing time bonuses for the first three finishers on mass-start stages – wore a pink jersey. This classification is the most important of the race, and its winner is considered as the winner of the Giro. Time bonuses of 20, 10, and 5 seconds were awarded to each stage's first three finishers.
For the points classification, which awarded a purple (or cyclamen) jersey to its leader, cyclists were given points for finishing a stage in the top 15; additional points could also be won in intermediate sprints. The green jersey was awarded to the mountains classification leader. In this ranking, points were won by reaching the summit of a climb ahead of other cyclists. Each climb was ranked as either first, second or third category, with more points available for higher category climbs. The Cima Coppi, the race's highest point of elevation, awarded more points than the other first category climbs. The Cima Coppi for this Giro was the originally the Stelvio Pass, but it was changed to the Pordoi Pass. The first rider to cross the Pordoi Pass was French rider Laurent Fignon. The white jersey was worn by the leader of young rider classification, a ranking decided the same way as the general classification, but considering only neo-professional cyclists (in their first three years of professional racing).
Although no jersey was awarded, there was also one classification for the teams, in which the stage finish times of the best three cyclists per team were added; the leading team was the one with the lowest total time. There was another team classification that awarded points to each team based on their riding's finishing position in every stage. The team with the highest total of points was the leader of the classification.
The rows in the following table correspond to the jerseys awarded after that stage was run.
||Young rider classification
|P||Francesco Moser||Francesco Moser||not awarded||not awarded||not awarded||not awarded|
|2||Urs Freuler||Urs Freuler||?||?|
|3||Moreno Argentin||Moreno Argentin||Chioccioli|
|4||Stefan Mutter||Urs Freuler||?|
|5||Moreno Argentin||Francesco Moser||Moreno Argentin||Carrera–Inoxpran|
|7||Urs Freuler||Urs Freuler|
|8||Urs Freuler||Moreno Argentin|
|9||Dag Erik Pedersen|
|16||Dag Erik Pedersen|
|18||Bruno Leali||Flavio Zappi|
|20||Laurent Fignon||Laurent Fignon||Laurent Fignon||Renault–Elf|
|21||Guido Bontempi||Johan van der Velde|
|22||Francesco Moser||Francesco Moser||Urs Freuler|
|Final||Francesco Moser||Urs Freuler||Laurent Fignon||Charly Mottet||Renault–Elf|
|Denotes the winner of the General classification||Denotes the winner of the Mountains classification|
|Denotes the winner of the Points classification||Denotes the winner of the Young rider classification|
|1||Francesco Moser (ITA)||Gis Gelati–Tuc Lu||98h 32' 20"|
|2||Laurent Fignon (FRA)||Renault–Elf||+ 1' 03"|
|3||Moreno Argentin (ITA)||Sammontana||+ 4' 26"|
|4||Marino Lejarreta (ESP)||Alfa Lum–Olmo||+ 4' 33"|
|5||Johan van der Velde (NED)||Metauro Mobili||+ 6' 56"|
|6||Gianbattista Baronchelli (ITA)||Murella–Rossin||+ 7' 48"|
|7||Lucien Van Impe (BEL)||Metauro Mobili||+ 10' 19"|
|8||Beat Breu (SUI)||Cilo–Aufina||+ 11' 39"|
|9||Mario Beccia (ITA)||Malvor–Bottecchia||+ 11' 41"|
|10||Dag Erik Pedersen (NOR)||Murella–Rossin||+ 13' 35"|
|1||Urs Freuler (SUI)||Carrera–Inoxpran||178|
|2||Johan van der Velde (NED)||Metauro Mobili||172|
|3||Francesco Moser (ITA)||Gis Gelati–Tuc Lu||166|
|4||Dag Erik Pedersen (NOR)||Murella–Rossin||160|
|5||Laurent Fignon (FRA)||Renault–Elf||150|
|1||Laurent Fignon (FRA)||Renault–Elf||53|
|2||Flavio Zappi (ITA)||Metauro Mobili||40|
|3||Moreno Argentin (ITA)||Sammontana||30|
|4||Johan van der Velde (NED)||Metauro Mobili||29|
|5||Jesús Rodríguez Magro (ESP)||Zor–Gemeaz Cusin||28|
Young rider classificationEdit
|1||Charly Mottet (FRA)||Renault–Elf||99h 02' 11"|
|2||Jens Veggerby (DEN)||Fanini–Wührer||+ 3' 59"|
|3||Giocondo Dalla Rizza (ITA)||Supermercati Brianzoli||+ 10' 19"|
|4||Elio Festa (ITA)||Santini–Conti–Galli||+ 10' 52"|
|5||Jesús Ignacio Ibáñez Loyo (ESP)||Zor–Gemeaz Cusin||+ 15' 47"|
Time trial classificationEdit
|1||Francesco Moser (ITA)||Gis Gelati–Tuc Lu||1h 43' 10"|
|2||Urs Freuler (SUI)||Carrera–Inoxpran||+ 4' 26"|
|3||Laurent Fignon (FRA)||Renault–Elf||+ 4' 27"|
|4||Daniel Gisiger (SUI)||Atala||+ 5' 10"|
|5||Moreno Argentin (ITA)||Sammontana||+ 5' 47"|
Trofeo Fiat Uno classificationEdit
|1||Dante Morandi (ITA)||Atala||18|
|2||Johan van der Velde (NED)||Metauro Mobili||12|
|3||Laurent Fignon (FRA)||Renault–Elf||10|
|4||Marino Lejarreta (ESP)||Alfa Lum–Olmo||9|
|5||Mario Noris (ITA)||Atala||8|
|Bruno Leali (ITA)||Carrera–Inoxpran|
Premio dell'Agonismo classificationEdit
|1||Daniel Gisiger (SUI)||Atala||24|
|2||Giovanni Renosto (ITA)||Murella-Rosin||15|
|3||Steen-Michael Petersen (DEN)||Fanini–Wührer||11|
|4||Alf Segersäll (SWE)||Atala||8|
|Juan Fernández (ESP)||Zor–Gemeaz Cusin|
|1||Renault–Elf||293h 48' 45"|
|2||Murella–Rossin||+ 2' 34"|
|3||Carrera–Inoxpran||+ 27' 41"|
|4||Del Tongo–Colnago||+ 40' 30"|
|5||Alfa Lum–Olmo||+ 40' 46"|
Team points classificationEdit
Since the race's conclusion, the race has been marred by accusations of race officials favoring Francesco Moser. On several occasions, Moser was seen drafting behind team cars and being pushed up mountains which is not allowed in the race rules. Moser was not penalized the times he committed the violations, but several other riders in the race were punished by officials when they committed the same infractions. Renault manager Cyrille Guimard especially upset with Moser's lack of punishment because his rider, Fignon, was awarded a twenty-second penalty for receiving food outside of the feed zone. Another instance appeared when the race officials cancelled the crossing of the Stelvio Pass during the eighteenth stage. Snow had fallen on the Stelvio and was thought to be able to be cleared by the day of the stage as race director Vincenzo Torriani had photos showing that it could be done. The French magazine Vélo published photos of the pass being clear of snow and open to the public. However, the day before the stage, the snow had yet to be cleared. There's speculation that a government official from Trent – Moser's hometown – would not allow the Giro to cross the Stelvio. The race was re-routed to go over the Tonale Pass and Palade Pass. The changes in the stage resulted in another collective finish of the general classification contenders, thus keeping the time gaps the same and playing into the hand of Moser. 1986 race winner Roberto Visentini quit the race because he felt the it was being fixed.. In the final time trial, TV helicopters have been accused of flying low behind Moser in order to propel him forward, increasing his speed. Fignon told the media that the helicopters were flying in front of him in order to slow his pace.
Fignon later published an autobiography in 2010 entitled We Were Young and Carefree: The Autobiography of Laurent Fignon where he discussed this edition of the Giro. He wrote that the "breaches in the rules were obvious" and that Moser had received many pushes from spectators while climbing during the twentieth stage. Fignon elaborated on the final time trial, stating that the helicopter pilot "almost mowing the number off of my back with his rotorblades." He stated the helicopter's turbulence slowed him down and also nearly crashed him a few times during the stage. Ultimately, Fignon felt that if the entire race was run according to the route and abiding by the rules, he would've won the race. In 2015, Moser was inducted to the Giro d'Italia Hall of Fame. At the ceremony, he received a replica of the modern-day trophy for his victory in the race. Moser spoke of how he and Fignon talked years after the race and he still blamed his victory on the helicopter, while Moser insisted that the cheering from the crowds is what motivated him to perform so well during the day. He further commented on Fignon: "Poor Fignon! He lost two Grand Tours on the last day and in time trials, too. If either of those races had ended with a climb, it would have been a very different story."
- ^ The teams that placed in the top 15 of the stage were awarded time bonuses. First place was given a two-minute-and-thirty-second time bonus to be split amongst its riders, second place was given a two-minute-and-twenty-second bonus, and each subsequent place received ten second less of a bonus than the team before, until the fifteenth place received only ten seconds.
- ^ Gregor Brown (26 October 2009). "Moser: Giro's mountains to decide race outcome". Cycling News. Future Publishing Limited. Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
- ^ "Moser: La Fuerza Destino" [Moser: The Target Strength] (PDF) (in Spanish). El Mundo Deportivo. 11 June 1984. p. 28. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- ^ "Escapadas y Pájaras" [Getaways and Birds] (PDF) (in Spanish). El Mundo Deportivo. 11 June 1984. p. 29. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- ^ a b c Gian Paolo Ormezzano (16 May 1984). "Moser, 23 giorni di agguati" [Moser, 23 days ambushes]. La Stampa (in Italian). Editrice La Stampa. p. 23. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- ^ a b c d Gino Sala (17 May 1984). "Tanti piccoli re verso lo Stelvio" [But small kings up the Stelvio] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). p. 20. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- ^ Gian Paolo Ormezzano (17 May 1984). "E' la volta buona per Moser?" [And 'the right time to Moser?]. La Stampa (in Italian). p. 27. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Bill and Carol McGann. "1984 Giro d'Italia". Bike Race Info. Dog Ear Publishing. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Ángel Ruocco (17 May 1984). "El Giro de Italia se inicia hoy sin un favorito definido" [The Giro d'Italia starts today without a definite favorite]. El País (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 3 December 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- ^ a b c d Susan Westemeyer (29 May 2009). "Sister in cycling: Morton at the 1984 Giro". Cycling News. Archived from the original on 28 April 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
- ^ "Moser, Fignon, Visentini et les autres" [Moser, Fignon, Visentini and the others] (PDF). Nouvelliste et Feuille d'Avis du Valais (in French). 17 May 1984. p. 23. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2019 – via RERO.
- ^ Gino Sala (19 February 1984). "Un Giro-cocktail: mezzo moderno e mezzo antico" [A Giro-cocktail: modern means and half ancient] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. p. 20. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- ^ "Il Giro '84 partira da Lucca" [The Tour '84 will start from Lucca]. La Stampa (in Italian). Editrice La Stampa. 17 February 1984. p. 25. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- ^ Gian Paolo Ormezzano (19 February 1984). "Fatto per Moser, con salite truccate" [Done for Moser, with climbs rigged]. La Stampa (in Italian). Editrice La Stampa. p. 25. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- ^ ""Giro 84": Mas Para Moser Que Para Saronni" [The "Giro-85" Want to Fignon] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 19 February 1984. p. 21. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 January 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- ^ "Queste Le Ventidue Tappe" [Twenty-two of these the Stages]. Stampa Sera (in Italian). Editrice La Stampa. 16 May 1984. p. 15. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- ^ "Ciclismo" [Cycling] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 28 May 1984. p. 42. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
- ^ "Clasificaciones" [Classifications] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 29 May 1984. p. 25. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
- ^ "Clasificaciones" [Classifications] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 30 May 1984. p. 30. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
- ^ "Giro" [Giro] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 4 June 1984. p. 36. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
- ^ "Clasificaciones" [Classifications] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 5 June 1984. p. 28. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
- ^ "Clasificaciones" [Classifications] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 6 June 1984. p. 30. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
- ^ "Clasificaciones" [Classifications] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 7 June 1984. p. 31. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
- ^ a b "Fignon acabo Rapido Con el Reinado de Moser en el Giro" [Fignon I finish Fast With the Reign of Moser in the Giro] (PDF) (in Spanish). El Mundo Deportivo. 19 May 1984. p. 27. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- ^ a b c d e f Laura Weislo (13 May 2008). "Giro d'Italia classifications demystified". Cycling News. Future Publishing Limited. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
- ^ a b c d e f g h "Cosi lo scorso anno nel regno di Moser" [So last year in the reign of Moser] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. 13 May 1985. p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- ^ a b c O'Brien 2017, p. 130.
- ^ O'Brien 2017, p. 129.
- ^ "Fignon critica el trazado "indigno" del Giro" [Fignon criticizes the "unworthy" route of the Giro]. El País (in Spanish). EFE. 7 June 1984. Archived from the original on 11 May 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- ^ "1984 Giro d'Italia". BikeRaceInfo. 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 2014-03-17.
- ^ a b O'Brien 2017, p. 131.
- ^ Fignon 2010, p. 120–126.
- ^ Fignon 2010, p. 123–124.
- ^ a b c Fignon 2010, p. 125.
- ^ a b c d Stephen Farrand (20 March 2015). "Francesco Moser inducted into the Giro d'Italia Hall of Fame". Cycling News. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
- Fignon, Laurent (2010). "Tragedia dell'Arte". We Were Young and Carefree: The Autobiography of Laurent Fignon. London: Yellow Jersey Press. ISBN 9780224083195.
- O'Brien, Colin (2017). "The Sheriff and the Rifle Shot". Giro d'Italia: The Story of the World's Most Beautiful Bike Race. London: Pursuit Books. ISBN 9781782832904.