1969 Giro d'Italia

The 1969 Giro d'Italia was the 52nd edition of the Giro d'Italia, one of cycling's Grand Tours. The 3,851-kilometre (2,393 mi) race consisted of 23 stages, one of which was a split stage, starting in Garda on 16 May and finishing Milan on 8 June. There were two time trial stages and a single rest day. Felice Gimondi of the Salvarani team won the overall general classification, his second victory. Italians Claudio Michelotto (Max Meyer) placed second, 3 min and 35 s slower than Gimondi, and Italo Zilioli (Filotex) was third, over four minutes behind Gimondi.

1969 Giro d'Italia
Race details
Dates16 May - 8 June
Stages23, including one split stage
Distance3,851 km (2,393 mi)
Winning time106h 47' 03"
Results
Winner  Felice Gimondi (ITA) (Salvarani)
  Second  Claudio Michelotto (ITA) (Max Meyer)
  Third  Italo Zilioli (ITA) (Filotex)

Points  Franco Bitossi (ITA) (Filotex)
  Mountains  Claudio Michelotto (ITA) (Max Meyer)
  Team Molteni
← 1968
1970 →

Eddy Merckx, who was leading the general classification, was excluded from the race after an extremely controversial anti-doping control in Savona.

TeamsEdit

A total of 13 teams were invited to participate in the 1969 Giro d'Italia.[1] Each team sent a squad of ten riders, so the Giro began with a peloton of 130 cyclists.[1][2] Riders of Italian nationality numbered the most with 113, while Belgium had the second most with eight.[3][4] Out of the 130 riders that started this edition of the Giro d'Italia, a total of 81 riders made it to the finish in Milan.

The teams that took part in the race were:[1]

Pre-race favoritesEdit

Eddy Merckx and Felice Gimondi (left and right, respectively, pictured at the 1967 Giro d'Italia) were viewed as the favorites to win the race. Gimondi had finished third in 1968, while Merckx won the race. Gimondi won the 1967 edition when Merckx finished seventh.

Eddy Merckx (Faema), the previous year's winner returned to defend his crown.[3][4] He arrived in Italy amid a great season already with victories in the three Monuments Milan–San Remo, Tour of Flanders, and Liège–Bastogne–Liège.[5][6] Merckx named Felice Gimondi (Salvarani) his top rival for the upcoming race.[7] Both Merckx and 1967 champion Gimondi were viewed as the principal favorites to win the race.[3][4] Gimondi had won the Tour de Romandie and placed second in the Tour of Flanders.[6] Both riders hoped to achieve the Giro–Tour double, for the first time since Jacques Anquetil achieved it in 1964.[3] Gimondi had previously attempted the feat in 1965 and 1967.[3][4] Merckx had specifically hoped to ride a conservative race in order to help his chances to complete the double.[5][8][9][10][11]

Reigning world champion Vittorio Adorni (Scic) who placed second the year before was viewed as a rider who could challenge the Gimondi–Merckx duel,[3][4] despite being winless that season so far.[6] Filotex's Italo Zilioli and Franco Bitossi were other riders who were speculated to challenge for high general classification positions.[3][4] Top sprinters entering the race were Molteni's Michele Dancelli and Marino Basso.[3][4][12]

Spanish and French rider participation was lacking, as the former had only a single team entered and there were zero French riders competing.[3][6] Notable absences included Gianni Motta and Franco Balmamion.[3][4]

Route and stagesEdit

The route was revealed on 27 March 1969 by race director Vincenzo Torriani.[13][14][15][16] The announced route covered 4,092 km (2,543 mi), across twenty-four stages of racing.[3] The average stage length for this edition was 170 km (106 mi).[14] In total the route traversed 600 municipalities over 44 provinces.[14] The route featured 26 categorized climbs that awarded points for the mountains classification,[3] including eight of which were being scaled for the first time in race history.[14] Five of those climbs would be stage finishes for the race.[3] Four climbs were over 2,000 m (6,562 ft), while the whole race climbed a total of 29.8 km (19 mi).[3] The route started flat before the first important stages pertaining to the general classification would be in the ninth and tenth stages.[14] The rest day took place in San Marino on 31 May.[14]

The race started in Garda and made its way south and west across the Apennines.[3] Then the race headed south until Potenza before turning north until reaching San Marino for two stages.[3] The race transferred to Parma and headed east again and entered the Dolomites.[3] Traversing the Dolomites, the race headed west until its finish in Milan.[3]

Stage results[6]
Stage Date Course Distance Type Winner
1 16 May Garda to Brescia 142 km (88 mi)   Plain stage   Giancarlo Polidori (ITA)
2 17 May Brescia to Mirandola 180 km (112 mi)   Plain stage   Davide Boifava (ITA)
3 18 May Mirandola to Montecatini Terme 188 km (117 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Eddy Merckx (BEL)
4 19 May Montecatini Terme to Montecatini Terme 21 km (13 mi)   Individual time trial   Eddy Merckx (BEL)
5 20 May Montecatini Terme to Follonica 194 km (121 mi)   Plain stage   Albert Van Vlierberghe (BEL)
6 21 May Follonica to Viterbo 198 km (123 mi)   Plain stage   Franco Cortinovis (ITA)
7 22 May Viterbo to Terracina 206 km (128 mi)   Plain stage   Eddy Merckx (BEL)
8 23 May Terracina to Naples 133 km (83 mi)   Plain stage   Marino Basso (ITA)
9 24 May Naples to Potenza 173 km (107 mi)   Plain stage   Michele Dancelli (ITA)
10 25 May Potenza to Campitello Matese 254 km (158 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Carlo Chiappano (ITA)
11 26 May Campobasso to Scanno 165 km (103 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Franco Bitossi (ITA)
12 27 May Scanno to Silvi Marina 180 km (112 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Ugo Colombo (ITA)
13 28 May Silvi Marina to Senigallia 166 km (103 mi)   Plain stage   Marino Basso (ITA)
14 29 May Senigallia to City of San Marino (San Marino) 185 km (115 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Franco Bitossi (ITA)
15 30 May Cesenatico to City of San Marino (San Marino) 49.3 km (31 mi)   Individual time trial   Eddy Merckx (BEL)
31 May Rest day
16 1 June Parma to Savona 234 km (145 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Roberto Ballini (ITA)
17 2 June Celle Ligure to Pavia 182 km (113 mi)   Plain stage   Ole Ritter (DEN)
18a 3 June Pavia to Zingonia 115 km (71 mi)   Plain stage   Marino Basso (ITA)
18b Zingonia to San Pellegrino Terme 100 km (62 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Marino Basso (ITA)
19 4 June San Pellegrino Terme to Folgaria 248 km (154 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Italo Zilioli (ITA)
20 5 June Trento to Marmolada 230 km (143 mi)   Plain stage Stage Cancelled
21 6 June Rocca Pietore to Cavalese 131 km (81 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Claudio Michelotto (ITA)
22 7 June Cavalese to Folgarida 150 km (93 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Vittorio Adorni (ITA)
23 8 June Folgarida to Milan 257 km (160 mi)   Stage with mountain(s)   Attilio Benfatto (ITA)
Total 3,851 km (2,393 mi)

Race overviewEdit

The twentieth stage of the race from Trento to Marmolada started at 8:30 AM local time and by around 1 PM the weather was worsening and this lead race organizers to change the route in order to go through Fiera di Primiero.[17] However, the weather there was even worse and the Torriani elected to neutralize the stage after 104 km (65 mi) of racing.[17]

Following Merckx's disqualification from the race, there were rumors of riders protests.[18] The race started an hour later than intended and the race stopped briefly in front of Merckx's hotel in an act of solidarity.[19] Gimondi, who was promoted to first place, refused to wear the pink jersey during the seventeenth stage.[19] However, the stage went on and the winning breakaway started roughly 30 kilometers from the race finish, with Ole Ritter attacking to win ahead of the fifteen other riders in the move.[18] The mood of the peloton and the race's caravan was described as dismayed.[18]

DopingEdit

The race had doping controls and the top two riders in the general classification were drug tested after each stage, along with two other cyclists chosen at random.[20] A mobile lab that traveled with the race and conducted the drug tests.[20]

I'm sure ... I'm convinced of it ... I didn't take anything ... It's the truth. Never, never have I taken anything.

Eddy Merckx following as he spoke to reporters from his hotel room[21]

On 2 June, it was announced that the race leader Merckx had tested positive.[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30] Merckx's first test came up positive for fencamfamine, an amphetamine and a second test confirmed the positive.[29][30][20] The word spread about Merckx's positive test while Merckx himself was still asleep.[30] The media was able to enter Merckx's room at the Albissola Superiore as the news broke to him, where he stated "I'm sure I didn't take any doping product," as he cried on his hotel bed.[21] Fellow riders, including Gimondi, and team directors stopped by to express their solidarity with Merckx as he faced the news.[21]

The positive test meant Merckx was to be suspended for a month.[31] Race director Vincenzo Torriani delayed the start of the seventeenth stage in an attempt to persuade the president of the Italian Cycling Federation to allow Merckx to begin the stage.[30] However, the president was not in his office and Torriani was forced to start the stage, disqualifying Merckx in the process.[30] Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) president Adriano Rodoni announced an investigation into the situation,[32] which, in the succeeding days, resulted in the removal of the suspension.[29][30]

The reaction to Merckx's expulsion was wide. Many writers sided with Merckx stating how he tested negative every other time in the race to that point before the positive on his final test.[N 1][34] Several pointed to his clean track record and willingness to take doping controls whenever approached.[34][33] A writer made note that it was widely known that riders took stimulants at the time, otherwise the pace of racing could not be kept at what it was at the time.[34] At the time the list of banned substances varied from country to country.[34] There were some riders that threatened to strike at the start of the seventeenth stage.[34] Some writers stated that the Giro was over at that point,[18] and one went as far as to say that this might be the death of the Giro.[34] There were hypotheses that he had consumed tainted food.[34][33] Fellow cyclists also sided with Merckx, Taccone stated "It was sabotage, while Gimondi commented that if he were to win the race overall, it would have no meaning since he could not best Merckx.[35] On the other hand, Rudi Altig told the media: "The law must be respected. If it had been a runner in the background, there would be no scandal. He would have been disqualified without any other form of trial. Merckx, on the other hand, is the victim, and that is why the case is experiencing such a twist."[35] Former cyclist Marino Vigna and Faema co–director mentioned that Merckx could not have taken a tampered bottle from the ‘’tifosi’’ as he warned Merckx “from the start of the Giro against the danger of refueling during the stage by the public,” further saying that Merckx never accepted bottles from fans.[35] However, he did say that Merckx could have gotten a bottle from a teammate that got one from a spectator.[35]

Classification leadershipEdit

Two different jerseys were worn during the 1969 Giro d'Italia. The leader of the general classification – calculated by adding the stage finish times of each rider – wore a pink jersey. This classification is the most important of the race, and its winner is considered as the winner of the Giro.[36]

For the points classification, which awarded a red jersey to its leader,[37] cyclists were given points for finishing a stage in the top 15.[38] The mountains classification leader. The climbs were ranked in first and second categories. In this ranking, points were won by reaching the summit of a climb ahead of other cyclists. Although no jersey was awarded, there was also one classification for the teams, in which the stage finish times of the best three cyclists per team were added; the leading team was the one with the lowest total time.[36]

Classification leadership by stage
Stage Winner General classification
 
Points classification
 
Mountains classification Team classification
1 Giancarlo Polidori Giancarlo Polidori Giancarlo Polidori not awarded Molteni
2 Davide Boifava Davide Boifava
3 Eddy Merckx Giancarlo Polidori Eddy Merckx
4 Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx
5 Albert Van Vlierberghe
6 Franco Cortinovis
7 Eddy Merckx
8 Marino Basso
9 Michele Dancelli Eddy Merckx
10 Carlo Chiappano Eddy Merckx & Carlo Chiappano
11 Franco Bitossi Franco Bitossi
12 Ugo Colombo Silvano Schiavon Michele Dancelli
13 Marino Basso
14 Franco Bitossi Eddy Merckx Franco Bitossi
15 Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx
16 Roberto Ballini
17 Ole Ritter Felice Gimondi Franco Bitossi
18a Marino Basso
18b Marino Basso
19 Italo Zilioli
20 Stage Cancelled
21 Claudio Michelotto Claudio Michellotto
22 Vittorio Adorni
23 Attilio Benfatto
Final Felice Gimondi Franco Bitossi Claudio Michellotto Molteni

Final standingsEdit

Legend
      Denotes the winner of the General classification       Denotes the winner of the Points classification

General classificationEdit

Final general classification (1–10)[6][39][40]
Rank Name Team Time
1   Felice Gimondi (ITA)   Salvarani 128h 4' 27"
2   Claudio Michelotto (ITA) Max Meyer + 3' 35"
3   Italo Zilioli (ITA) Filotex + 4' 48"
4   Silvano Schiavon (ITA) Sanson + 7' 01"
5   Ugo Colombo (ITA) Filotex + 11' 54"
6   Michele Dancelli (ITA) Molteni + 14' 05"
7   Aldo Moser (ITA) G.B.C. + 20' 05"
8   Primo Mori (ITA) Max Meyer + 20' 25"
9   Rudi Altig (FRG) Salvarani + 23' 57"
10   Franco Bitossi (ITA)   Filotex + 31' 36"

Mountains classificationEdit

Final mountains classification (1–10)[6][39][40]
Rank Name Team Points
1   Claudio Michelotto (ITA) Max Meyer 330
2   Italo Zilioli (ITA) Filotex 250
3   Felice Gimondi (ITA)   Salvarani 230
4   Michele Dancelli (ITA) Molteni 220
5   Ugo Colombo (ITA) Filotex 130
  Silvano Schiavon (ITA) Sanson
7   Julio Jiménez (ESP) Eliolona 120
8   Franco Bitossi (ITA)   Filotex 100
9   Vittorio Adorni (ITA) Scic 80
10   Wladimiro Panizza (ITA) Salvarani 60

Points classificationEdit

Final points classification (1–10)[6][40]
Rank Name Team Points
1   Franco Bitossi (ITA)   Filotex 182
2   Marino Basso (ITA) Molteni 166
3   Michele Dancelli (ITA) Molteni 129
4   Felice Gimondi (ITA)   Salvarani 126
5   Luigi Sgarbozza (ITA) Max Meyer 118
6   Italo Zilioli (ITA) Filotex 107
7   Ugo Colombo (ITA) Filotex 103
8   Silvano Schiavon (ITA) Sanson 98
9   Dino Zandegù (ITA) Salvarani 95
10   Rudi Altig (FRG) Salvarani 90

Neoprofessional classificationEdit

Final neoprofessional classification (1–10)[40]
Rank Name Team Time
1   Primo Mori (ITA) Max Meyer 107h 07' 28"
2   Davide Boifava (ITA) Molteni + 26' 57"
3   Enrico Maggioni (ITA) Molteni + 33' 08"
4   Giovanni Cavalcanti (ITA) Gris 2000 + 40' 55"
5   Matteo Cravero (ITA) Sanson + 46' 42"
6   Marcello Bergamo (ITA) Filotex + 48' 01"
7   Oliviero Morotti (ITA) Sagit + 1h 01' 54"
8   Giuseppe Scopel (ITA) Max Meyer + 1h 25' 46"
9   Arturo Pecchielan (ITA) Molteni + 1h 31' 36"
10   Attilio Rota (ITA) Sanson + 1h 39' 24"

Teams classificationEdit

Final team classification (1–10)[6][40]
Rank Team Points
1 Molteni 4871
2 Filotex 3663
3 Salvarani 3332
4 Faema 3155
5 Max Meyer 3128
6 Sanson 2248
7 Scic 2138
8 Eliolona 1114
9 G.B.C. 1059
10 Germanvox 1039

ReferencesEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ One source states he took eight tests,[33] while the other states he took eleven.[34]

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c "In 130 al "via"" [In 130 the "way"]. Corriere dello Sport (in Italian). 16 May 1969. p. 2. Archived from the original on 28 December 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  2. ^ Gino Sala (16 May 1969). "Oggi la prima tappa da Lago del Garda a Brescia" [Today the first stop from Lake Garda to Brescia] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Le défi Merckx-Gimondi sera le principal attrait du 52e Giro" [The Merckx-Gimondi challenge will be the main attraction of the 52nd Giro] (PDF). Nouvelliste et Feuille d'Avis du Valais (in French). 16 May 1969. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2019 – via RERO.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "Un troisième larron saura-t-il tirer profit du duel que se livreront Merckx et Gimondi?" [Will a third thief take advantage of the duel between Merckx and Gimondi?] (PDF). Feuille d'Avis de Neuchatel (in French). 16 May 1969. p. 22. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2019 – via RERO.
  5. ^ a b Gallagher 2017, p. 151.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bill and Carol McGann. "1969 Giro d'Italia". Bike Race Info. Dog Ear Publishing. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  7. ^ "Vi diamo sei pronostici dettati e sottoscritti" [We give you six predictions dictated and signed] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. 13 May 1969. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  8. ^ "Vittorio Adorni medita la carta da giocare sulla ruota di Milano" [Vittorio Adorni ponders the card to play on the wheel of Milan] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. 13 May 1969. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  9. ^ "Per Gimondi è giunto il momento della verita" [For Gimondi the moment of truth has come] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. 13 May 1969. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  10. ^ "Il grande Merckx è pronto per il nuovo esaltante confronto" [The great Merckx is ready for the new exciting confrontation] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. 13 May 1969. p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  11. ^ "Vianelli: Niento Giro (Squalificato per doping)" [Vianelli: Niento Giro (Disqualified for doping)] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. 15 May 1969. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  12. ^ "Con Dancelli-Basso un tandem a caccia di molti traguardi" [With Dancelli-Basso a tandem chasing many goals] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. 13 May 1969. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  13. ^ Gino Sala (28 March 1969). "Ecco il <<Giro>> del '69" [Here is the <<Giro>> of '69] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. p. 9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  14. ^ a b c d e f "<<Giro>> 69: La Montana Decidira el Vencedor" [<<Turn>> 69: The Montana Will Decide the Winner] (PDF) (in Spanish). El Mundo Deportivo. Alfil. 29 March 1969. p. 16. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  15. ^ "Un Giro da Giganti!" [A Giants Tour!]. Corriere dello Sport (in Italian). 28 March 1969. p. 1. Archived from the original on 19 May 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  16. ^ "Il Giro Piace?" [Do the Riders like it?]. Corriere dello Sport (in Italian). 29 March 1969. p. 4. Archived from the original on 19 May 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  17. ^ a b "1969". Giro d'Italia. La Gazzetta dello Sport. 2017. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
  18. ^ a b c d "Le Giro Décapité et Probablement Le Tour de France" [The Decapitated Giro and Probably The Tour de France] (PDF). Nouvelliste et Feuille d'Avis du Valais (in French). 3 June 1969. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2019 – via RERO.
  19. ^ a b "Gimondi refuse d'endosser le maillot rose de " leader "" [Gimondi refuses to don the pink “leader” jersey] (PDF). Feuille d'Avis de Neuchatel (in French). 3 June 1969. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2019 – via RERO.
  20. ^ a b c Foot 2011, p. 251.
  21. ^ a b c "Merckx pleure" [Meckx Cries] (PDF). Feuille d'Avis de Neuchatel (in French). 3 June 1969. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2019 – via RERO.
  22. ^ "La bomba del <<Giro>>!" [The <<Giro>> bomb!] (PDF) (in Spanish). El Mundo Deportivo. 4 June 1969. p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  23. ^ Juan Plans Bosch (4 June 1969). "Una lamentable decision" [A regrettable decision] (PDF) (in Spanish). El Mundo Deportivo. p. 14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  24. ^ "Que bandido ha dopado a Merckx?" [What bandit has doped Merckx?] (PDF) (in Spanish). El Mundo Deportivo. 4 June 1969. p. 14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 April 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  25. ^ "Merckx è stato drogato?" [Merckx was drugged?]. Corriere dello Sport (in Italian). 3 June 1969. p. 1. Archived from the original on 23 December 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  26. ^ Gino Sala (4 June 1969). "Rodoni riabiliterà Merckx?" [Will Rodoni rehabilitate Merckx?] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  27. ^ "Espulso Merckx: droga, congiura o errore?" [Expelled Merckx: drugs, conspiracy or error] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. 3 June 1969. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  28. ^ Gino Sala (3 June 1969). "Merckx: <<Non mi sono drogato E stata una congiura contro di me>>" [Merckx: << I didn't take drugs It was a conspiracy against me >>] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  29. ^ a b c Stephen Farrand (3 May 2011). "Giro d'Italia: The Merckx years". Cyclingnews.com. Bath, UK: Future plc. Archived from the original on 11 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  30. ^ a b c d e f Les Woodland (23 September 2008). "Will Eddy receive a warm welcome?". Cyclingnews.com. Bath, UK: Future plc. Archived from the original on 11 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  31. ^ Rino Negri (6 June 1999). "Merckx positivo: cacciato dal Giro nel 1969" [Merckx positive expelled from the Tour in 1969]. La Gazzetta dello Sport (in Italian). Archived from the original on 11 May 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  32. ^ "El Drama de Eddy Merckx" [The Drama of Eddy Merckx] (PDF) (in Spanish). El Mundo Deportivo. Telefoto Europa Press. 4 June 1969. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  33. ^ a b c "Merckx Expulsé" [Meckx Expulsed] (PDF). Feuille d'Avis de Neuchatel (in French). 3 June 1969. p. 1 & 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2019 – via RERO.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h "La mort du Giro?" [The Death of the Giro?] (PDF). Nouvelliste et Feuille d'Avis du Valais (in French). 3 June 1969. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2019 – via RERO.
  35. ^ a b c d "Altig : La loi doit être respectée. S'il s'était agi d'un coureur de second plan..." [Altig: The law must be respected. If he had been a runner in the background ...] (PDF). Feuille d'Avis de Neuchatel (in French). 3 June 1969. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2019 – via RERO.
  36. ^ a b Laura Weislo (13 May 2008). "Giro d'Italia classifications demystified". Cycling News. Future Publishing Limited. Archived from the original on 17 June 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  37. ^ "Trofeo Dreher Forte" [Dreher Forte Trophy]. Corriere dello Sport (in Italian). 20 May 1969. p. 4. Archived from the original on 28 December 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  38. ^ "Regolamento" [Regulation]. Corriere dello Sport (in Italian). 19 May 1966. p. 9. Archived from the original on 23 December 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  39. ^ a b "Esperada Victoria Final Del Italiano Gimondi" [Expected Final Victory of Italian Gimondi] (in Spanish). El Mundo Deportivo. 9 June 1969. p. 20. Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  40. ^ a b c d e "Un Gimondi felicissimo" [A Happy Gimondi]. Corriere dello Sport (in Italian). 9 June 1969. p. 11. Archived from the original on 23 December 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2013.

BibliographyEdit